My role is to undertake a period of work experience, using primary research and any other contacts I might have to collect data and opinions about the implementation of key areas of human resources management business in my area. I will need to request a variety of documents and information to assist me with my brief. I must maintain the cooperation and the confidence of the business at all times. I have been placed at DBF associates for my two weeks work experience.
DBF Associates is an accountancy firm. Britain's businesses operate in increasingly competitive markets. In order to achieve a greater market share, all elements of the firm must remain as competitive as possible. Usually businesses analyse all parts of the firms operation to ensure that standards and costs are as good as, if not better then, the overseas competition. The government has invested heavily in training and education to try to make sure that the human resource element of British business is not left behind in context to the rest of the business world.
The government feels that without an understanding of the value of people to a business, many firms may never catch up to foreign competition. To try to monitor and evaluate their progress firms have made with the competitiveness of their HR department. The government has instructed the trade and industry secretary, Stephen Byers to look into how well people management actually takes place across a range of firms.
The human resources function engages in many activities such as hiring and firing employees, staff training and development. These activities are carried out with the aim of contributing to the achievements of the business objectives. The human resources department will be involved in: – >Human Resources planning >Equal opportunities >Recruitment and selection >Motivation >Job analysis and job evaluation >Performance appraisal >Employee welfare, benefits and compensation >Payment systems >Health and safety >Industrial relations >Discipline Human Resources Planning Its main role is to manage the firms Human Resources.
These are the employees or personnel in a business that help it to achieve its objectives. They might include production workers, office staff, and members of the marketing team, accountants or cleaners. In an ideal world, businesses should plan ahead when it comes to human resources.
A well-organized business will have forecasts and projections of its future staffing needs. These will then be matched to forecasts and projections about the local labour market, which means that the business can develop appropriate strategies for the recruitment, training and development of its staff. If businesses are going to be effective and efficient they need to manage their employees, or human resources well.
Well-managed workers will be happier, better motivated, more productive and more responsive. Badly managed employees are more likely to miss work, be less enthusiastic, and less willing to show initiative. The personnel department will deal with many factors associated with employees.
These include: – >Induction, development & Training. >Appraisal & Termination of Employment. >Rewards & Conditions of Employment. >Working Conditions. >Performance management. 1. Training and development Training and Development are currently big issues for many businesses in most parts of the country, especially where there are low rates of unemployment. Moreover, more and more businesses are realizing that if they fail to invest in training and development they will become uncompetitive. 2. Appraisal and termination of employment Appraisal is the process of assessing the effectiveness of a process or an employee.
It is usually conducted by comparing goals with outcomes. An employee appraisal might be conducted through a questionnaire but is more commonly a one-to-one discussion between employee and manager. The conversation will focus upon the employee's performance, perhaps in relation to pre-set indicators such as timekeeping, customer sales levels, and contribution to teamwork. The appraisal interview may take place annually or more frequently; it will usually end with discussion of career prospects and training needs. 3. Conditions of employment Conditions of employment are the details of pay, working hours and holiday time that are set out in an employment contract.
4. Working conditions The physical surroundings and atmosphere of a workplace e.g. state of decoration and amount of pollution. Professor Herzberg regards them as hygiene factors, for whereas poor working conditions may be de-motivating, good conditions become accepted as the norm and therefore give no positive satisfaction. 5. Performance management Performance Management refers to different strategies designed to get the best of a businesses work force.
Different techniques are employed which attempt to relate performance with pay, or promotion or training. Such schemes are not always popular with workers. Equal opportunities A situation where employees and potential recruits have equal chances of being employed or promoted, whatever their sex, race, colour, religion or disability. The pursuit of this goal has been frustrated by personal and organisational discrimination.
For example, in Northern Ireland it can be difficult for Catholics to gain employment in predominantly Protestant organisations. In the whole of Britain, job applications by blacks are much less likely to succeed than those of whites. Recruitment and selection Recruitment is the process of identifying the need for a new employee, defining the job and the appropriate person for it, attracting a number of suitable candidates, and then selecting the one best suited to the job. The complete process of turning the need for a new employee into a successful appointment.
