Indian soft drinks market grew by 7. 7% in 2008 to reach a value of $3. 4 billion. In 2013, the Indian soft drinks market is forecast to have a value of $4. 6 billion. A rise of 36. 9% since 2008. [[i]] All the major players in cola market put their best strategies to get more and more out of the lucrative improvement. In the modern market of information, it takes something or someone special to please the buyer. A movie star is often considered to be the essential basis for the brand connection of a product and this simple fact becomes stronger when it comes to carbonated drinks industry in India. India is one country, which has always idolized the personalities of the celluloid world. Therefore it makes tremendous sense for a brandname to procure a super star for its endorsement.
In what of McCracken (1989), a celebrity endorser is somebody who besides enjoying acceptance and public acceptance, uses this acknowledgement to promote a consumer good or service by showing up in the advertisements for the same. It isn't essential (somewhat it is hardly ever the situation) a celebrity in a particular field promotes the products only in that particular domain. It's the credibility of the endorser which helps in the repurchase or first-time purchase of the product. It may be said that the star transfers a few of his/her traits to the product or service (or atleast it is so recognized by the customers). Even the studies conducted by Agrawal and Kamakura (1995) & Mathur and Mathur & Rangan (1997), emphasised the potency of using a movie star endorsers. In India there can be an exponential potential for a celebrity endorsement to be perceived as genuinely relevant, thereby motivating consumers to look in for the product. No question India's ad market which includes an estimated worth greater than $3000 million contains around 30% of spending on ads featuring stars. [[ii]]
With amplification in number of media options and competition for consumers' attention, cola giants are increasingly using super star endorsement strategies to break through the clutter and enhance the equity for their brand. Although super star endorsement has surfaced as a favorite advertising practice, very little research has been done to evaluate the effectiveness of it in India. Some of the facts which support the pattern of star endorsement generally speaking and across carbonated drinks market in India are:
- Celebrity endorsement advertisings on Television set up 49% in 2007[[iii]]
- Pepsi ropes in Chiranjeevi Jr to take on Thums Up in AP [[iv]]
Marketers overtly acknowledge the power of celebrities in influencing consumer-purchasing decisions. It really is a ubiquitously accepted proven fact that superstar endorsement can bestow special features upon a product that it may have lacked otherwise. Although celebrity advertising for soft drinks brands is popular in India, little is known about its success in India. Thus the primary motive behind this research project is to assess this success using a few of the existing scales and methodologies and try and establish the connections which exist between the attitude of the students (between 18-25 years) towards star endorsement and their brand loyalty towards a minimal involvement product soda brand while paying special attention on the personality traits of the movie star endorsing the soda brand. This will give us an information in to the consumer behavior in response to celebrity endorsement in case of carbonated soft drinks.
The two billion consumers in China and India, along with strong advertising expenditures reported for the year 2000 by the C Nielsen suggest that the united states will be progressively very important to the marketers and marketers in the approaching years and this hinted at the existing developments in these countries. Atkin and Stop (1983) found that advertisement with super star spokesperson experienced more favourable effect on consumers than people that have non-celebrities.
Kahle and Holmer (1985) were between the first ever to formally acknowledge, using social version theory, that attractive looking endorsers can produce an attitudinal change. A report by Hofstede (1984) exposed that in the Indian culture, status and/or position in the modern culture are important social values. Celebrities tend to be associated with a higher status due to wide popularity in culture and repeated marketing exposure. Studies done by experts like Kamins and Gupta (1994) have also found that a superstar endorser influences only the attitude towards the advertising but not the brand attitude or purchase intension. In another research conducted by Armbruster (2006), he referred to a variety of benefits that may take into account the reputation of the strategy of using movie star endorsement. Matching to him the many advantages were:
- Instant identification of the brand and the product
- Immediate "Cut-through" i. e. it embosses an instantaneous impression on your brain of the consumer which supports recall
- Implied inclination over other brands because of the relationship of the celebrity
- "Cool" factor which gets attached to the product because of the hype and talk
- Competitive benefit i. e. an advantage in the other brands when it comes to the purchase decision of the consumer
To cover for the existing gap in books, Rubina Ohanion (1990) developed a source reliability scale to determine relationship between your various factors which impact the consumer understanding of the buyer and therefore the impact a celebrity is wearing the buying behaviour. The study offered information that source reliability consists of three major sizes: Elegance, Trustworthiness and Skills. The support to this research was lent by another review conducted by Seema Bhate (1999) which said that the foundation credibility proportions are affected by personality attributes such as authoritarian and internal locus of control deciding low or high credibility. One tool which is of scheduled importance for frequently measuring social attitudes is the Semantic differential range. It was first devised by Osgood, Suci and Tennenbaum(1957).
