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The Roles Of Mainstream Media

The jobs of mainstream advertising have been greatly speculated. Some say the mainstream marketing act as an instrument used to relay the federal government or corporate and business propaganda (Galt, 2011: http://johngaltfla. com/wordpress/2011/08/25/words-that-merriam-webster-dictionary-left-out-of-the-2011-u-s-edition/) while others say it simply transmits information that is of the eye of the general public. However, many skeptical scholars unanimously arranged that the mainstream multimedia is a marketing organ that censor the dissemination of media by distorting information through the use of bias photos, location bias and other forms of deception that mislead audiences into drawing wrong conclusions (conservapedia, 2012).

All in all, mainstream media are usually being perceived as an avenue for the government or handling group to press out their regulations and assume that the idea proposed generally shows the prevailing thoughts of the majority.

Diverse ideas on the effects of mainstream media

The background of mass media can be tracked back thousands years ago. Studies after studies assessed that the media possess unfathomable results. Some scholars understand multimedia as an invasive, malignant and cancerous force, having direct results on audiences (manipulate them) while some scholars such as Paul Lazarsfeld thought that media experienced rarely direct influence on individuals. The intro of Mass Society Theory, Magic Bullet Theory, Middle-range Theory, Critical Theory and so many more further reinforces the theory that media performs an intrinsic part inside our lives, even though some theories have been turned down as time goes by.

Far-sighted shape such as Adolf Hitler foresees the potential of media and therefore, uses the radio (a mainstream marketing) to impact people's belief and finally pushes them to act relating to his whims and fancies. Although Hitler's action is one with ill-intentioned, it includes proven to the earth the capability mainstream press.

Mainstream marketing is relatively more important than alternative media as it is the most sought after media by the majority and thus, more folks are more susceptible to mainstream media.

Ownership of mainstream advertising in Malaysia

Once you realize how powerful the mass media can be, it is not astonishing to see media literates fighting on the ownership of press. The idea "Those that own the multimedia own the imagination of the individuals" extracted from Karl Marx's most significant ideology once more reinforces how ready media is. With this in mind, the Malaysia administration followed the authoritarian theory when you are involved straight in the State's press ownership.

Many media shops are possessed by people who have link with the ruling coalition - BN. The ruling get together justify their ownership in the mainstream advertising as an attempt aligned with the New Economic Coverage that aims to assure the involvement of Bumiputera in mainstream industry also to ensure the monetary growth of the nation under the leadership of the top notch group.

The authorities or ruling get together acquires or control buttons these multimedia companies through various investment biceps and triceps. The list following out a few of the possession of the mainstream media in Malaysia:

In the papers industry, the brand new Straits Times Press (NSTP) that publishes the New Straits Times, Berita Harian and Harian Metro is a subsidiary of the Fleet Holdings, an investment arm of UMNO as the Star newspaper turns out to be one of MCA most spent property (Zaharom Nain, Mustafa K. Anuar, 2008).

In it sector, Television set3, Malaysia's first private Television stop too is under the control of 4 prominent political figures, known to be closely related to the previous Deputy Primary Minister Anwar Ibrahim (Zaharom Nain, Mustafa K. Anuar, 2008).

Meanwhile the Natseven Television Sdn. Bhd. or often called NTV7 is managed by the Chairman of ENCORP Group, Datuk (Dr. Effendi Norwawi) who been Malaysia's past Minister of Agriculture.

Furthermore, the federal government also prolonged their reach in the satellite television broadcasting field as Astro and Measat 1 are jointly possessed by the Binariang Sdn. Bhd. , going by T. Ananda Krishnan, a making and horse race tycoon who's a close friend of the previous Perfect Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (The Legend, 9/1/1996)

Based on the set of ownership mainstream advertising in Malaysia, it is obvious that the Malaysia mainstream press has never removed from the ruling coalition's perception. For the past 50 years, the media was and continues to be closely related to the neighborhood authority.

This clearly implies that the mainstream media in Malaysia is meticulously related to the system of power and authority. Marketing is had through political connection and that they have a say in this content of media by only allowing content that favours the ruling coalition. With possession of media at hand, mass media has been regarded as the best tool to reach out to mass followers.

Role of Malaysia's mainstream media

What is the role of mainstream press and how it works is situated significantly in the hands of who owns that particular advertising. The trendsetter eventually determines the direction of the mainstream advertising and its content. For example, what it wishes the media showing to the general public and what it desires the mass media to do, i. e. promote government policies.