This would include advertising the vacancy (or headhunting), short listing, dealing with references, assessing candidates, deciding on the most suitable and then debriefing the unsuccessful candidates. Throughout the process it is necessary to avoid discrimination by sex, race, disability or age. This not only avoids legal challenges to decisions, but also ensures that the best candidate is appointed to the job. Businesses recruit for many reasons. Businesses could recruit if there is changing in job roles, dismissal, resignation, retirement or internal promotion.
There is a recruitment process, which is shown below: – >The decision is made as to whether recruitment is necessary. >The job description is prepared. >The personnel specification is prepared. >Plans are made of hoe, when and where to advertise. >Applicants are short-listed. >References are requested. >Candidates are invited for interview and selection tests. >The successful candidate is offered the job and signs the contract of employment. >Induction and training is carried out. >Job training is given as required. >Appraise performance. Motivation Motivation, as defined by Professor Herzberg, is the will to work due to enjoyment of the work itself. He urges that it should be distinguished from ‘movement'. According to the Professor, ‘If you do a good job because you want to do a good job, that's motivation.
If you do it because you want a house or a Jaguar, that is movement'. Many other writers and business people use the term motivation differently, to mean anything that causes people to achieve more than they would otherwise do. The writings of industrial psychologists and sociologists, which shed light on the factors determining the satisfaction and motivation of employees. The ideas involved can be grouped into two: ‘needs' theory and ‘expectancy' theory: >‘Needs' theory examines workers' physical, social and psychological requirements from a job; well known theorists include FW Taylor, Elton Mayo and Frederick Herzberg >Expectancy theory suggests that people are not all driven by the same needs; their motivation is determined by how sure they feel that a desired outcome will be achieved. This approach is associated with Victor Vroom. >Frederick Herzberg- the two-factor theory. >Elton mayo- Hawthorne studies. >Douglas McGregor- theory x and theory y. >Frederic W Taylor- scientific management. >Abraham Maslow- hierarchy of needs. >Vroom- expectancy theory.
Job analysis and job evaluation Job analysis is an investigation into the demands of a job to identify the tasks and skills required for high performance (to draw up a job description). These can then be related to the abilities demanded from the employee in order to draw up a job specification. Job evaluation is comparing the demands of different jobs in order to establish a systematic structure of grading and pay scales. This will involve identifying the skills, experience and responsibility involved in each job.
Given the psychological significance of status in the workplace, a job evaluation exercise may cause great disquiet. Those that receive lower grading than expected may become de-motivated. Performance appraisal Performance appraisal is the process of judging the effectiveness of an employee's contribution over a period of time. It can be conducted every quarter, every six months or on a yearly basis. A fellow employee, often the immediate superior, carries out the appraisal though it is usually based more on discussion than inspection.
A performance appraisal might follow these stages: – >At the start of the year, discuss the appraisee's personal objectives. I.e. hoped for achievements and developments. >Towards the end of the period, ask the employee to complete a self- appraisal form. >Use the latter as the basis for discussion of the employee's achievements, strengths, weaknesses, training needs, career intentions and future objectives. The process is intended to provide employees with feedback on their performance and therefore be motivating. Health and safety Health and safety work act 1974 imposes on employers the duty ‘to ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work' of all staff. Reasonably practicable means that it is accepted that the risks of hazard can be weighed against the cost of prevention.
The main provisions of the act are: – >Firms must provide all necessary equipment and clothing free of charge. >Employers must provide a safe working environment. >All firms with five or more employees must have a written safety policy on display. >Union- designated safety reps have the directly to investigate and inspect the work place and the cause of any accidents. Responsibilities of the human reference function Your resources administrator is responsible for a number of human resources features including: – Manpower planning- forecasting the quantity and kind of staff the organisation requirements in the future. Getting sufficient candidates: candidates with the right qualities so the organisation can select the finest people to get the job.
A company needs sufficient candidates with the obligation qualities so the worker can function to the most of their capacity. This can preserve a company via training the workers. Training and developing: schooling and developing staff in order to perform towards the highest level possible.
