The definitive goal for any business is to create goods and services for sales and profit maximisation. Businesses need to have enough sales to be able to repay all the price and also to get sound earnings. For generating higher sales, businesses needs to market their product in line with the marketing combination or the 4Ps i. e. product, price, place and promotion. Campaign is one of the factors that affect sales and advertising comes under the promotional blend. It is assumed that through good campaign, businesses can create increased sales by influencing consumers buying decision.
In today's world advertisement is taken as an important tool to gain customer attention also to give information on product. All around the world billions of dollars are invested in ad of products and brands. In the entire year 2008 only, advert expenditure folks, UK and China was $ 158, 547 million, $26, 802 million and $57, 077 million respectively (Warc, 2009). As countries and businesses are spending these large sums of money, there has to be some major reason behind it. The primary reason might be to increase sales or profits. Advertisements have become very useful and have gained the status of an unbiased discipline and have grown at very fast speed because of this it has turned into a special field of study (Khan, 2007). Therefore, advert is an important tool for businesses to promote their goods and services and increasing sales and profit. It is also important for the firms to learn whether their advertising is effectively promoting their products or not.
The proposed research topic will attempt to learn the impact or how much affect does advertising have in influencing the consumer's buying decision. This study will be dedicated to the subject area of the consumer behaviour and their buying decision with regards to the influence of advertising campaign on it. It can help to gain comprehensive knowledge about the subject matter and will be of great reap the benefits of both academics and practical part. The conclusion attracted from the analysis will provide feedback to the firms about the advertising and it will also find out the areas which other researchers can explore into. In such a 21st century role of technology is so important and advert comes under the communication tool, hence study upon this important and current issue is really of great benefit.
As stated in the title and introduction part of this proposal, this research work seeks to identify the level of impact of the advertising in consumer's brand preference. This study will be centered on the food and beverage retail companies in London, U. K.
The goals of the study will be:
To analysis the affect of advertising on consumer buying behavior.
To analyse and compare the influence old factor on advertising.
To analyse and compare the role of printed and visible marketing in influencing buying behavior.
To recommending the retail (food and beverage) firms for even more advancements in advertising and brand management.
How do advertising change consumer behavior?
Could ad have an adverse effect on brand image in consumer's head?
Is age a factor that affects consumer behaviour?
Which advertisement multimedia is a lot effective: Printed or Visual?
Advertising is a mass communication tools for the marketing goal. Etzel et al. (1997) says that the mass communication tool provides chance to speak the same communication to larger quantity of people better value than the personal advertising. Arens (1996) believes that it is a communication process, a marketing process, a socio-economic, information and persuasion process at the same time. Mogel (1993) in his book says that it is an take action or practice of attaining public mind to the products and services through the paid announcements in the many media published and visual (such as newspapers, magazines, Television, radio or billboards to boost the selling and the clients. The words advertising originates from the Latin expression "advertere" which means "to carefully turn mind towards" and the first of all appeared around 1665 Advertising in the bible to indicate notification or warning (Kaptan, 2002). Philip Kotler views advertising as any paid form of non personal demonstration and advertising of services by an discovered sponsor (Kaptan, 2002) and the same is the view of North american Marketing Connection (AMA).
As per Mogel (1993), there are basic three components in advertising
Promotion - Trade fairs and exhibitions, Conventions and Meetings, Premiums and bonuses and point of purchase display
Measured Marketing Advertising - Television, Radio, Daily Newspaper publishers, Consumer Journals, Business Magazines, Internet etc
Other Advertising - Immediate Mail, Yellow web pages or sites, Transit Poster Exhibits, Out-of-doors or Billboards
AMA (1960) described the word Brand as "a name, term, sign, icon or design or a combo of them which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or a group of seller also to distinguish them from those of challengers". Classical definitions say that brand is a identification of something and it differentiates with other competitor's product with the use of various brands, logos, design or any other aesthetic signs and icons.
Brand devotion in simple terms means, being faithful to 1 particular brand. Any company wants to get the client who is faithful to them and will purchase and duplicate purchase with them. Heding et al. (2004) features that obtaining great devotion of the consumers is the key goal for just about any business, loyal individuals are valuable for businesses because retaining or keeping existing customer is much cheaper than getting or recruiting clients.
Pride et al. (2009) argued that there are three levels of brand loyalty
Brand Recognition: In it customers know about the brand and they know its existence and can purchase if their more suitable brand is not available.
Brand Desire: This is a average degree of loyalty of which customer prefers one brand over other fighting brands.
Brand Insistence: It is the strongest level of commitment, where customer highly prefers to stick with the precise brand and will not buy any substitutes available at whatsoever situation.