In Malaysia, the mainstream media is a pro-government tool. Due to the polarized system, mass media operators are destined to abide to the bigger management, quite simply, the government. If indeed they do not accomplish that, they could face charges under the Sedition Work, Printing and Press Publication Function, Official Secret Action and other related laws and regulations that govern the interest of the regulating elites. This modus operandi of mainstream advertising is to advocate the federal government in sending the country's information across to the people. top-down hierarchy has further inhibited the voices of the opposing get together.

The declaration that mainstream advertising in Malaysia been regarded as an important agent of change for most of the government's plans is without a doubt true.

According to Zaharom Nain and Mustafa K. Anuar (2008) from the 1st Malaysia's magazine, The Prince of Wales Gazette to the launching of Malaysia's first broadcast satellite, Measat 1, the possession of mainstream marketing never leaves from the view of political results. Therefore, the mainstream advertising has been totally utilized as a way to propagate the country's policies. From your NEP in 1969 to Look East Insurance policy in the up till Eye-sight 2020 and now the latest and most bandied about insurance plan - 1 Malaysia.

Study shows that marketing is the key player in portraying the image of 1Malaysia (Hanita Hassan, Hadina Habil, Noor Aireen Ibrahim).

Further, in their research on the functions of mass media in realizing 'unity in variety', they believe media has a powerful capacity to educate the general public on the value of unity by promoting cross-cultural understanding, tolerance and approval of other cultures and faith, the media is thus is the perfect means of communication between your public and the federal government.

1 Malaysia

1 Malaysia principle was introduced by our sixth Primary Minister, YAB Dato' Sri Najib Tun Razak on 16 Sept 2010. It really is an on-going program where it will involve all Malaysians to be united so that Malaysia may become a more harmonious, peaceful and successful country.

For this idea to be successful, it's important that all people cooperate as one however, not as Sarawakian or Sabahan. 1 Malaysia theory must be applied and practiced at all times to guarantee the values of approval, mutual understanding and the sense of things is engrained in every single Malaysian's head.

According to YAB Dato Sri Najib Tun Abdul Razak, the 1 Malaysia reflects how exactly we see, how we act and how we think as Malaysians. Consequently, the government will take actions based on the needs of most ethnic groups in our country. No competition shall be left out and all decisions made will not oppress one another.

The concept of One Malaysia is dependant on the rule of 'People First, Performance Now', which indicate the federal government will think from the people's point of view, put the people as their first priority and only carry out programme that benefits people. 'Performance now' denotes that the federal government stresses on producing profitable results, stresses on the personnel' efficiency in undertaking designated job as well as how fast and well federal servants can complete a certain work within confirmed timeframe.

Furthermore, the main one Malaysia strategy also illustrates 8 core ideals, namely perseverance (preserve tranquility and peacefulness), acceptance (show tolerance in other race's lifestyle, religious techniques and food), education (the learning of the countrywide terms), integrity (uphold the rule of being ethical and honest), meritocracy (appreciate skilled employees), humility (be humble all the time), devotion (pledge to serve the country and its people) and the culture of brilliance (rich in culture and show dedication beyond typical).

One way of making the concept known is by the means of media. Media is a good tool to reach out to the public. Relating to S. Ramasubramaniam, he thought that the mass media gets the potential to effect the required racial attitudes especially for ethnics with reduced inter-racial immediate contact.

Ways to encourage the acceptance of 1Malaysia concept

From NEP to Look East Insurance policies to Eye-sight 2020, these policies have been so broadly published in almost all mainstream advertising.

As mentioned previously, mainstream media has been effectively used to spread the government's convictions, in this case, the 1Malaysia idea.

They use several solutions to coerce, pacify and encourage the general public in general to accept 1Malaysia. use aggressively


Let's take The Star for example: The Celebrity published a variety of news revolving throughout the 1Malaysia concept within an exaggerating rate. For instance, the establishment of 1Malaysia treatment centers, introduction of 1Malaysia aid strategies and the service of 1Malaysia Family Day special event. Besides, the pictures of the existing Leading Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak are also featured all the time, appearing in nearly every day publication.

On the other hands, TV stations such as RTM 1, RTM 2 and Television set3 replay video clips and Open public Service Announcement (PSA) regarding 1Malaysia principle. Even the radio channels shove the 1Malaysia idea down our neck by repeating the 1Malaysia songs and text messages.

Frequent contact with the 1Malaysia idea is a long term planning effort by the federal government. The multimedia resorts to this method as they think that through repetition, the general public can familiarize themselves with the idea and eventually take in the concept and further practice it in daily lives.

