Posted at 12.12.2018
"The field of developmental mindset is the scientific study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotion, and personality. " (Bee and Boyd, 2002, p3). This task will focus on the first years area of the lifespan, which varies from pre-birth to three years of age. During the early on years, children start to develop literally as they start to crawl, understand and walk. Children also commence to have self-determination as they start to make choices themselves and they learn to develop their vocabulary and have simple discussions with others. On top of that, children develop socially as they form attachments with their care giver and other important faces they recognise. In social work practice, it is important to understand that theories relating to lifespan development should not be used as a solid guide when enjoying behaviour, as they don't take into account all areas of an individual's life, such as environmental and cultural factors, and not everyone lives a 'text-book' life. (Walker and Crawford, 2010). Theories are "an attempt to explain" something to give us a knowledge and seem sensible of problems. (Thompson, 2000; web page 20).
When dealing with young children, it's important to understand the many periods of development so that we, as social workers can identify accomplishments being made; such as when a child needs their first step, or when they say their first phrase. Theories regarding life expectancy development are based mostly around 'normal' development and can help cultural workers regulate how much progress a kid is making in terms of development. (Walker and Crawford, 2010).
Social workers must make sure that when working with young children they take into account their contest and culture, and what impact these might have on their development. They must also have a holistic strategy when trying to get a knowledge of a kid, so that not only can say learn what has took place through the child's life, they can also say why it happened and see the child as a person. (Walker and Crawford, 2010).
"It is important to keep in mind that even a small baby is a person. Holistic development sees the kid in the circular, all together person - actually, emotionally, intellectually, socially, morally, culturally and spirituality. " (Meggitt, 2006; site 1).
Following the loss of life of Victoria Climbie, Lord Laming was necessary to update the arrangements for child safe guarding to avoid future tragedies occurring. The Children Take action 2004, was a major reform and it brought along different guidelines to safeguard children, such as Every Child Things: Change for Children. (DfES, 2004). Every Child Issues was also reformed in '09 2009, following fatality of Peter Connelly. Also, construction for Delivery to Three Concerns (DfES, 2002), has been posted to support pros who work with small children and families and recognises the type of human development.
Within mindset, there are 5 different solutions that can be taken when looking at life-span development. These 5 techniques are natural, humanistic, cognitive, behaviourist and psychodynamic. These mental health perspectives are backed up by various ideas, but it is vital to keep in mind that theories are not always true as they don't consider environmental and cultural factors which could affect a person's development. This will not mean that ideas cannot be used to analyse behavior and development within individuals, but it should be remembered that all ideas do have criticisms when they are applied and used in public work practice.
The first theory which is going to be looked at regarding early years development is Erikson's psychosocial periods of development. (Beckett and Taylor, 2010). The first level of development is Trust versus Mistrust; this level forms the foundation of trust a child has with their caregiver. The greater consistent the treatment is that they have the better trust that the kid will have and they will become confident and can feel secure in their environment. However, if this stage is not completed effectively, then the child will not feel secure or confident, and might not have a great deal of rely upon their caregiver, which can result in lots of problems, such as panic and insecurities about others. (Erikson, 1995).
The second stage of development is Autonomy versus Pity and Question; this stage shows a child starting to assert themselves and be self-employed, for example, picking what they would like to watch, what toys they want to play with, or what they want to eat etc. Children need to be backed in this level so that they know what they are doing is appropriate and become well informed to make their own decisions, usually if they're criticised too much, they could commence to feel dependent after others, and may doubt their capability to make their own selections. (Erikson, 1995).
In public work practice, this theory could be used to investigate any actual issues between a kid and their parent or guardian. Erikson states that when a level is not completed effectively, it is harder to complete pursuing levels of development and achieve the positive outcomes. (Beckett and Taylor, 2010). This theory offers social workers an overview of how a child should be progressing and what their capabilities should be. However, this theory will not take into consideration children who have disabilities or who result from different ethnic backgrounds. A child with a certain disability may not be able to make their own selections from such a young age, no matter how simply they are really, or children from different cultures will have different upbringings in comparison to children from other ethnicities.
John Bowlby was a primary psychologist who studied children. Specifically he viewed attachment between a kid and caregiver. He believed that associations at a young age are essential because any failings in connections in child years would shape the introduction of a child's personality. He also assumed that attachment is an innate take action, and children want to create an attachment using their mothers and moms want to be close to their children in order to protect them. Prolonged parting from the mother is recognized as maternal deprivation, and this is a significant cause of delinquent behavior and mental health concerns. (Walker and Crawford, 2010).
