It can be any sorted out combination of people, hardware, software, communications systems and data resources that gathers, transforms, and communicates information within an firm. The management information system helps the organization to store its information. it also helps in retrieving the information required by the organization whenever it is required by the management.
Information system is a set of interrelated components that interact to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization within an organization. A pc system is the physical equipment used for input, processing, and outcome activities in an information system. Computer programs provide the computer with necessary instructions about how to process the data into information. Data are natural facts; these fresh facts, in their current form, aren't in a good format. Information is data which may have been prepared into a good, significant form.
A computer and an information system are not comparative. Information systems have management, business, and technology proportions. Pcs and programs are technology components of an information system. Without handling the business and management dimensions, the technology components are relatively inadequate. For instance, you can buy a computer and software, but if you don't have determined the way the technology will be utilized to help manage and organize your projects, you essentially have a attractive field for your workplace.
Notable changes taking place over time add a growing interdependence between the organization and its information systems and a motion from primarily technical changes to include both managerial and institutional changes. There is a growing interdependence between the organization and its own information systems. Often, a change in their strategy, rules, or strategies requires changes in the info systems software, hardware, directories, and telecommunications. An companys present and future accomplishments rely in many respects on what its systems will permit it to do now and later. Also, system assignments are increasing in reach and opportunity. Whereas early on information systems dealt with primarily technological or functional issues, contemporary information systems are integral to the management and proper goals of the company. Today information systems affect a much larger area of the business itself, such as organizational products, targets, and structure. Increasingly more business activities in any way levels involve the use of information systems.
Organization: Information systems are part of organizations, and in some cases (such as credit card companies and financial information services), they will be the corporation. Information systems will hold the SOPs and the culture of an organization imbedded within them.
Management: Information systems supply tools and information needed by managers to allocate, coordinate and screen their work, make decisions, create services, and services and make long-range tactical decisions.
Technology: Management uses technology (hardware, software, storage space, and telecommunications) to handle their functions. It is one of the numerous tools professionals use to cope with change.
Transaction control systems, office systems, knowledge work systems, decision-support systems, management information systems, and executive support systems will be the major types of systems in organizations.
Transaction control systems Function at the functional level of the organization. Examples of transaction processing systems include order traffic monitoring, order processing, machine control, plant scheduling, settlement, and securities trading.
Knowledge work systems help create and incorporate new knowledge within the business. Examples of knowledge work systems include anatomist workstations, managerial workstations, and design workstations. Office systems help increase data worker efficiency and include expression processing document imaging, and electronic digital calendars.
Management information systems provide managers with reports founded generally on data taken from transaction handling systems, have an internal orientation, and also have limited flexibility. Examples of management information systems include sales management, inventory control, and capital investment research. Decision-support systems function at the management level and provide analytical models and data analysis tools to provide support for semi-structured and unstructured decision-making activities. Types of decision-support systems include sales region examination, cost research, and contract cost analysis.
Executive support systems function at the tactical level, support unstructured decision making, and use advanced graphics and communications. Types of professional support systems include sales craze forecasting, budget forecasting, and staff planning.
The systems form an even of systems, with all sorts either formatting or finalizing the information from less level. For instance, the office systems provide accounts or presentations on the information or data in transfer producing systems. Decision-support and professional support systems often use office systems in delivering information extracted from deal handling systems and management information system. Management information systems depend on data from purchase producing systems. Some systems, including knowledge work systems, decision-support systems, and executive support systems could use exterior information, such as stock market information and design information from suppliers
DSS provide complex analytical models and data research tools to support semi organized and unstructured decision-making activities. DSS use data from TPS, MIS, and exterior options, provide more analytical electricity than other systems, combine data, and are interactive. ESS support senior managers with unstructured strategic-level decision making. They may be less analytical than DSS with less use of models such as linear programming or forecasting. However, they often rely on external data and count heavily on images.
Transaction handling system mainly includes five systems they are simply as follows
Sales/marketing systems provide sales management, general market trends, promotion, pricing, and new product functions. Examples include sales order information systems, market research systems, and sales commission rate systems.
Manufacturing/production systems provide arranging, purchasing, delivery/receiving, anatomist, and operations functions. Examples of manufacturing systems include machine control systems, purchase order systems, and quality control systems.
Finance/accounting systems provide budgeting, standard ledger, billing, and cost accounting functions. Examples of finance/accounting systems include general ledger, accounts receivable/payable, and cash management systems.
Human learning resource systems provide personnel records, benefits, settlement, labor relationships, training, and payroll functions. Examples include employee records, gain systems, and career avenue systems.
Other types include admissions, quality records, course details, and alumni for a college or university. Examples of business deal control systems for a school include a registration system, scholar transcript system, and an alumni benefactor system
Information systems are driving a car both daily operations and organizational strategy. Powerful computer systems, software, and systems, like the Internet, have helped organizations are more flexible, eliminate tiers of management, individual work from location, and restructure work moves, giving new powers to both range workers and management. The flattening of organizations is probably one change that students will probably cite, specifically with the concern over downsizing. The parallel upsurge in information and in the decision power of line employees (empowerment) also increased the workers matching work satisfaction as management course of control is broadened. The empowering of the series worker means managers can spend more time thinking more strategically.
The strategic business challenge induces us to realize that people must have the ability to use information technology to create organizations in order that they are competitive, effective and digitally-enabled. The globalization task facing us is that people must ascertain how companies can understand the systems requirements of a worldwide economic environment. The information architecture and infrastructure obstacle is that we must have the ability to help the business develop an information architecture that can support the business goals when both business conditions and the solutions are changing so swiftly. The information systems investment task is for all of us to know the way the business can determine the business value of systems. Finally, the responsibility and control obstacle is for us to understand how organizations can ensure that their information systems are used within an ethically and socially accountable way.