In a research by Agrawal and Kamakura (1995), they have cited sources proclaiming the favourable impact the announcement of the celebrity endorsement is wearing the stock dividends and the positive response of the market in response to the star endorsement. However, the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) is of the view that there is a difference in effective persuasion techniques under low and high involvement conditions. In a low engagement product like soft drink, the persuasive electricity of movie star may become a better means of market communication (marcom). And in turn, as is a well known reality better and effective advertising techniques lead to much better brand commitment and faith in the most well-liked brand. This is why that the companies concentrate on finding and keeping the right celebrity for his or her brands with an edge over the competitors or in the event all competitors use movie star endorsement, to meet competition.
Although the literature has a lot to get a concept about movie star endorsement, soft drinks industry and techniques open to carry the research methodologies, there is a attractive dearth of books related to movie star endorsement and choice of carbonated drinks in India. Also the research here targets personality qualities of brand endorser on brand commitment for carbonated soft drinks. A number of the literature argues that star endorsement does not have a direct effect on purchase intension of the buyer. This is a significant gap from the point of view of research under considered as a part of job here.
As mentioned earlier, the analysis is specific in dynamics due to focus on personality traits of the super star endorser. This particularity is one of why we found it difficult to get theoretical bases for the derivation of hypotheses. Below are hypotheses combined with the theoretical and reasonable base for each and every of them.
A celebrity is utilized to impart trustworthiness and aspiration beliefs to a brand, but the celebrity must match the product. Superstar Brand endorsement comes with an intriguing impact on the brand commitment for consumers (Garland and Ferkins, 2003). There have been studies which have resulted in a conclusion a celebrity endorser influences only the attitude towards the advert however, not the purchase decisions (Gupta, 1994). An effective endorser can increase consumer's recall of brand and product information which in turn results in increased brand devotion.
A research has think of a consequence that 80% of respondents assumed that a star should endorse the merchandise which suits his/her personality, and 20% of respondents experienced that it had not been essential to have a match between star personality and brand personality. (Patel Pratik, 2009). Few studies have tried out to associate the comparative impact of star and non-celebrity endorsement too. Mehta (1994) discovered that there have been no statistically significant dissimilarities in attitudes towards advertising, brand and intentions to buy endorsed brand between celebrity and non-celebrity endorsement situations, but variations were within cognitive responses generated by receivers. Inside the non-celebrity conditions, receivers focused more on the brand and its features. Research workers have discussed Many people aspire to share worth and lifestyles of superstars as models of success. Often, they seek to imitate, emulate, and even impersonate celebrities' behaviour to improve their self-esteem, through id with certain advisable images. Such behavior includes imitating the way celebrities speak, dress, communicate, & most importantly, the brands they choose. This process says more about what people desire to become than it can about what they already are. This simply displays the energy of superstar endorsement, which is behind the primary reason for utilizing celebrities to market almost all sorts of products (Fraser and Brown, 2002). This tips towards a marriage between brand choice and frame of mind towards movie star endorsement.
A research (Angela, 2007) has resulted into a finish that as the acceptance of movie star endorsement increases for a respondent, so does indeed his brand choice. The analysis also concludes that Brands have evolved into multifaceted constructs with which consumers potentially have complex interactions stemming from the self-reflective capacity of specific brands. Careful management of brand image that effects on brand associations stored in consumer storage is critical to a successful strategy. Advertising is utilized as an important tool in brand image-creation, and there's been an increase in the quantity of campaigns using celebrities to endorse brands, with cultural meaning moved from star to brand to consumer attitude towards movie star endorsement.