Furthermore, the government uses the mainstream mass media because they presumed in Rogers' diffusion of technology theory whereby people at large will eventually acknowledge 1Malaysia concept after going right through the 5 stages in the diffusion process. Initially, the general public will be familiar with the 1Malaysia principle as it's been generally publicized in the mainstream multimedia. However, being aware is merely not enough. The concept is usually to be presumed will be accepted by an extremely small group of innovators who are usually heavy multimedia users. This development will later on be accompanied by opinion market leaders (early on adopters) who'll try to understand the concept themselves of course, if these leaders find the concept beneficial, they'll eventually encourage their friends (early majority) to accept the concept. The snowball effect continues through person to person and extends to the late bulk. After an extensive period of time, even the laggards will join in the bandwagon. Therefore, 1Malaysia theory must be aired as frequently as it can be and over a significant amount of time in order of this theory to sink into the minds of the people.

Biased reporting

Secondly, mainstream advertising are being used to encourage the acceptance of 1Malaysia by portraying good attributes of 1Malaysia concept. Elements of propaganda techniques are being used in this framework for example, the ordinary folks technique under special appeals. 1Malaysia principle has generally been thought to be an ideology that is created 'for the people'. The idea "We stand, we think and we become Malaysians" as envisaged by Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak is often feature in the mainstream media. It carries the meaning that people are mutually as one but not as individual individuals as Sarawakian or Sabahan. Besides, news featuring on residents profiting from the 1Malaysia help scheme, 1Malaysia booklet vouchers, 1Malaysia housing loan and the list continues on and on is ubiquitous.

Besides, the mainstream mass media also uses copy to affiliate 1Malaysia notion to a peaceful, harmonious country whereby many people are eligible for enjoy equality. In addition, mainstream mass media are also used testimonial strategy by quoting prominent figures, usually politics statistics of the National Frontier who are in support of the 1Malaysia concept.

Apart from that, based on priming effects, the media believes that how 1Malaysia principle is being offered in the multimedia will eventually heighten the likelihood that people will establish similar thoughts about those things in the real world. To convert it into the present context, the mainstream media's frequent portrayal of the positive aspect of 1Malaysia principle will indirectly shape how the general public generally speaking perceives 1Malaysia. Therefore, as long as the media portray 1Malaysia as something good, beneficial and serve the interest of the general public, 1Malaysia notion will be broadly appropriate by the citizens of Malaysia.

Other than that, the mainstream mass media also try to coerce the general public into recognizing the 1Malalaysia concept through adverts and video clips that uses the charm to fear. Local TV channels such as TV1, Television2 and TV3 air the Bersih 2. 0 flipped riot video clip again and again as though to convince Malaysians that this will not happen if we were to accept the 1Malaysia concept. As such, it indirectly delivers out a message that 1Malaysia acts as a reassurance that riots will not happen as 1Malaysia theory emphasizes extensively on maintaining peacefulness and harmony

The mainstream marketing point out the 1Malaysia concept during ethnic celebrations. It symbolizes us getting collectively and form a bandwagon. 'This is what people are doing and so should you'. It is one other way of the government to urge the public to assimilate the 1Malaysia principle. This scenario display people get together to uphold the 1Malaysia theory.

Excessive use of company logo, slogan

The mainstream mass media also uses the 1Malaysia logo and slogan in a wide-ranging manner. Relating to Hanita Hassan, Hadina Habil, Noor Aireen Ibrahim, icons are strong id marker as it symbolizes the 1Malaysia strategy and icons or visuals should be thought that leaves generally a greater impact than words. Flipped through the paper for example and you will see plentiful of 1Malaysia brand together with its most bandied about slogan: People first, Performance now (translated from Rakyat didahulukan, Pencapaian diutamakan). By repeatingly use of the emblem and slogan, it seeks to intrude into our sense of eyesight, thus, leave behind a direct effect.

Introduction of new sections

Other than that, The Superstar even allocates a special section, focused on events or programs concerning the 1Malaysia principle. Specialized website - 1malaysia website - catering for this

Concept that is of utmost importance to the amount, they allocate a new section for on 1Malaysia news

Uses Agenda-setting theory as benchmark- 1Malaysia is covered frequently and prominently, the public will regard the issue as important. Therefore, administration make the most / exploit the media to implant the concept in to the people's mind.


Despite all the efforts by the mainstream media, the question if the mainstream mass media has successfully made the desired result of the 1Malaysia principle remains arguable.

It cannot be denied that the mainstream mass media has effect on the individuals of Malaysia. It does leave impact behind but and then a certain extent. The effects of mainstream mass media generally affect the average people. These average people are usually made up of these who are illiterate, living in rural or possibly suburban area whereby they do not have adequate usage of the outside world except amenities provided by the federal government.

Since these people are being confined in the comfort zone built by the federal government, they will only see from the perspective of the government, which is how 1Malaysia concept benefits the folks.