End-user development refers to the introduction of information systems by end users with reduced or no assistance from professional systems experts or programmers. This is accomplished through complex "user-friendly" software tools and gives end users direct control over their own computing.
Advantages include improved requirements determination, recognizing large productivity increases when producing certain types of applications, permitting customers to have a more vigorous role in the systems development process, many can be utilized for prototyping, plus some have new functions such as images, modeling, and ad hoc information retrieval.
Disadvantages include not being fitted to large transaction-oriented applications or applications with complicated updating requirements, requirements for testing and quality guarantee may not be applied, and proliferation of uncontrolled data and personal information systems.
End-user development is suited to solving a few of the backlog problem because the end users can form their needed applications themselves. It is suited to growing low-transaction systems. End-user development is valuable for creating systems that access data for such purposes as analysis (including the use of graphics in that analysis) and reporting. It can even be used for growing simple data-entry applications.
Policies and types of procedures to manage end-user development are the following:
The corporation must set up sufficient support facilities for end-user processing: information centers or sent out end-user computing centers.
Training and support should be targeted to the precise needs of those being trained.
End-user application development shouldn't be permitted to be undertaken randomly but should be designed into the organization's tactical plan.
Management should develop control buttons over end-user processing in the following areas:
Cost justification of end-user information system project.
Hardware and software benchmarks for user-developed applications.
Company-wide standards for microcomputers, word processing software, repository management systems, design software, and query and reporting tools.
Quality guarantee reviews that specify if the end-user systems must be reviewed by information systems and inner audit specialists.
Control for end-user developed applications covering testing, documentation, reliability, and completeness of type and update, backup, recovery and supervision.
Critical applications that supply data to other important systems should be flagged and subjected to more rigorous standards.
The company which is used for this analysis is the Virgin trains. The virgin trains belongs to the virgin teams. this private railways has has done a encouragement if its information system. it offers fully changed information system to provide better service to its customers and to perform its business techniques effectively.
The general objective of the virgin trains is to have an advanced information management system. The aim of this system is to have a strong IT infrastructure. virgin aspires to keep to facilitate both employees as well as the customers in every its business activities by having an a good information management system backed up by advanced technology.
The reinforcement of the technology at Virgin trains has been done by Halcrow. It really is an organization which gives the organizations with solution to keep up their information. at Halcrow the have mixed cutting edge information technology skills along with front series Railway management skills to provide a very effective and useful management information system.
The main strategy which virgin trains is implementing now could be to revamp its complete information system process, feasibility studies of the information system which is applied is carried out, also the chance mixed up in system in addition has been analysed.
It is now focusing to effectively maintain steadily its marketing information. in order to do that areas like warehousing commercial data, data analysis, warehousing and using click-stream data are given more importance.
As a part of its IT transformation Virgin trains has also transformed a few of its systems such as the Train planning and arranging data, on-train monitoring and reporting systems data.
Virgin has a plenty of facilities that assist the clients with the reservation of ticket. there are extensive facilities like the mobile ticketing platforms, chip and pin devices to Blutooth founded equipment for onboard payments. They are the devices used to maintain the assistance provided to the client through advanced MIS tools provided by Halcrow.
Virgin has a new system which is utilized to keep the employees in the organization. The system is called the staff planning system. by using this system it is possible to allot the employees their shifts based on their trains. It helps in systematically allocating the employees matching to their shifts. It helps a good deal whenever there are shortages of personnel due to an employee member happening leave, retirement of workers etc. It is very much useful when to manage the employees specifically through the times of disruption. the crew planning system was provide by Atos origins to the virgin trains.
The MIS used for the management to handle its activities is designed by Halcrow. Virgin uses the MIS solution that was framed by Halcrow to keep activities like recruiting, Decesion making, financial management etc. This MIS also really helps to improve reporting around areas such as on-train shopping habits.
The MIS provided by the Halcrow also interfaces with the CRM system which is written in. NET which means this helps the Virgin trains to truly have a good CRM with its customers.
Virgin is currently finalizing trial;s for a spin out of portable devices. Tese devices will get to the driversv of the trains and tese devices vare prepared with Vodafone supplied PDAs. This product helps the motorists by exchanging the paper established materials and would help in effective handling of the info.
HP is the main supplier of all hardware devices used at virgin for MIS. Citrix supplies thin-client Technology for applications such as rail operation systems.
The main company of software to the MIS at virgin is Microsoft and Capgemini in addition has been one of the main element company of softwares for the machine.
The virgin trains has a whole lot of potential for improving its functions. As stated before it does a revamp of all its MIS functions this sets the Virgin trains in a advanced stage and also in a strong position to face its competetors.
The maintanace of the system is very expensive and the company aims to obtain a full return on all the ventures created by it onto it. Any inability of any system which happens to be being used will become a great weakness to the organization. since the majority of the procedures are being experimented still.
As mentioned before the revamping of the IT techniques at the virgin is a greatr chance of the business to rectify the shortcomings of the old system also to have a highly effective new system.
Since the majority of the data used by virgin trains is dependent on electric data any minor fault in the machine would result in a threat to the complete system of virgin trains.
In this task we have seen briefly about MIS and its own function in an organisation. The Virgin Trains is taking MIS to a whole new level by making an investment firmly in its IT and also tinkering with its new systems that happen to be goin to be carried out. we saw how the use of MIS facilitates the business on all angles of the business. MIS helps not only the business but also its stakeholders and it helps the organization to achieve its objective in a very short time.
http://www. computerweekly. com/Articles/2010/06/02/241427/CIO-interview-Virgin-Trains39-IT-remains-on-the. htm
http://www. halcrow. com/Areas-of-expertise/Rail/Data-management-and-management-information-systems/