Although there has been some focus on this front to choose the impact of frame of mind towards movie star endorsement and brand devotion, there is not enough statistical data show support this truth especially in case there is carbonated drinks industry in India. A wide spread notion that star brand endorsement results a customer choice for a specific brand prevails across globe. Based on this,
H1: More positive the attitude towards super star endorsement, more is the brand loyalty towards a soft drink brand
A good attitude towards movie star endorsement reinforce consumer's acknowledgement for endorsed brands due to increased reliability in endorser and this leads to good attitude for the brand (Kamins 1989). Thus certain variables that postulate compatibility between your celebrity personality attributes which donate to source reliability and brand desire are:
- Celebrity associated values
- Celebrity popularity
- Celebrity profession
- Celebrity physical attractiveness
- Celebrity Attractiveness
The reliability of endorsers has received great attention on celebrity endorsement. Credibility refers to the scope to which the source is perceived as possessing expertise relevant to the communication subject and can be respected to give a target opinion about them. Lafferty & Goldsmith (1999) proven the significant aftereffect of source trustworthiness. They manipulated the amount of credibility and found that individuals in the high credibility condition showed a higher level of persuasive success than those in the reduced trustworthiness condition. Thus trustworthiness has been shown to be important in persuading consumers and in influencing behaviour (Harmon & Coney, 1982; Wu & Shaffer 1987). To increase the persuasive communication for advertising, experts should recognise the importance of taking into consideration the fit between super star endorsers and endorsed products. Furthermore, to generate a positive evaluation of the merchandise, credibility and appeal are essential factors that needs to be considered when choosing movie star athlete endorsers.
Few researches have mentioned that more the movie star credibility more is the electricity of endorsement (Patel Pratik, 2009). "The main parameter that defines the success of any superstar endorsement is the reliability of the super star. Trustworthiness and expertise in regards to to the recommended service or product are the two critical measurements that define credibility. He or she needs to instill that component of believability in the advertisement so that the audience not only listens but also operates accordingly. A movie star like Amitabh Bachchan endorses myriad brands. It is because he brings with him that sense of trustworthiness, which gets translated into a brandname he endorses. "
Though there has been some studies and researches to relate movie star endorsement and reliability of the endorser but there isn't enough statistical data to support the notion that a positive attitude towards celebrity endorsement brings about highere perceived reliability regarding soft-drinks market in India.
H2: More positive the attitude towards movie star endorsement, higher is the recognized trustworthiness of the endorser
Stafford (1993) proposes that brand Loyalty is of two types mainly. Is Attitudinal Brand Commitment which is the quantity of dispositional confidence in conditions of some unique value from the brand. The second is Behavioural Brand Commitment which is the motivation of the normal consumer to repurchase the brand. Relating to Blackwell, Miniard and Engel (2006), behavioural brand commitment can be influenced by increasing brand image via communication through personalities who are recognized to mass. Knox (2004) studies that star or created endorser in the firm's advertising matter can boost brand image given the reputation of the endorser and this in turn normally results into a recurring purchasing activities from consumers.
Till and Busler (1998) claim that the efficiency and standing of a movie star brand endorser are of great importance while learning the brand devotion for a particular product and brand. Though corresponding to them the uniformity between communication and celebrity image also takes on a vital role, the impact of source credibility remains a matter of prime concentration. The celebrity exchanges its characteristics into the product and this makes the target consumers like the merchandise because they are willing towards brand because of the popularity and consistency of the brand endorser. This takes place anticipated to associative learning theory and hence the positive feelings of consumers towards celebrity results in a higher connection to the brand.
The superstar provides dimensions of know-how, trust and attractiveness as method of measuring source trustworthiness and the second option is favorably associated with purchase dreams for the brand (Roobina Ohanion, 1990). Byrne et al, 2003; also point out that if consumer is affirmatively facilitates a celebrity endorser than he can easier be persuaded to buy the product once and again as well.
According to Lord and Putrevu (2009), the trustworthiness of the communicator can have a significant effect on brand attitude and loyalty. A good brand campaign idea and an intrinsic link between the movie star and the note are musts for a successful campaign. Superstars are no doubt good at making attention, recall and positive attitudes towards advertising. Roger Bannet (1997) also provides support to the debate that the communicator trustworthiness is a essential part of competitive advertising which brings about increased score for a specific brand.