Teaching is important for the workers so the workers know very well what they are performing, so that they have no need to regularly be closely watched. Designing careers: Designing jobs that are revitalizing and interesting so that the enterprise gets the most from people. This will likely be difficult for a great accountancy firm because all of the checking involves applying maths and I. T skills. Ensuring that organisational structures and procedures enable employees to convey their sights, ideas, problems and worries.
Designing methods of introducing and managing transform that minimise any adverse impact on persons and organizations. Providing fair and legal procedures to get discipline and grievances and ensuring that they are applied uniformly throughout the company. Keeping inside the law about issues such as health and basic safety, equal options, gender and race discrimination.
Dealing with trade unions, staff associations, arguments, industrial cortege and other legal actions. Internal labour market As the discipline of human resource management is rolling out managers have become increasingly interested in the external manpower environment. They need to really know what manpower can be bought now or in the future in terms of the volume of possible staff and expertise they own. They will also need to find out what expertise and educational requirements school and colleges will probably have.
Info is published in nationwide newspapers annually and local activities can be supervised. The graph below demonstrates the GCSE performances of schoolchildren nationally, in the Manchester and Oldham area. The above mentioned graph implies that 50% of students by Manchester attain 5+ GCSE grades A-C.
However , in Oldham only 35% of students achieve 5+ GCSE grades A-C. The area through which DBF acquaintances are located provides a 50% complete rate of A-C. Because of this DBF associates can employ students when they leave institution and they are about training. That they could also obtain students even though they are participating in college or university and offer them job training or work experience.
There are many measures that a business can use in order to gauge the effectiveness of its staff: Labour Proceeds. Number of employees who leave per year =1/ total number of staff employed=14*100= 7. 1% The time turnover for DBF accountancy firm is low. To show this kind of there is have to improve recruitment, induction, advertising and schooling programmes-by placing the right person in the right job that they receive the proper support, which is required. Absenteeism.
This steps the portion of the staff who is lacking from operate a particular period of time. It is computed using the next formula: Quantity of employees lack of per year sama dengan 2/ total number of utilized staff sama dengan 14 *100= 14. 3% To reduce absenteeism a company can easily improve establishments, have alternative staff, reduce sick shell out and have versatile working hours. The level of absenteeism is low for DBF accountants since it has exceptional facilities, which motivates personnel to come to job. DBF offers excellent up-to-date computers, a great canteen, friendly staff and a friendly supervisor.
These are most motivating factors. To reduce absenteeism there should be more white persons and Pakistanis at DBF associates. DBF associates really should have an equal propagate of different cultured workers.
DBF should have alternative staff and so if a person is ill, when they keep coming back they do not have got a large pile of work to perform. Labour Output. This displays the effectiveness of the staff, and it is tested by the volume of outcome per worker. It is calculated using the next formula: Work productivity could possibly be increased by application of new-technology to creation methods and administrative methods. Waste amounts. ‘Waste' products refers to misplaced and broken raw materials, low quality output containing to be reworked, and result which has to get discarded because of poor craftsmanship.
It is determined using the following formula: If a business contains a high percentage of ‘waste' products, then this could be because of a poorly trained staff with lower levels of the two motivation and job pleasure. It is vital that the reasons for this kind of are learned quickly, because the effect on consumer loyalty and reputation could be disastrous in the event the business supplies poor quality output to it is customers. Skill shortages- In the event that there are skills shortages a company will discover it hard to recruit employees who will be specialists in a specific subject. There are skill shortages to get accountants nevertheless DBF co-workers have enough staff. It is because not many persons do accounting degrees and also are qualified in ICT, maths and management abilities.
Excess labour- If there is excess labour then a company look at the workers with the the majority of skills and qualifications and give them the better task. They will need to lay a few workers away or transfer them to one other part of the company Training- This is the provision of work-related education. Training the workforce is important because a qualified workforce can work without constant supervision. Culture of the firm The company has a person culture.
