Posted at 11.20.2018
To understand ethnic history and interpretation, it is vital to understand the many definitions and theories with regards to the idea of cultural heritage.
The term 'ethnic heritage' refers to the "things, places and techniques that define who we are as individuals, as neighborhoods, as countries or civilizations so that a species" (Wedenoja, 2010). Quite simply, it is the ethnical legacy of physical artifacts and intangible qualities of a group or population that are inherited from previous generations, preserved in today's and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. It really is a legacy which we often want to identify and reserve because it strengthens our ethnic identification of sense of who were as people. However, what is considered cultural traditions by one generation may be rejected by another generation, and then be revived by a succeeding era.
Cultural history is not limited by material manifestations. In addition, it includes living expressions and the practices that groups and communities around the world have inherited from other ancestors and sent with their descendants. Thus, social history can be grouped into broad categories: tangible and intangible. Tangible cultural heritage can make reference to moveable things and immoveable sites. Included in these are archaeological sites, artifacts, properties, traditional sites, monuments, graves, and culturally significant panoramas like sacred places. Scenery are considered traditions when they have natural features which may have cultural capabilities including flora and fauna. Heritage sites like these often provide as an important component in a country's traveler industry, getting many tourists from in foreign countries as well as locally. UNESCO defines intangible cultural heritage as "the non-physical characteristics, practices, representations, expressions as well as knowledge and skills that identify and explain an organization or civilization" (UNESCO, 2010). These include language, dental histories, beliefs, techniques, rituals, ceremonies, customs, traditions, music, party, crafts, and other arts.
Heritage that survives from days gone by is often unique and irreplaceable. This places the responsibility of preservation on the current generation. Safeguarding ethnical heritage has become one of the priorities of international cooperation since 1972 when the General Convention of UNESCO adopted the Convention Regarding the Cover of World Cultural and Natural Traditions. There are 878 World Heritage Sites as of 2008. These are located in 145 countries and 678 cultural, 174 natural, and 26 combined sites (UNESCO World History Sites, 2010). The preservation of living history has only become significant in 2003 when UNESCO used the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage.
(This is actually the short version --> still have a lot of detail to include because the word cultural traditions is very detailed and has supposed different things before generations. Unless the professor thinks this is enough. )
In recent years, key history sites have observed a remarkable increase poorly led or unguided travelers. Tremendous pressure has been forced after areas like Angkor Wat, Luang Prabang or Halong Bay the growing amount of tourists and the overall growth in Travel and leisure. International agencies like the World Tourism Corporation have forecasted that tourism figures will continue steadily to rise over the next 10 years, predominantly so for the continent of Asia. Such growths in visitor amounts worsens existing problems at World Heritage sites which include vandalism, insufficient awareness of ethnical and heritage significance of sites, congestion and vacation spot and cultural commodification. As global travel and leisure increasingly interface with history sites, the pressures of meeting obstacles could be more pronounced. As well as the negative effects of unguided mass tourism at traditions sites, a growth in niche social tourism also prompts the necessity for the training of cultural history specialist courses for World Heritage sites. The development of such niche sets of culturally-sensitive and learning-seeking holidaymakers is constituted within the broader improvements of what has been termed by travel and leisure academics as "special interest travel and leisure" and the diversification of the travel and leisure market. However, the introduction of niche cultural tourism is hampered by the widespread lack of ethnical heritage specialist courses in Asia-Pacific. Inside the APETIT meeting in 2002, the training of professional tutorials was highlighted by UNESCAP and UNESCO as key to improvements in the travel and leisure system and industry.
We use the word digitization to refer to the procedure of switching physical resources or information into a digital format (Digitization, 2007). Quite simply, digitizing means simply recording an analog signal in digital form. Photos taken with a digital camera, or data accumulated by an electric measuring device are automatically changed into digital form. However, text and images that are in a tangible form can be digitized with a scanner (Ibid). When checking text messages or images, an optical figure recognition program, also known as OCR, "analyzes a text image for light and dark areas in order to identify each alphabetic notice or numeric digit, and converts each figure into an ASCII code" (Ibid). Audio and videos can also be digitized by a process in which an analog transmission is improved, without changing its essential content, into an electronic signal (Ibid). The procedure of sampling steps the amplitude, or signal strength, of any analog waveform at consistently spaced time markers (Ibid). It also signifies the examples as numerical beliefs for input as digital data (Digitization, 2007). Objects and sites on the other palm require a more complicated process. A 3D scanning device is useful to analyze an thing or environment. The 3D scanner creates a point of cloud of geometric examples on the surface of the object or site and these tips can then be used to digitally reconstruct the thing or site (3D Scanning device, 2010). Digitized resources can be easily shared through digital devices, equipment, and networks. Despite its many advantages, digital resources still need special care and preservation as they may become obsolete. Therefore, everything must be digitized at the best quality and migrated to the latest storage area and platforms.
Digitization associated with an object by using a 3D Scanner (Scribe It, n. d. )
Cultural History should be digitized for the next reasons:
Preservation of Tangible Cultural Heritage
Digitization can help maintain tangible cultural history including things and complexes. All items and the valuable information they contain will be accessible without jeopardizing their integrity by controlling or by exposure to the elements. For example, the Stonehenge in the uk is using technical interpretation to conserve the heritage site. Brian Bathroom state governments in his publication "The Use of New Technology in the Interpretation of Historical Panoramas" (2006) that a massive quantity of visitors wanted to see every position of the Stonehenge if the same number of visitors came to the site constantly it would "a threat open surface archaeology and also to the covered lichens on the rock surfaces at ground level". Bathtub (2006) also added that it was hard interpreting the website without explaining the conservation process as well. People wished to see everything but what they didn't understand was the result they might have on the webpage. The solution because of this matter was technology. Various varieties of Medias like CDs with 3 models and web-based exclusive museums were developed in response to assist holidaymakers understand about the conservation and interpretation of the website.
