Oceans and seas cover 70% of the world's surface and are of critical importance economically, environmentally and socially. As an island nation, the united kingdom coasts around 7500 miles of coast line and a wealth of marine biodiversity. The marine environment around England is incredibly rich and diverse. England has a few of the finest marine wildlife in Europe. England's seas contain amazing underwater landscapes and over 10, 000 species, including many of national and European importance. For instance, England has more underwater chalk reefs than anywhere else in Europe. We have some surprising species such as sea fans, solitary corals, sea horses, sharks and dolphins as well as many types of fish and invertebrates.
The seas around England contain an important part in our wildlife. Some 50% of all of the our species is situated in the sea, within an area that is three times the land area.
The geology of the seabed around England is rich and varied, ranging from rocky granite reefs to mobile sandbanks. It is this variety of seabed type, coupled with the influence of colder Arctic and warmer Mediterranean waters around our shores, those ends in the diverse range of marine species and habitats inside our seas.
In this project will concentrate on looking at:
How climate change affect the potential production for fisheries resources, and exactly how it'll affect in the future
compared to past and present scenarios, in the lack of utilization
will estimate the added liability of these effects on national and regional economies in marine-dependent areas and on specific components of marine system at different scales
Future vulnerabilities of national economies (and globally) to determine the consequences of predicted marine scenarios, including affection of marine policies on all economic, environmental and social platforms
Task 1: Explain why the topic you have chosen is generally on the political agenda, stating why the problem is so controversial.
The environment, as general topic, has been on the political agenda since the late 1960s. A human nature relationship connects to extraordinary diverse group of issues covered by environmental politics, which include marine conservation. The emergence of conservation and nature protection groups in the latter part of the nineteenth and the first twentieth countries, was the first signal of concern about environmental issues on political agenda, reflecting growing curiosity about the protection of wild life and natural resources.
The marine environment is increasingly high up the policy and political agenda now - and rightly so. The marine environment is so important over a political agenda because it is crucial important part of your economic, environmental and social existence. It provides a wide variety of goods and services.
Our seas supply us with many goods and services including:
Climate regulation. Our oceans regulate our climate by redistributing heat throughout the world. Evaporation from the oceans forms the moisture that results in rain on land. The plankton in their uppermost layers helps stimulate cloud formation because of the chemicals they naturally emit. This plays a crucial role in temperature regulation of our world.
Food sources. The oceans provide food for vast sums of individuals worldwide.
Storing carbon. Oceans act as the major store of carbon on the planet, drawing skin tightening and from the atmosphere and trapping it.
Energy. We obtain coal and oil from under the sea bed. Offshore wind farms also provide a way to obtain renewable energy, and waves and tides give a further potential resource.
Building materials. We use marine aggregates such as sand and gravels as building materials.
Transport. The marine environment also links us to the rest of the world. In 2007 24. 8 million passengers took international journeys by ship and UK ports handled 582 million tonnes (Mt) of freight traffic.
Recreation. Our seas and coasts provide a place for a multitude of leisure activities from sailing and scuba diving to swimming and surfing. In 2007, we took over 20 million trips to the seaside in England.
Because our seas are wide supplier in many different ways its important to care for such a source. That's why is so 'hot' topic on political agenda to save it, as it isn't in the best its form at this time and is constantly on the come under pressure from man, even as increasingly employ its goods and services it offers. (http://www. naturalengland. org. uk/ourwork/marine/default. aspx)
Task 2: Examine selective areas of UK Government's Environmental policy from 1970, and state how environmental policy impacts on say housing or transportation.
England's marine environment is much less well understood or protected as the terrestrial environment. It needs particular attention and focus to develop the data, protection, sustainable use, understanding and appreciation of your seascapes and marine biodiversity.
England's seas are protected and managed in several ways:
Legislation and policy
The marine environment is protected through a number of national and international legislation and policies. Divided in two levels European and national.
Site protection is afforded though lots of designations. Together these will form a network of Marine Protected Areas - Special Regions of Conservation (SACs) under the Habitats Directive, Special Protection Areas for birds (under the Birds Directive), SSSIs which occasionally cover sub-tidal areas and in future Marine Conservation Zones under the Marine Bill.
Management of activities
Activities in the marine environment are regulated by a licensing regime and within European marine sites by the Habitats Regulations. Natural England advises developers and regulators on the environmental impact of activities. The Marine and Coastal Access Bill will include provisions for establishing a system of marine planning, a new Marine Protected Area designation, and fisheries management, marine licensing and establishing a fresh marine management organisation.
England Biodiversity Strategy
Natural England leads on the marine workstream of the England Biodiversity Strategy, which is accountable for ensuring delivering the marine Biodiversity Action Plans.
Through Marine Programme, DEFRA is working to enhance the state of the UK's marine environment and fisheries and achieve our vision for clean, healthy, safe, productive and biologically diverse oceans and seas.
The UK has an important sea fish industry with one of the most significant fishing fleets and fish processing industries in Europe. Freshwater fisheries is also a major leisure industry inside our rural areas. In the united kingdom, Defra is the lead department for fisheries and plays a major role in EU and international negotiations, as well as in managing and implementing fisheries policy.
Fish stocks are national and international resources which have to be husbanded sustainably. If we lose them from over-fishing, they could take a long time to regenerate. We also need to protect all marine species from sea pollution that could wreck their ecology.
Figure 5 - Flow chart of capture (wild) and farmed fisheries products from aquatic primary production. Numbers make reference to 1997 data and are in megatons (million metric tons) of fish. Thicker lines make reference to direct flows of aquatic primary production through capture fisheries and aquaculture to humans. Thin lines make reference to indirect and minor flows. Red lines indicate negative feedbacks on the aquatic production base. (Modified from Naylor et al. 2000)
Figure - Ecological links between intensive fish and shrimp aquaculture and capture fisheries. Thick blue lines make reference to main flows from aquatic production base through fisheries and aquaculture to human consumption of seafood. Thin blue lines make reference to other inputs necessary for production (e. g. , agro feed, fish meal, seed stock, etc. ). Hatched red lines indicate negative feedbacks. (Modified from Naylor et al. 2000)
This approach removes doubts in regards to what exploitation regulations will be put into practice in coming decades, and focuses on the added impacts that climate change is likely to cause, and on the subsequent additional risks and vulnerabilities to human societies.
Legislation restricts fishermen in what and where they can fish. The most significant legislation with respect to fisheries s europe Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) but legislation on fisheries matters originates from three sources:
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), or Scottish Executive (SEERAD) in Scotland
Sea Fisheries Committees for local legislation in England and Wales#
There remain 280 ports, harbours and creeks around the united kingdom where fish is landed, the major fishing ports in the united kingdom in conditions of value of fish landed are:
Peterhead - chiefly haddock, cod, monkfish, mackerel, nephrops, herring
Lochinver - blue ling, ling, nepherops
Fraserburgh - haddock, herring, mackerel, nephrops.
Sources: Statistics of fish landings into ports in England, Wales and Northern Ireland by port 2001, Defra website.
UK Seafood Industry Annual Statistics 2001, Sea fish.
Scottish Fishery Harbour Background Study, Sea fish Policy and Economic Unit.