Which means that there is a loose collection of people from which most of them are professional. The employees reveal the facilities available, nevertheless they each follow there individual goals and targets individually. Where there can be person culture power is simply not an issue, due to the fact that the entire staff are professionals in there very own right. This kind of culture finest serves the.
Management design DBF contains a democratic supervision. The employees of DBF are involved in decision-making. This really is better for the company since the manager as well as the employees possess a close hyperlink. At DBF, the manager sits and works among the employees. Staff structure The firm includes a flat structure.
External work market Plus the continuous evaluation of the inside staffing assets, monitoring the availability of time from external resources should also support staff planning. In the event that an organisation fails to monitor the pool of potential recruits in the doing work population then a organisation runs the risk of not being able to satisfy any additional manpower recruitments from exterior sources. For example , an organisation may think it can recruit labour through the local industry, but finds out however , which the skills essential are in very brief supply, it may well have to arranged salaries larger in order to attract people who have having these skills from a national market.
The repercussions can be considerable, and the organisations objectives may have to be analyzed and customized. The following text is about the graphs to get Manchester statistics on webpages 11, doze, and 13. These furniture show the regional labour market for the Manchester place. Table a single shows what the labour companies are like surrounding the Manchester region where DBF associates is found. The desk shows the economic activity rate, which in turn shows the amount of people who are struggling to find lack of employment.
The rate of unemployment is definitely not drastically high with only about 60% of the total human population in career. For DBF associates which means that they will find it easier to generate staff then simply if job was at 90%. Table 1 shows that 89000 males are employed compared to only 72000 females.
This really does affect DBF associates since there are more guy workers in that case there are girl workers at DBF acquaintances. DBF co-workers should use more woman workers to get an equal spread of male and female workers. Consequently DBF co-workers would use more women partly time work. This has many advantages since women are super easy to recruit in your free time because many women only do part time function and hardly do any full time work.
Stand two reveals full and part-time job by age bracket in Manchester, for Mar 2000 to February 2001. The number of in your free time and regular employees reaches its highest in the 25-49 age group. This is due to the fact that girls have children to look after. One more for low employment in Manchester is because of the fact that you have many cultural minorities residing in Manchester and a few religions and cultures do not allow women to work.
To get DBF affiliates this means that they should recruit staff between the ages of 25-49. This is the circumstance because the majority of the workers are aged between 25-49. Desk three shows employment simply by major jobs: Manchester, Drive 2000 to February 2001. The desk shows that professional occupations which include accountants provides 20 500 employed away of one hundred sixty 000 which can be the second highest after managers and administrators which is twenty-three 000 used out of 160 000. the effects for DBF associates will be: – Stand four shows the population older 16 and over by sexuality and cultural group, 03 2000 to February 2001. The stand shows that in total there are even more female workers then man.
There were as well more white-colored female workers than guy workers. You will find more Asian workers in that case there are light workers. This can be a case at DBF associates because there are even more Asian man workers then simply there are Oriental female workers.
DBF acquaintances should utilize more female workers (Asian and white). This would fix the problem of there simply being one main traditions at DBF associates, this may also inspire workers simply because there would be an equal spread of workers when it comes to culture. This kind of pattern is usually shown in DBF associates because there are more white feminine workers then Asian female workers.
There are three white colored females functioning at DBF associate and later two Oriental female workers. There are even more Asian man workers in that case there are Asian female personnel. There are two Asian female workers in DBF in addition to eight Oriental male employees at DBF. DBF associates should have even more Asian ladies and more white women employed because there are more Asian males working right now there.
Table five shows doing work age job and career rate simply by gender and ethnic group. This demonstrates there are more male workers then you will find female workers. This is the case at DBF associates and there is more man (15) personnel than feminine (6) personnel.
To get over this problem, I think that DBF associates will need to recruit even more female personnel. Table 6 shows the significant age employment and financially active by simply population simply by highest qualification and gender. All roots and ethnicities besides white have fewer workers. The truth is not enough to put on the desk. This is the total opposite of DBF since there are more staff that are Asian then you will discover white personnel.
I think that DBF associates should utilize more white-colored workers to reduce this problem of not enough of 1 culture and too much of one more culture.