The existence of another view to these theories is also apparent. Yi and Lee (2004) presents in their finding that the attitudinal brand loyalty takes on the major role in consumer's decision of buying and repurchasing a specific brand. They suggest that the cognitive factors like product information and attitude towards superstar endorsement tend to be more significant in determining the purchase actions or commitment of consumers, when compared with the credibility or mental appeals of an endorser.
Hence, the suggested hypothesis;
H3: Higher the credibility of the endorser, more is the brand loyalty of the soft-drink brand
Celebrity endorsement is an efficient and most frequently used device of promoting products and services. With star source trustworthiness and a potential hook up with the consumers, marketers use this extensively for attaining productive market show and repeated sales through persuasion and emotional hook up with the consumers. Companies have been spending a huge amount of money for financing these advertising and endorsements and hence, it becomes important to comprehend if the gender of the buyer has any influence on the partnership between super star endorsement and brand devotion for a soda band. The issue of the impact of gender is important to star and advertisings as historically gender is one of a significant basis for deciding the segmentation and concentrating on in marketing.
There are several studies in the past which claim that women are relatively much easier to persuade than men and both of them respond diversely to different varieties of persuasion. These studies have been undertaken by Widgery and McGaugh (1993); Bailey (2007); Biswas and Das (2006); and Thomson (2006). In a study done by Wolin (2003), she figured there is a greater expectation that a woman will respond more favorably to an advertisement than a man. Most recently Berni-Riddish and Areni (2006) discovered that women are most receiving of advertising cases than men. Boyd and Shank (2004) in their research tried to determine the result of gender of the consumer and sports super star endorsers. They discovered that while the consumer perceptions of attractiveness or, competence were unaffected but trustworthiness was afflicted by the buyer gender. Women graded feminine endorsers more favourably than the male endorsers and men were more beneficial in valuations of the male endorsers. However, Baud and Shank opined to look for more exhaustive studies before arriving to a definitive final result. This determined future researchers to raise the sample size and generate the dimension of movie star endorser and the advertisements in which the celebrity appeared to make the observations more accurate.
There have been innumerous studies on complexness of gender which create that men answer more to aesthetic cues and complicated messages than women. Further studies also establish that men are usually more heuristic processor of information than women. That is women are complete processors while men are more adept to the utilization one cues or, solitary inference (Darley and Smith 1995; Meyers-Levy and Maheswaran 1991) In the different research Kempf, Laczniak and Smith (2006), discovered that while women are able to comprehend and look forward to detailed ads, men are definitely more adept at understanding easily available cues to create brand judgments.
There have also been various market surveys conducted to measure the brand preference dependent on the gender of consumer. The study conducted to evaluate relation between soft drink type and preference of teenagers and different genders by Angeline Close (2004) ideas at certain personal preferences by feminine which are different from male consumers. Some articles support the actual fact that feminine consumers have a far more liking for soda brands having orange and/or yellow color. Such a rationale has been the primary reason of using female acting professional like Genelia d'Souza and Asin to endorse brands like Fanta and Mirinda in India.
H4: There is a difference in marriage between movie star endorsement and brand loyalty across gender for a soda brand
Attitude towards celebrity endorsement is defined as how a consumer perceives endorsement of brands by way of a celebrity. It really is about why a consumer believes that a superstar has been made the brand endorser and exactly how effective/ineffective this strategy of super star endorsements in advertisements is. This serves as an unbiased variable in the analysis which is conducted.
Gender this is a moderator and refers to the gender of the respondents. It brings to light the versions in perceptions on the basis of the gender of the consumers. Predicated on the gender, we plan to analyze the difference in the romantic relationships between the self-employed and dependent parameters under the impact of the mediating varying.
Celebrity trustworthiness is a mediating variable and refers to the confidence a particular superstar instils in the consumers on the basis of his/her perceived features like attractiveness, trustworthiness and competence. The build 'recognition' has been added to the celebrity credibility to have the ability to get the impact in a more wholesome manner. The four elements which comprise the celebrity reliability have been talked about below.