Buyers rely on previous experiences with the merchandise when choosing it, if available, over substitutive product. For example we may like Nike shoes in comparison to other brands and could buy the new selection of products of Nike if it is available. If this is actually the case, Nike can create the brand desire in consumer's head. (Kurtz et al. , 2009)
Reid et al. (2004) in their publication cited that Yoon and Kijewski (1995), within their review that brand understanding is necessary to produce brand inclination and their model stated that various communication activities drive customers to understand the brand and which in exchange creates brand desire. Guinn et al. (2008) in their book cited Marc Gobe (2001) who indicated that great brands make mental connections with the clients. They do this by participating customers through sophisticated sensory experiences and deep emotional attitudes.
Ayanwale et al. (2005) said that promoters invest big money in advertising and the main goal behind it is to attain potential buyer and influencing the level of awareness, behaviour and the behaviour of shopping for and keeping them interested on the products. In the same document they cited the view of Arens (1996) that advertisers need to gather market data and also have to review consumer behaviour to be able to meet the needs and would like of individuals who purchase their goods.
Brand preference is seen as degree of attachment the customer has, to this brand and creating brand devotion, which makes the buyer buy the product over and over. Jones et al. (2002) point out that advertisement is utilized to maintain their existing customers rather than bringing new ones. They state that existing customers are well disposed on the brand and advertisements only really helps to strengthen the choice of the client, it reinforces their connection to the brand by depicting satisfaction, strong imagery, delight and positive experience. Trehan & Trehan (2009) also pointed out that if the merchandise has brand choice in customer, it only needs reminder type advertising in case the brand is not more suitable, then the ad is essential along with promotional and personal advertising for customers.
Above reviewed books suggested that advertisements is a kind of communication to inform and making customers aware of the merchandise and services through various printed and visual mediums which certainly involve some cost associated with it. An advertisement is seen as a medium of fabricating brand image in your brain of customers and advertising campaign play role to make that image into desire. But we also found that advertisements are not too much necessary for the customers who have already shaped their inclination to this brand; it is only used to reinforce the attachment and building up the choice. And, we also discovered that brand inclination is not strong form of devotion where customer can choose the substitute if there is insufficient information (advertisement) or the option of the product. This discussion of varied scholars creates some difference whether advertisements are essential or not, with respect to brand preference. This research will try to finding out the answers that what's the level of influence that advertisements create in consumer buying behavior and will there be any affect or not.
Systematic way or procedure for solving or addressing the final outcome of any research or study can be explained as Research Strategy. It describes the methods and process applied in the whole aspect of the analysis. It offers all the steps from theoretical base to the collection and examination of data. "Research strategy refers to the various sequential step (along with a rational of every step) to be adopted by way of a researcher in learning issues with certain items in view" ( Kothari, 1994).
Research is a systematic and organizational effort to investigate a specific problem that requires a solution or a conclusion. This process of investigation involves some key activities like gathering, recording, analyzing and interpreting of the info with the purpose of finding answer of the study topic. The technique chosen because of this research would be the blend of quantitative, qualitative and descriptive methods. The analysis will be centered on locating the various areas of the consumer behavior and consumer response into the advertising and their choices.
As per Kumar (2008) Kinner described Research Design as "the essential plan which courses the info collection and analyses the phases of the task. It's the construction which specifies the kind of information to be gathered, the source of data and the data collection procedure". Hence, research design can be considered as a reasonable and systematically developed plan to be able to conduct the research. It is important in the sense that it can help to determine the information for proceeding and knowing what and exactly how things must be done at every stage.
Survey strategy is the main strategy which I will be using in conducting this research. The info will be accumulated through both most important and secondary resources. For key source, organised questionnaires will be prepared and will be performing a questionnaire survey. Main data will be the primary way to obtain data for this research. Questionnaire will be occur the advice of the assigned supervisor so the respondent can feel better to complete their information and also to confirm the validity and reliability of the various tools used for assortment of primary data. Supplementary data, if any required will be collected from the literature, publications, company websites and internet.
The quantity of samples to be gathered because of this research is defined as 150 examples from the whole population that may try to cover all the aspects and characteristics of the population. The simple arbitrary sampling strategy will be utilized while doing major research under the possibility sampling strategy. The examples will be taken randomly from the high pavements and various shopping centres of London. I'll make an effort to ensure that the proportion of men and females will be equal in order to obtain an unbiased and clear picture of the complete human population and their response can be related to the finding of the study.
The data evaluation will be conducted using both qualitative and quantitative methods. All data will be analysed using various descriptive methods (suggest, standard deviation, range, rate of recurrence and percentage etc. ) and inferential statistical testing (correlation, regression, chi-square etc) as appropriate. However, the ideas from the supervisor will always be implementing while conducting the evaluation of the accumulated data.
This review will be limited to the region and population of London, therefore, the finding of the study cannot be generalised for the areas of UK.
Time period is also another limitation for repeating this research, which might somehow affect the conclusion.
Respondents can be non co-operative.
There will not be unethical functions in this proposed job and the laid down procedure will be used at each and every step of the study. Information collected during research will be cited, referenced and you will be given credit. The respondents will find out about the study objectives clearly and the confidentiality of the data gathered will be preserved.