3D/ Virtual Reconstruction of Stonehenge
A lot of men and women can't happen to be museums or real sites every time they want and even if indeed they could, space constraints imposed on museums would only permit them to see a little ratio of available collections. Therefore, digitizing cultural heritage greatly enhances public access. Furthermore, it also increases the work of scholars and researchers worldwide, and starts new opportunities to educators in every environment. Often, objects reside in multiple places even if they are related. Thus, digitizing entire collections allows museums to assimilate their resources, so that it is easy for scholars working externally to see instantly their complexity and degree of holdings in a given area. Furthermore, digitization also allows museums to share their resources more broadly by integrating collections which have been segregated by location across many cultural heritage institutions and research centers. And lastly, digitized materials also help museums reach underserved audiences, as well as those not encouraged to see museums as a source of information. For instance, twenty years before, students had to travel to Washington, D. C. to research in the Catalogue of Congress and it was an expensive matter. Now, high school students from throughout the world have instant access. In 2003, the Collection of Congress reported that about 15 million people stopped at American Memory. That is more than the quantity of people who have proved helpful in the library's reading rooms within the last 200 years and 1, 500 times the number who annually use the manuscript reading room (Cohen & Rosenzweig, 2006).
Digitization allows usage of historical resources that are inaccessible for their fragility (Cohen & Rosenzweig, 2006). For example, the original 1791 arrange for metropolis Washington is so deteriorated and brittle the Library of Congress will not allow researchers to look at it (Cohen & Rosenzweig, 2006). But now anyone can view the digital backup on the library's website. Not all Collection of Congress documents are quite this delicate, but like a great many other sources, they can not be browsed easily in analog form.
L'Enfant's Original City Plan of Washington 1791 L'Enfant's Modified City Plan of Washington 1792
Another advantage of digitizing cultural history is the fact that it supports education. Digitization impacts learning in classrooms and everywhere you go learning takes place. Studies of cultural heritage can come alive with access immediately to images, sound files and text message extracts. People will be able to experience things not normally possible in a museum, e. g. exploring the within of an area shuttle in 3D. Furthermore, teachers working with ethnical heritage can work together virtually with followers and cultivate message boards for exploring issues in more depth and from differing perspectives. Lifelong learners will be able to guide their own learning with help from museums' digitized selections. Overall, digitization will give public usage of a much greater ratio of museum's tremendous resources, providing better tools with which to spark learning. Brian Shower (2006) stated that the Museum of London set-up a web-based exclusive museum and 40 percent of the people who visited the site including students actually emerged to the museum. As you can see, some people and also require never had curiosity about heading were appealed.
Enhances Museums' Competitiveness
Digitization can boost museums' competitiveness by improving guests' experience. A study was completed by the SITI Research Center of the Queen Margaret University School (Reino, S. , Mitsche, N. & Frew, A. , 2007) in the UK by evaluating live interpretation and traditional interpretation at 2 sites, that have been Beamish and the Bowes. The effect was that ICT better competitiveness of history sites by boosting learning, entertainment and visitor's experience. Beamish which used technology for interpretation experienced typically 4% better effects in each category.
Ease of Access for Researchers
In days gone by, analysts and scholars had to endure the comprehensive process of buying up bins of items in order to find what these were looking for. Sometimes experts or scholars could not study the archival documents (e. g. , wine glass plate and film negatives) without the last conversions into readable or viewable mass media like prints. On the other hand digitization allows fast and simple browsing of large series of materials.
Digitization will help enrich context of cultural traditions because everything relevant to an thing including details, information, and other interpretative data can be distributed. This will permit a richer connections and boost user's knowledge of an subject or site's framework and meaning. Furthermore, digitization will enable allows experts to compare artifacts and specimens against those of the digitized museum, significantly increasing information about these holdings at a larger rate remotely. Similarly important, it allows people across the world to add additional impressions, organizations, and reports to the everlasting record. (Will add an example)
Digitization allows infinite reach. It helps people get multi-media resources from knowledge centers, programs, and museums. Drawn resources could be mixed in a manner that it could travel an audience back in time. An audience could potentially observe how Thai people were living 300 years ago, or witness fights. Alternatively, digitization may possibly also let people experience the present as researchers do. For example, an audience could be being able to access data from Bangkok and could be in the Arctic the next minute studying ice. And last but not least, people could quite possibly travel nearly through space, with a view so clear, making them feel as though they could touch the celebrities off their armchair. As aforementioned, with digital property, people would truly have infinite reach.
Problems with Digitizing Cultural Heritage (Has to be explained in more detail and more good examples)
Three major problems impede the utilization of digital technology from being truly a major tool in preserving cultural traditions. The first one is the extensive amount of money needed for the scanning process, the second some may be the quick obsolescence of hardware and software, and the 3rd is the need for standardization of tools and interfaces. As a result, the task done in this area is mostly on a pilot basis, where analysts study the various areas of certain content, build and experiment with modest projects, issue on expectations and build coordinating systems.
The origins of history interpretation date back to the aftermath of the creation of the first natural parks by the end of the 19th hundred years in america. However, it had not been until 1957, with publication by Freeman Tilden's 'Interpreting our Traditions' that the building blocks of the self-discipline were established.
Although in the first days this interpretation was essentially