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The Link Between Dialect And Gender English Language Essay

There have always been many variations between men and women. They dress in different ways, act differently, have different views and what is more interesting have many variations when speaking. To begin with there is a difference in the use of standard language. Women use more standardised version of the language while men speak more on the vernacular. In addition they use the pronunciation founded by the typical dialect more than men. Men want in different subject areas. They like to talk about athletics, politics and money. Women are more enthusiastic about fashion and clothing and gossiping. Even though men like to gossip too, they never say they are gossiping but just speaking. With regards to expressing emotions it is a lot harder to listen to a man talking about his emotions than women. They are considered to be more powerful and discussing their feelings is expressing their weakness. Vitality is also shown thorough the imperatives and directive that are rarely utilized by women and are often softened. Interruptions and the dominance of speaking is also a feature of men because they want to control the topics and by doing so also show their vitality. Alternatively women ask more questions to keep the conversation going also to make sure their listeners are engaging and hearing what they say. Non-verbal communication is more linked to women because they are more delicate to non-verbal signs or symptoms. All this and so many more variations are in link with classes and economical situations. Here we are going to see how it all inspired on the differences of male and feminine language.

Gender can be recognized in two ways. Grammatical gender that we will get in dialects, for example Latin, German, Spanish, where we can identify masculine, feminine and neuter gender. Or gender as a cultural attribute of humans. People are born with it which is something we do, not at all something we have. Were encircled by gender lore from enough time we were blessed. It really is present all over the place around us and in everything we do. But from enough time we were created we are trained what is suitable for a woman and what for a boy. In this way the society is trying to match up our way of behaving with natural sex assignments. "Gender is the social elaboration of natural making love" (Eckert and McConnell-Ginet 2003:10 ). However the distinction between intimacy and gender, that is where intimacy leaves off and gender begins is not clear-cut. The definition of male and feminine is ultimately social, it is how people understand and discover themselves.

There has been a great dissatisfaction with the sexist vocabulary where some lexical items which were considered solely male had to be replaced. There are plenty of word endings in -man that do not have their "female pair". No suffix has been made to make the term concluding in -man change to indicate the female person. Due to that many words were improved, for example firemen acquired to improve to firefighters, mailman acquired to become letter carrier, so when it involves chairman, a lady expression that has started used was chairwoman or for both, feminine and male, chairperson. Many words that not end in man also didn't have their par however they were accepted to be utilized for males and females. On the other hand, a lot of words that contain their pair have pejorative meaning for females. For example, master which means the boss along with his female counterpart mistress this means lover. Some don't have pejorative meanings but merely do not imply a similar thing like in governor this means high political office holder and governess which means private teacher. When we speak about the words that refers to men and women, we have to mention generic research. When without any respect to the making love of the human being we use a particular term. For instance, the word man which actually suggests male rather than feminine, but is thought to refer to any individual. Another example can be the pronoun he which we all use for males however in grammatical category of gender is usually useful for both male and feminine, as well for indeterminate referents.

LANGUAGE USE

There are a lot more similarities than differences in the utilization of British by males and females. Many factors affect the usage, like age, geographic region, socio-economic school, ethnic identification, etc. A difference is seen when speaking about social status and school. Middle-class women have a tendency to use more standard varieties in casual dialog while working class men use non-standard varieties. While women never use non-standard forms men make use of it all the time. However those differences cannot be used for facts because they're different in the parts of social hierarchy. Mostly they can be found in the lower middle and higher working classes. They can show that there is an uneven get spread around of the standard language. It had been showed that oftentimes non standard terms was identical with the vernacular which proved the strong interconnection between language and local culture.

When speaking about the vocabulary use many changes can be found between male and female use of the words. Women prefer to speak about different matters from men. They focus more on people, clothing and decor while men talk more about sports, money and politics. This may be the result of the historical section that was made between men and women. Women were at home, focused on the family and domestic problems, while men were working to provide money for the family, and were involved in sports and politics. Another difference is the fact that women use more emotive terminology, they exhibit their feelings more readily than men do. There is also a difference in color use and taboo dialect. Women use more exact color terms, different intensifiers and adjectives than men do. Men speak more about taboo themes and use expression that are considered to be taboo. Women do not use obscene expressions in the same amount as men.

Another difference in the terms use can be grammar. Women do not use the imperatives and directive forms just as much as men do. This may also show that there is a difference in conversation style as well as in power. Men tend to show electricity more than women and are believed to be more powerful (power) than women. A study was made where two children, male and female, were participating in. It demonstrated that the lady used to soften her directives while the boy used more logical directives without the softening. Gleam variation in the utilization of label questions. When women use label questions they try to get a verification of an individual impression. However there are different opinions about tag questions and their use. Some say that women do not use more tag questions while others say they are doing. It shows us that there are many factors that need to be studied into consideration when trying to find the difference used of label questions.

Distinction between males and females can even be found when discussing the pronunciation. The very first thing that should be mentioned is the pitch. Whenever a person speaks we're able to say whether see your face is man or woman because men have lower pitch. Additionally, men use lower degree of pitch than women. Very seldom a man utilizes a high level of pitch typical for female. In English language the difference was made in the utilization of intonations. Falling intonations were used more by men while increasing intonations by women. When discussing pronunciation the difference can be produced with the use of standard form of terms. Women have a tendency to use pronunciation that was established in standard form of the dialect while men use more non standard or vernacular kind of pronunciation. Additionally it is possible to hook up this to social classes. Ladies in upper working class use the same pronunciation as the men in lower middle income. Women make an effort to choose the pronunciation of the category immediately above them and are always 'over confirming' while on the other hands men say they use fewer standard varieties than they actually use, to create 'under reporting'. Folks are perceived in various ways according with their pronunciation. Women who used RP were considered as very qualified and communicative but also were regarded as unsocial and not integrated into feminine society of the spot.

COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES

It is turned out that women communicate in different ways from men but there are three techniques that explain us why. 'Deficit model' demonstrates the distinctions are in difference in socialization. The 'Dominance model' says that men should be blamed because they interrupt, determine this issue of discussion, speak more and women have to adjust to this. The 'Difference model' sees men and women performing and interacting in their own way. When we hear the word 'gossip' we immediately link it to women. Deborah Jones locates four different gossips among women: 'house chat', 'scandal', 'bitching' and 'chatting'. Men also employ is speech activities that would actually depend as gossip but that is not considered as gossip even though they are really talking about private things or other men that are not present at that time. There were makes an attempt showing that female gossip has positive cultural functions but nonetheless it is still regarded as "a nasty kind of womanly talk produced from men's concerns of what

unsupervised women might be expressing one to the other on such events" (Eckert and McConnell-Ginet 2003:100). On the other hand, men are more engaged in showing jokes, that is dirty jokes in which women are brought up, also more competitive and competitive jokes. Women do tell bawdy jokes but not in the same amount as men. In addition men use more witty remarks and women aren't expected to be witty. It is also shown that their humor may be acceptable in some situations however, not when it's centered on male specialist.

When discussing the dominance in speaking, it is proven that men dominate more, speak more and so control the topics. The accepted stereotype is the fact women speak more but in fact it is men who speak more and that is shown in many reports. The amount of turns in dialogue with both the length of turns is in favor of men. They tend to dominate when hierarchy and power is relevant. Men consider women to be more talkative in the situations when they don't have actually something to say, on topics they do not usually discuss. Interruption is one way of exhibiting power and handling the discussion and in some investigations it is shown that men interrupt more than women. Alternatively, other investigations exhibited that there is no difference, that men do not interrupt more than women. When talking about questions, women use 3 x more questions than men. In that way they would like to get a response from other participants of the talk or simply keep carefully the conversation going. When communicating, people are anticipated to prove they are simply hearing the presenter, not only by nodding their brain but also by producing appears like uh-huh or yeah. That is called backchanelling. Women also produce more nominal responses (mmm. Uhuh, yeah) to make the other participants aware of the fact that they are actively listening and participating in the conversation and are pushing the speakers to continue the conversation. In addition they play a supportive role in the chat.

LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT

There are many evidences that show affect of socialization on development of dialects. Children from start imitate adults, mostly their parents. Ladies imitate mainly mother's terms while boys their father's. Ladies are also more enthusiastic about learning politeness habits. Young boys use more immediate requests, giggle more and discuss more about athletics. Girls are more interested in school and sitting video games. At the age of three to seven, children have their portrays of words in which male terminology is more logical, unqualified and forceful and woman is talkative, polite, certified and higher pitched. The mother's dialect is named 'motherese' and it shows many distinctions form father's words. "Motherese consists of slowness, redundancy, simpleness and grammaticality. Utterances are shortened There is a great deal of repetition. There exists orientation, and there is control. " (Gramley and Ptzold 2004: 222). Fathers have other roles like presenting more new words, they use more imperatives, ask fewer questions and have a tendency to use fewer repetitions. However, motherese is employed by both, parents, just not in the same amount.

NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR

People communicate in different ways beside language. Non-verbal means of communication include gestured, mimicry, pose, attention contact, smiling, touch yet others. We can even say that non-verbal communication has more robust and better effect than genuine words. Although a person says something nice by their gestures, giggle or eyeball contact we are able to observe that he does not actually imply that. With regards to differences among women and men, we can say that ladies are more delicate to non-verbal impulses. This can be interpreted with the need for mothers to understand and react to children's non-verbal alerts or because have less electricity in society and therefore need to work with more interpretations of implicit meaning than men. There is a difference when it comes to smiling. Women tend to laugh more than men even though they aren't happy. Their laugh is not the indicator of their pleasure. This is described in terms of politeness - women are considered to be warm and polite especially in public areas situations and interpersonal interaction. With regards to touch situation is more complicated. It is stated that the bigger one's position is a lot more freedom see your face must touch others. It is similar when talking about age - elderly persons have more flexibility to touch. Women do less touching and tend to be touched. However when a woman touches a man it's very often interpreted as a intimate gambit. Linking compared to that, women are approached more than men which also demonstrates they have less personal space. Difference in body position is also apparent. Men tend to hold their legs and arms at a wider perspective than women. Finally we come to eyes contact where women have a tendency to maintain more attention contact than men.

CONCLUSION

Gender is something our company is born with, not at all something we do. But we have been under the constant pressure of the population which is directing us to what is and is not befitting a young man or a woman. That is why many variations among male and feminine languages were made. Many words had to be altered because they didn't have their feminine set. Women use more standard forms than men. The subject areas men and women like to discuss are different. Women tend to be emotional so they discuss more freely about their sense. Men feel convenient in talking dirty jokes and talking about taboo topics. Also, they are more dominating in chat, use more imperatives and clear-cut directives. Tag questions are used more by women because they want approval or arrangement, or maybe want to see their listeners are taking part in the discussion. They are considered to become more talkative when in fact it is men who talk more, interrupt more and want to control the chat. While gossiping is linked to women, men too enjoy it and do it too. Both men and women, that is parents, are role models to their children. Young girls usually imitate mother's dialect while kids father's. Women are better in non-verbal communication. They smile more and maintain eyes contact more than men. All in all, women are considered to be more polite and it is appropriate for them to use standard form of the language. Men have significantly more flexibility in their dialect.

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