I will study the major philosophical themes of Absurdism and Nihilism within the Outsider and Offense and Abuse respectively. Both novels revolve around individuals who search for meaning to their lives and living. Both individuals are unconventional, solitary young men who during an oppressively hot summer months commit murder and are taken to justice. INSIDE THE Outsider, this struggle is conveyed through the Beliefs of The Absurd and in Offense and Punishment, Dostoevsky uses the doctrine of Nihilism, the thought of existence without so this means, to show that through fighting and abuse, redemption can be achieved.
Using stunning imagery and strong characterisation, Camus pulls on Absurdism as a philosophical motion and its seek out meaning in the human existence. It is a vision of any godless life and lifestyle as a set of random events where the only true interpretation is the physical experience during one's life and the inevitability of death. These topics are conveyed through the central figure of Meursault.
In The Outsider, Camus, uses the first person narrative Meursault is portrayed as a modern day Sisyphus, who lives his life outside society's rules and rituals. He is a guy who 'does indeed not play the game'. He lives in a world of physical experience and it is indifferent to all or any human interactions. Philosophically, this Absurdism is defined as 'contrary to reason or beyond the restrictions of rationality; paradoxical, nonsensical, or meaningless. ' It contrasts with the Socratic view that man has a moral obligation to live 'a good and flourishing life'. Camus suggests that life is absurd and man must accept and embrace this absurdity. Camus' record contributed to the school of thought, 'Poverty was never a misfortune for me personally, it was radiant with life', 'the sun and the sea cost little or nothing. ' He relished all the central pleasures that life experienced to provide.
The Outsider was released in 1942 through the war years, at a time of revolt, death and exile, which helped reinforce Camus' views of living in a godless world, where fatality is an ever before present random event.
Throughout the novel we're able to examine Meursault's social and mental health characteristics. He is not only detached from world but also from the entire world around him. For him there is no yesterday and there is absolutely no tomorrow; there is merely today, the now. Meursault is a unaggressive character. He is indifferent to the thoughts of loss of life, love and camaraderie, bearing no responsibility for his activities and led only by his experience of living his daily routine. From the beginning he shows no feeling over the death of his mom, 'Mother passed away today. Or maybe yesterday, I don't know'. Meursault shows no remorse when he will get the telegram pondering only whether she perished yesterday or your day before. Furthermore the idea of the lack of meaning of human being existence, is reinforced on your day of his mother's funeral, as he refuses to see her body, operating as though it is merely a later date, he 'smokes tobacco and drinks espresso'.
After the funeral he meets Marie Cardona whom he seduces. She asks whether their relationship meant anything to him, he reviews that he considers her as little or nothing special. 'I told her which it didn't mean not that I didn't think so'. Their intimacy is just another chance for him to go after his passions of as soon as, reinforcing Camus' notion that life is some actual experiences. Later, when Marie introduces the possibility of matrimony he says 'It didn't make any difference to me and that we could if she needed to'. The only way it would matter to him, would be if it made Marie happy. His indifference when hearing his neighbour Raymond and when he declines to simply accept an opportunity of going to Paris portrays him as having no ambition and since an observer of situations around him.
Meursault's senseless killing of the undiscovered Arab sends him to jail. What is poignant is the fact Meursault shoots again at the deceased, lifeless man. There was no apparent motive and he seems to have acted in the 'warmth' of the moment, with sunlight overhead using its blinding rays, forcing sweating into his sight. He shows no remorse and for this perceived moral injustice he is therefore sentenced by his peers to loss of life by guillotine. While awaiting his sentence he shows up happy in his cell. Up to the point in time Meursault has been free, there's been no need to be concerned with the future and his only preoccupation was to see all the pleasures that life can provide. He is unable to explain his actions in court docket as he recognizes no interpretation in the natural world around him. The trial remains without him ever before giving an opinion. He will not control his destiny. He remains true to himself and his thoughts and won't lie in court to escape abuse. Yet, when confronted with death he begins to start to see the value of each
moment of his life. Due to death, little or nothing else concerns, except being alive. He does not deny fatality as it is unavoidable. Meursault is 'an absurd hero' as life is merely given meaning when he is sentenced to fatality. The anticipation of a longer life (through an charm) brings Meursault great pleasure, 'For the first time in that night alive with indications and personalities I exposed myself to the overall indifference of the world. . . I put only to wish that there be a huge audience of spectators the day of my execution and that they greet me with cries of hate'.
In distinction to Camus, Dostoevsky, is applicable the third-person narrative, which at the same time he intertwines with Raskolnikov's inside monologue, providing different interpretation to the situations.
Dostoevsky, as a politically lively young writer, at first embraced the ideas of Nihilism which reject power of the state of hawaii and religious conventions in favour of rationalism and specific freedom. It is a story of the fate of Nihilism and radical children and a eye-sight of the error and moral anguish of these who stand apart and above regulations. In Offense and Consequence the central theme is the discord between man's logical and irrational area, between the premeditated and the unpredictable and the true degree of man's liberty of action and choice.
Raskolnikov seems to have two separate people. "he's morose, gloomy, proud. . . . . He has a commendable characteristics and kind heart". His logical and intellectual 50 %, rooted in the opinion of the "Ubermensch" makes him commit a premeditated murder. He views Alyona, the pawnbroker as a "louse" causing harm to innocent people through her usury and justifies her murder by stating that a 'tiny offense would be wiped out by thousands of good deeds. " For Raskolnikov the means justifies the finish, 'It was not a human being I killed, it was a principle".
It also makes him to standalone without companionship and affect of friends. He is totally self sufficient and above regulations. He is a Napoleon. Although he explains to Porfiry that he is not really a Napoleon he continues on to simply tell him of his theory of the Remarkable Man. This provides an perception into his actions leading up to the murder. He talks about that such a man is not destined by convention and population and is absolve to act corresponding to his own beliefs.
Through this we see Raskolnikov for example of your radical nihilist, operating alone and the detriment to population and human presence. Closely bound to this was Dostoyevsky's idea that redemption could come through suffering and confession. Only then would man have the ability to achieve so this means to his life.
Throughout Criminal offense and Consequence, Dostoevsky's use of characterization is vital as it embodies the philosophical point of view of the philosophies shown. Regarding to utilitarian ideals, punishment is the logical way to avoid further crime. Abuse deters potential criminals through risks of the results, however Dostoevsky is convinced that, where reason and electricity fail, a big change of heart and soul and a moral code succeed. Following the murder Raskolnikov comes ill and this fever heralds a big change in his personality. His rational area gives way significantly to his irrational fifty percent and his sense of confusion and guilt leads to battling. The ideas and convictions that he once clung to seem to be to have passed away with the woman pawn broker. He to declares to Porfiry that all great men with something to offer the world ' a 'new expression" can be above the law and will put up with for this. . . "suffering and pain are always obligatory on those of large intellect and deep feeling".
Porfiry, acts as Raskolnikov's reflection and through him he starts to notice that his salvation can only just come through confession and fighting. Raskolnikov considers Sonya as a frail amount but who posesses heavy burden of suffering. He sees in her all 'the sufferings of mankind" and magic if she can 'keep his own cross". He asks her to learn from the bible the Passing of the "Raising of Lazarus". This history of how an unbeliever can defeat suffering and loss of life persuades him to make a confession and seek redemption. When he confronts Sonya and confesses to his crime, she cries, 'What perhaps you have done ' what have you done to yourself?' And his response is just as clear, 'Does I murder the old female? I murdered myself, not her!' It implies a rebirth in Raskolnikov's morality and compassionate beliefs. He therefore rejects his old beliefs and accepts his guilt.