Celebrity trustworthiness refers to the credibility, integrity and believability of the endorser. It really is a construct that measures the result of the reliability of the star endorser on the brand and on the consumer brand commitment in the move.
Celebrity elegance is a mediating construct that tries to fully capture the effect of the elegance of the super star in the eye of the buyer as one factor that affects the brand commitment of an consumer.
Celebrity skills is a build that functions a mediating value for finding the affect of the superstar skills in his/her career as an influencing variable on the brand commitment of the buyer.
Celebrity recognition is a mediating build that measures the result of the reputation of the brand endorser as one factor influencing consumer brand commitment.
Brand loyalty is the centered variable in the analysis in mind. It identifies how committed the buyer is to a specific brand. It captures the determination of the buyer to repurchase the brand next time he/she must buy that particular product.
Problem Declaration: Very little direct literature is open to measure the impact of attitude of consumers towards star endorsement on brand commitment for a carbonated soft-drink. Through this research, we intend to study if there is any impact of the same on brand loyalty and if so, how will be the two related. Also, the target is on understanding if the movie star credibility has a job to experience and whether it impacts the relationship between the two constructs. This might require the study to recognize and understand the many factors which identify the celebrity reliability and exactly how these affect the choice of an carbonated soft drink among students. In nutshell, the problem statement can be defined as "The mediating impact of credibility of star endorser in the relationship between celebrity endorsement and brand loyalty for a carbonated soft-drink".
How will the celebrity reliability impact the partnership between attitude towards celebrity endorsement and the brand devotion of an carbonated soft drink among students in age group 18-25 years?
H1: More positive the frame of mind towards superstar endorsement, more is the brand commitment towards a softdrink brand
H2: More positive the attitude towards movie star endorsement, higher is the perceived trustworthiness of the endorser
H3: Higher the trustworthiness of the endorser, more is the brand commitment of the softdrink brand
H4: There's a difference in relationship between super star endorsement and brand commitment across gender for a softdrink brand
Extensive exploratory research was conducted to decide this issue and the opportunity of study. Discussions were held among the group users, other students and also with the project guide. The descriptive analysis is a cross-sectional research though test surveys.
Surveys via online questionnaire were conducted. The hyperlink to the review was delivered to around 220 students of XLRI, NIT Jamshedpur plus some other undergraduate and post graduate colleges. Out of these 184 complete reactions were obtained which is a response rate of more than 5:1. The amount of male respondents was 116 and this of female respondents was 67 which really is a ratio of just one 1. 73:1. This group of respondents is 18-25 years.
The samples are Probability Samples and are based on Cluster Sampling. That is so because we presumed that the sample under review well represents the entire college student community across the united states in terms old, gender percentage and choices. Heterogeneity to the magnitude feasible was tried to be included while choosing respondents.
Limiting the sample place to students limits this group to 18-25 years. Both male and female students have been targeted to avoid any skewing towards a particular opinion place (if). The male-female ratio has been used as roughly 1. 73:1 which is a healthy ratio. Individually sending the hyperlink of the review to students on the email ids guaranteed that the respondents complied with the required sample.
For the research and interpretation of the data obtained, semantic differential scale, Likert's scale, Ohanian's range for source reliability and B. M. Young level (2006) will be utilized. Apart from these, the Cronbach's alpha and the Barron & Kenny 4 step mediation examination (1986) have also been employed.
The various constructs are assessed either on the five point Likert Range (A size with responses calculating from -2 to +2; -2 denoting strongly disagree to +2 denoting firmly agree) or the Semantic Differential Scale which actions the build source reliability with responses ranging from -3 to +3. It really is a seven point range and helps the respondent by easing the selection of responses.