Social workers may use theory when in practice to observe how a child responds with their father or mother. For instance, if a child is a care and attention and has connection with his/her mother twice a week, the social worker should look to see who interacts with who first, who works to who, what's the closeness like and body language etc. All of these activities allows the social worker to ascertain whether something is wrong. If the mom works to her child, how come the child not working to her mom? Does the kid not feel fastened? Has something occurred which must be looked into? However, Bowlby's theory does not consider fathers being the attachment figure as they might be a single father or mother. Also, social personnel need to work in a non-discriminatory manner and understand that in some young families, such as Asian individuals, within children it is not simply the immediate family who live there, it is also the wider family. An associate of the wider family could be the key caregiver, which means this needs to be taken under consideration when needs to work with a child out of this kind of family. (Walker and Crawford, 2010).
Mary Ainsworth adapted Bowlby's attachment theory by carrying out her own test on children and their caregiver so that different connection styles between a child and the caregiver could be viewed. The Unusual Situation recognized four different connection types; secure, anxious-avoidant, anxious-ambivalent and disorganised connection. (Ainsworth et all. , 1978). The experiment took place in a little room with a one way mirror so that the child could easily be viewed. Throughout the test, the child would be left with their caregiver for some time before a stranger entered and the caregiver leaves, and then the child would be still left completely by themselves for a short period of time prior to the stranger and caregiver come back and so forth. The attachment type that the child would have would be dependent on their reactions to the situations that took place in the experiment - upset, crying, anxious, scared, happy, distressed etc. ). For instance, a kid who has an ambivalent-attachment could have shown no indicators of distress when their caregiver remaining the room, nonetheless they would have prevented the stranger when they moved into the room. When the caregiver dividends after leaving the kid alone with the stranger, the kid would plan them, but could also thrust them away showing they are upset. (Simply Psychology, 2008).
In social work, this theory could be used to see the attachment between a child and their caregiver. Positive attachment could result in treatment not being needed by interpersonal personnel. However, negative connection could establish that earlier treatment is needed as there is an underlying reason as to the reasons the child is not building an attachment using their caregiver. This theory should be used very carefully used as some children are more self-employed than others, and it does not take into account cultural dissimilarities and disabilities. For example, children who have Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), especially on the bigger end of the autistic variety, find it difficult to display feelings and show devotion. This does not mean that they have not produced an attachment with their caregiver, these are more than in a position to, but it is how they display their attachment type which will make them seem unattached. During the mid-1980s, researchers began to observe children with ASD in the Peculiar Situation. Results show that 50% of the kids created a secure connection with the caregiver. Despite this physique being low compared to children who do not have ASD, it is very impressive and shows that children with ASD can form attachments. However, when it came to the part where the caregiver returned to their child, the children acted differently in comparison to other children. For example, they didn't initiate contact or appear to be happy. (Oppenheim et al. , 2008).
The knowledge of development and connection theories is important in cultural work, as these theories can help a social employee perform assessments on a family with young children. When carrying out an diagnosis, it has to be done under the normal Assessment Construction, which aims to identify the following; how well the parents or carers can support their child's developmental needs, and how they respond and meet their needs; and what impact does indeed the surroundings and the wider family have on the child's development. (DfES, 2006).
John Bowlby's connection theory gives a synopsis of the several attachment types and it allows cultural workers to evaluate and judge the grade of a relationship, which can help as the social staff member will know when to intervene, in case necessary, remove a kid from a family group device. (Walker and Crawford, 2010).
Under section 17 of the Children Act 1989, local government bodies have a responsibility to guard and promote the safeness and welfare of children who are in need. (Legislation. Gov, 2012). Whenever using children in need, a communal worker will need to carry out an diagnosis under the Platform for the Examination of Children in Need. (Department of Health, 2000). Tied in this examination, is another examination regarding the developmental needs of a kid. It covers several areas of development; health, education, identification, family and communal relations, mental and behavioural development and self-care skills. According to Parker and Bradley, children need to reach these developmental needs to achieve a wholesome adulthood. (Parker and Bradley, 2007).
By using anti-discriminatory and anti-oppressive practice in communal work, it allows public workers to challenge their own beliefs and values while considering others. The Every Child Concerns: Change for Children plan has 5 final results which are believed to be the most crucial to children and teenagers; be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution, and achieve financial well-being. The insurance policy needs children and young people to be "safe from bullying and discrimination". (Crawford, 2006; site 16).
With regards to lifespan development theories; anti-discriminatory practice and anti-oppressive practice are being used in sociable work because these ideas can be applied to all cultural and class backgrounds. The majority of the theories were founded around white middle-classed children and parents when tests were carried out, but in no way does this imply that they cannot be employed to different ethnicities.
In bottom line, if knowledge of lifespan development and different theories are being used correctly and appropriately in sociable work practice, then this could give social staff a clear indicator of when a child is not producing at the most common rate, and treatment may take place at the initial possible point in time, to ensure that the safety and welfare of the child is met. The advantages and disadvantages of viewing behavior through lifespan perspectives appear to weigh one another out with regards to sociable practice, however, it ought to be remembered that the studies are ideas, and aren't based on sturdy facts, so they must only be utilized in practice as guidance.
Word Count number: 2, 175