There is significant research during the last 30 years affirms that parental involvement is a vehicle by which to improve academic achievement (Hara, 1998). Henderson and Berla (1994) reviewed 66 studies of parental contribution and concluded, "Regardless of income, education level or social background, all young families can- and do contribute to their children's success. " In the following excerpt from THE DATA Grows: Parent Participation Improves Student Accomplishment, Anne Henderson (1987) summarises the conclusions attracted from 52 studies on the subject of parental participation in extra education:
When parents show a pastime in their children's education and high goals because of their performance, they are simply promoting behaviour that are secrets to achievement, behaviour that can be formed separately of social course or other external circumstances. It is at this time that the school gets into the picture. Institutions can encourage parents to work with their children and provide helpful information and skills, thus reinforcing a confident circuit of development for both parents and students. The studies also show obviously that such intervention, whether founded at home or at institution, and whether begun before or after a kid starts university, has significant, long-lasting effects The contrary, of course, may also be true. If institutions treat parents as unimportant, or as negative educational influences on the children, or if indeed they discourage parents from becoming included, they promote the development of attitudes in the family that inhibit achievements at school.
There is a direct website link between parental involvement and children's higher achievements in language and mathematics, enrolment in more difficult programmes, greater academics persistence, better behavior, better cultural and adaptation to university, better attendance and lower drop-out rates (Heymann, 2000, Henderson & Mapp, 2002).
Cotton and Reed Wikelund (2001) identifies that all research studies which focused on affective measures found that parental participation has a positive effect on students behaviour and social behavior.
Parental involvement supports student learning, behavior and attitudes no matter factors such as parent's income, educational level and if parents are employed. All parental participation works and works well indeed disadvantaged children hold the most to gain from parent involvement programmes.
In a written report on the Educate Together Ethos and Parental Participation, Nugent and Mooney (2008) they state that when parents hold the opportunity to participate in their child's education, there are benefits for both child's cognitive development and their performance as learners and their parents' attitude to school.
The benefits associated with parent involvement runs beyond education and includes interpersonal and monetary benefits (OECD, 1997). These include improved health advantages, a decrease in dependence on cultural welfare and levels of criminal offense (Wolfe and Haveman, 2002). The most interesting finding in the OECD 1997 Statement features the relatively untapped potential of parental education in helping parents from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds to support their children's learning more effectively. It was known that parental participation can reduce exclusion and improve equality. "Education is a robust tool in the integration process" (OECD, The financial and social aspects of migration 2003 article).
Research within second level education would indicated that parents become less involved with their child's education as the child ages, there are many reasons because of this: a more difficult curriculum, bigger universities - larger personnel, location of the school, the kid is more unbiased etc. Recent students suggest that American professors and educational psychologist place great importance on parental engagement to raise educational outcomes, particularly among disadvantaged students (Eccles & Harold, 1993; Jeynes, 2005a; McBride & Lin, 1996).
The benefits associated with parental contribution are so great, parental and community involvement is used as a key strategy in institution effectiveness. (Smit and Driessen 2007).
The question, therefore emerges: can parental involvement through the implementation of the Academics Involvement Model (Purpose) really improve the educational effects of disadvantaged students within Fairhill Community College? More specifically, this question can be further described into four individual questions that can be applied to the writers region of research:
To what degree is parental participation associated with higher levels of school accomplishment among disadvantaged students registered on desire to Programme?
What areas of parental involvement help disadvantaged students the most:
Can the house School Completion Programme/Home University Liaison Officer favorably influence parental involvement of disadvantaged students?
Does the partnership between parental participation and academic achievements carry across racial groupings?