For capturing the attitude of respondent towards star endorsement, a couple of 15 questions has been used. This makes use of the scale suggested by B. M. Young (2006) apart from the questions derived on the basis of available books. The Likert Size is employed here. The foundation reliability (i. e. superstar trustworthiness in this review), has been assessed by the help of the Source Credibility Model as proposed by Rubina Ohanian in the year 1990. In addition to the standard components, the construct acceptance has been added based on the general conception that popularity plays a significant role in deciding the reliability or personality traits of a star endorser. The Semantic Differential size is utilized here. The brand commitment has been attempted to be captured through the "Measurement of possibility torepurchase" as stated in the literature. The Likert Range is made use of. The Barron & Kenny (1986) strategy has henceforth been used to gauge the mediation aftereffect of celebrity trustworthiness on the relationship between the frame of mind towards celebrity endorsement and the brand commitment for the carbonated carbonated drinks.
The Barron and Kenny mediation way is a four step mediation process with the four steps as mentioned below:
- The effect of independent variable on the mediating variable is studied (using simple linear regression).
- The effect of mediating changing on the reliant variable is analyzed.
- The effect of independent changing on the reliant variable is examined.
- The effect of both self-employed and mediating factors collectively on the centered variable is studied.
This is the methodology proposed by Barron & Kenny in 1986. It says that there could be a mediating changing (here, celebrity reliability) in the relationship between independent adjustable and the centered adjustable (i. e. attitude towards movie star endorsement on brand devotion), and the independent variable can still have an effect on the dependent varying. The direct course (c) is called the total effect.
The journey from independent to dependent changing (c') is called thedirect effect. And the web effect of the road from indie to mediating and mediating to reliant (product of both effects) is called the indirect result. The Full Mediation is said to happen when the independent variable no longer affects the reliant variable after the mediating variable has been controlled so the direct effect is zero. In the case of the Partial Mediation, there's a reduction in the result of independent changing (attitude towards movie star endorsement) on dependent variable (brand loyalty) is low in absolute size but it continues to be different from zero when the mediating varying (celebrity trustworthiness) is manipulated.
Through the Barron & Kenny process, we intended to study if there was partial or full mediation (if any) between your independent and based mostly adjustable with different mediators and also whether the mediation impact is significant or not. This review was done with the gender as a moderator therefore, for every single model, the Barron & Kenny mediation process was applied thrice (for everyone respondents, for men and then for females). The research intended to find any/all mediating effects for the respondents in framework of the analysis and also the same across gender (if any).
First of most, the Cronbach's alpha is computed to check the reliability of data. Then, for the analysis of the data received, SPSS was used. Variables corresponding to different traits captured by the various questions were captured and the total for the group of attributes for the impartial changing (attitude towards super star endorsement), mediating variable (source reliability) and centered variable (brand devotion) have been employed to conduct further research. The further examination is the Barron & Kenny Mediation Strategy.
The data was filled in the info sheet while considering the actual fact that there have been certain questions the answers to which were in contradiction to the other questions (For e. g. the answers to "Celebrity is within an advertisement just because they're paid" and "Celebrities always notify the reality in advertisement", if seen in isolation will give reverse dimension. However, both of these will give a way of measuring the same feature, if the response of one of them is reversed. )
For the evaluation of data, first of all, the entire model was tested with the mediator as the superstar credibility (for many respondents). Then your model was studied singularly both for men and women.
This was accompanied by the study of sub-models which got into consideration the components of the celebrity reliability. These components are celebrity trustworthiness, celebrity expertise, celebrity elegance and celebrity acceptance. Each one of these four models was researched for all your respondents, for guys and for guys. The analysis has been brought up below.
Interpretation: Dimension of Skills for source trustworthiness of a superstar endorser has a noteworthy effect on brand loyalty behavior of the learner sample. Although effect in case of female students is quite extensive the same is incorrect for male students.
Stating this by using the soft-drink platform and taking exemplory case of Akshay Kumar who is the brand endorser for ThumsUp. Akshay Kumar is recognized an expert which leads to a high rating on knowledge aspect (Skilled, Experienced and Proficient) for him. This impacts the brand loyalty of consumers of ThumsUp. A female pupil is more considerate of skills of movie star endorser in her brand commitment while a male student is not influenced by this dimension.