In order for 1Malaysia notion to be accepted, people must first believe in the idea itself. Government make an effort to persuade people into agreeing to the idea but could it be the wisest choice to make use of media?

In my estimation, I am not convinced as the marketing ownership are under the control of the government. Hence it does not give me a comprehensive, transparent survey on what 1Malaysia theory is focused on. All we see are the good attributes of the 1Malaysia. Everything are destined to have its benefits and drawbacks. It does make us question the integrity of the media

Whatever is reported have a tendency to be biased, Confrim the statemet above: (method bias These owners of mainstream mass media are all political figures / associates who is carefully related - The reality - monopolize the media industry. politically used-entity. Manages to lose its reliability in reporting nothing but the reality. .

1 for people to trust them wan visitors to embrace the 1Malaysia and work together as one. Tyrannical make people question the integrity, accountability, consistency and reliability of media. What lengths can people trust the mass media which is publicly regarded as government-sided?

However, mainstream press is not almighty!

Audiences are not passive in character. They have a free choice. Despite the fact that Malaysians are deprived of their freedom of conversation but we do contain the flexibility of choose. This independence is further supported by the selective process whereby followers can make to expose to determined media wall plug, choose to keep in mind what is meaningful and the decision to alter the meaning to make to regular with our pre-existing beliefs. Not do what they are advised without comprehending

Deemed to chg scheduled to personal predisposition and strongly held values.

It is not necessary that they must be exposed to the mainstream marketing. With the development of technology, the Internet has opened up several alternative media wedding caterers to different needs of the audience. It has allow audience to look for Malaysia Kini exposes the concealed truth behind authorities policies and many other socio-political blogger for example Marina Mahathir.

So does indeed the mainstream press achieved what it wanted - frequently has put people off. Have a tendency to switch channel. will be able to look anywhere else for resources of information. selective exposure, retention and perception

Macroscopic political economy denotes that advertising establishment has been turned into a selling product. question - put people off

With This is just what the Malaysian government is doing. Critical theory points out that the prominent group, i. e. administration, maintain its status quo by exerting control on people via Repressive Express Procedure (RSA) and Ideological Status Strategy (ISA) and press is a form of ISA

Those who know functions of press - not easily vunerable to the press as they themselves know the filthy tricks, laws, functions and vicious circuit duplicating itself - question the integrity, accountability, stability and trustworthiness of mainstream advertising. Question that gove't purpose.

1malayisa= media practices democratic-participant theory that advocates marketing support for ethnical pluralism at a lawn main level, to encourage and empower pluralistic group. - developmental theory call for authorities and the marketing to work hand-in-hand to ensure that media help out with the prepared, beneficial development of a country.

In brief, mainstream mass media have effect on

So back to the question: is I'd say not. Unless the ownership of advertising is dissolved which is equally distributed among the city, individual it as an independent entity, only then can be placed our faith in to the mainstream marketing.

due to reliability, accountability, trustworthiness. However boundaries between mainstream advertising is getting obscure as time goes by as you new press emerges, media possession has changed. Concerns are arising as advertising now portray what is desired by the managing group rather than the tone of voice of the people (Under the control of press conglomerate or elites)- credited to polarized system and the top-down hierarchy. Look at the ownership of mass media.

Media is a tool for manipulation.

Cannot be denied that media does not have effect as the moment you face the multimedia.

Misuse marketing - distort the original value of media

MSM is a polarized system, meaning one-way information to be sent/ passed down. This is a situation known as Agenda-setting. Diffusion of information

People see Mainstream marketing (MSM) as an avenue to transmit / bridge between the public and government.

Some see MSM as an instrument used by those who find themselves in electric power, i. e. global company owner, the government, private sector.

Media are supporting functions in gov't policies

Acts + Press ownership limit / put constraints

http://www. mediaprima. com. my/aboutus/our_profile2. aspx

Media Prima- leading included marketing investment group. (mass media conglomerate) own 100% in Tv set3, NTV7, Television set8, Tv set9, NSTP (The New Straits Times Press (Malaysia) Berhad) NST, The Malay Email Berita Harian, harian Metro, Soar fm, Hot Fm, One fm

Clearly show press are generally/ greatly use to propagate gov't ideology

Discussion part: use?? introduction of new media

Audience aren't unaggressive. Relaisation who's behind the mass media increase erosion of the media's credibility

Demand for greater transparency, accountability and democracy.

Demand for proof / seek reinforcement)

Some responded that mainstream multimedia fails to meet up with the communication needs of certain organizations (esp minority)

Media is merely a tool

To make use of it wisely or even to misuse it (distort it) is up to an individual and the

As long as it is under the grasp of the federal government, freedom of talk can't ever be truly realised!

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