The brand devotion should logically be influenced by the source credibility of the celebrity endorser. The books and historical data also supports this hypothesis as the characteristics of the foundation credibility of any celebrity endorser influences a consumer's brand devotion through his/her connection with the product attributes. The results obtained from the research also reveal the same results. The research results highlight the actual fact that the foundation reliability of the celebrity endorser operates as a partial mediator in measuring the result of frame of mind of star endorsement towards brand devotion. Further it was discovered that the mediation impact was significant and was more evident in case there is female consumers. This may be due the fact that the women can be more easily persuaded for reinforcing brand commitment with effective promotion mechanisms. This inference is also demonstrated through in-numerous literature and historical studies dealing with the consumer behaviour across genders before.
Therefore, it might be concluded that probably attitude towards celebrity endorsement for women can be more easily afflicted through the foundation trustworthiness as a mediator. The movie star expertise can strengthen trustworthiness towards the product through movie star endorsement which may affect the ladies buyers' brand commitment. However, this might not be the situation for the male buyers whose ideas do not change as easily as their feminine counterparts and therefore the source reliability (or celebrity reliability) does not have a considerable influence on their brand commitment. It is more difficult to encourage and persuade the male students to improve their brand devotion predicated on the change in the traits/characteristics like elegance (the endorser being sophisticated or non classy, beautiful or unsightly, elegant or plain), trustworthiness (the endorser being reliable or undependable, genuine or dishonest, sincere or insincere), experience (the endorser being experienced or inexperienced, skilled or unskilled, proficient or unknowledgeable) and popularity (the endorser being popular or unpopular).
The consequence of the study discloses that the celebrity credibility does not have a very dominant impact on deciding the relationship between the frame of mind towards super star endorsement and brand loyalty. However, in case of female students, the significance is higher therefore you'll be able to enhance the brand loyalty by changing the star credibility in case there is females. Moreover, not absolutely all attributes have a significant impact regarding the same. So, in case of budget allocation for marcom (market communication), the companies can concentrate on getting stars with higher trustworthiness and know-how rather than elegance and popularity to woo the feminine clients and increase their brand loyalty. However, as the star credibility in itself isn't the only path connecting the attitude towards movie star endorsement and brand commitment, so the companies can even decide upon cutting down the expenses and spending on collection of a super star who may rank high on variables not so relevant for a carbonated soft drink brand and spend the same on improving the general frame of mind towards superstar endorsement.
While this analysis would make a contribution to the dialogue on star endorsements on the whole and the impact of these on the choice of carbonated soft-drink in particular, there are some limitations. Some of these limitations supply the scope for future research.
- Like any experimental analysis, this paper gets the limitation of introducing an artificial scenario in a lab setting, and utilizing a convenient student sample as individuals. However, this downside has been resolved by the use of products (cold-drink) for which the respondents have a fairly high degree of familiarity. Moreover, the utilization of student examples in a class room setting allowed higher control over the experimental conditions.
- This paper tries to look at how celebrity trustworthiness impacts the brand commitment of your carbonated soda among students. Future research should examine these issues with other types of products and endorsers. The study could be spanned across Age as moderator. This would increase the generalizability of the results.
- First, there are limits to the generalizability of the results, given the university student test; however, for theory-building purposes, the utilization of students sample was appropriate. Additional studies using other non-student sets of consumers would be ideal to establish some generalizable results.
- Another limitation is the fact that there would be no pre-testing for the level of respondent familiarity with the superstar he/she would be asked about. However, additional studies upon this issue should pre-test respondent familiarity with the superstars to be utilized to rule this out as is feasible justification of any significant results.
- Media used for the purpose of the dissemination of questionnaire is the internet mass media which might have created a bias in conditions of the samples conducted. But this had to be done given the time constraint. For some impartial response, physical occurrence of respondent before surveyor would help to increase the stability of response.
- The research could be lengthened with alternative mediators like Celebrity-Target Audience Match, Super star Ideals, Costs of Acquiring the Movie star, Celebrity Regional Appeal Factors, Celebrity-Product Match, Superstar Controversy Risk, Star Availability, Super star Physical Attractiveness, Multiple Endorsements, Whether Superstar is a brandname Customer etc.
- In our research we have assumed a significant level of exposure to movie star brand endorsement across young ones ageing 18-25 and them being from tier-1 and tier-2 towns. So we're able to introduce level of exposure to super star brand endorsement as a 3rd party variable too.