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The record of French Counter-top Terrorism model


France has already established an extended and varied history of coping with terrorism because the end of the Second World War; this is mainly designated by the traumatic period of the 1960's. Following a French government's decision to depart Algeria, it was confronted with a coup installed by elements from the France Army Parachute items and the Foreign Legion, who took control of infrastructure in Algeria but were not able to join Paris to start to see the coup through in 1961.

France encountered further unrest with the pupil violence of 1968, where there is a real possibility of the federal government being overthrown by violent unrest, this resulted in a massive armed forces presence being deployed in the cities alongside the authorities and Gendarmerie to contain and curtail the violence.

In the 1970's France had a quieter time than other Western european nations, with the major terrorist occurrence being the1975 hostage consuming Orly international airport, Paris that resulted in French specialists providing the Arab terrorists liable with a planes to take flight to safety to Baghdad, Iraq. (1)

However the 1980's proved to be much more violent and deadlier, in the first part of the 1980's these attacks ranged from the attempted assassination of members of the former Shah of Iran's routine, synagogue bombings, and the July 23rd 1983 suitcase bomb at Orly Airport, Paris where 8 individuals were killed and 55 wounded. (2)

The second 1 / 2 of the 1980's saw a much more concerted campaign of assault which began in 1985, with a 10 month bombing advertising campaign targeting post office buildings, restaurants, subways, trains and shopping malls in a manner that would be used years later by Islamic terrorists to lethal effect. (3)

On 19th September 1989, a French air travel UTA was blown up in mid air over Niger killing 170 people. (4)

During the 1980's France pursued an insurance plan of almost ignorance to terrorism quite similar because so many other countries in Europe, whereby they turned a blind vision to terrorists passing through France or basing themselves in France so long as France had not been attacked. While at the same time dealing with home grown up terrorist disorders from the FNLC, "Front National Liberation Corse", ETA "Euskadi Ta Askatasuna", Corsican and Basque separatists respectively and Action Directe, a left-wing immediate action group, there was no intellect led effort or the one that used a modern counter terrorist method it was just a circumstance of using Law enforcement detectives as a sledgehammer to split a nut.

The 1990's designated the period of time when France started to shift its view on terrorism and the response it could take to it, this was prompted by the situation in Frances former colony of Algeria. Algeria was experiencing an epidemic of terrorism with the civil conflict between the GIA, "Groupe Islamique Arme" and the Algerian government forces.

The GIA, made the decision to increase the warfare onto French garden soil to involve the 4 million Muslims who are in France, many of whom are of Algerian source and also to warn France for its support for the Algerian routine.

This took the proper execution of hijacking an Air France airliner on 24th of December 1994, the airliner was stormed by the GIGN, French Gendarmerie intervention product at Marseille airport leading to the deaths of all terrorists included and the successful rescue of all the hostages aside from 3 executed prior to the storming of the airplane. (5)

This was France's wakeup call, that it was now at the fore forward of a conflict whether it liked it or not and this it would stay a target and would need to dramatically change the way it handled terrorism to protect itself.

The GIA, then proceeded to launch a bombing plan against France, it commenced with a gas container bomb at the St-Michel train station on the Paris regional rail collection on July 25th 1995, eradicating 8 and wounding 80. This campaign continued with bombs at the Arc de Triomphe, Lyon rail lines, Paris city centre squares, Jewish college in Lyon, and additional gas bottle bombs on the Paris metro lines. (6)

The effects of these attacks resulted in the establishing and refining of the French Counter Terrorism Strategy.

Following the events of the 9th Sept 2001 disorders on the twin towers, counter-top terrorism became a priority for the French government

Counter Terrorism Strategy

France made the concentrate of its counter terrorism strategy, Prevention, with the next features creating the prevention hurdle.

Information, the gathering of information on suspects, organizations, and formulating plans to get ready for interacting with potential terrorist incidents and terrorists

Intelligence, identifying people and groups involved in preparing serves of terrorism, gathering of research to enable an effective arrest and prosecution

Infiltration, getting into the groups responsible to recognize all persons included and the full amount of the strategies made, and also to disrupt activities across France, setting up a climate of dread for all teams planning acts of terrorism on French land.

All these items would then come together to create the pre-emptive and preventative barrier to terrorist disorders in France.

This strategy was one where in theory it would prevent terrorist episodes from being devoted and where whole terrorist groupings could be dismantled and delivered to jail, as well as being the one that would provide to make terrorists think twice before seeking to commit functions of terrorism within France.

It has made terrorism an function of crime committed by criminals, instead of a conflict on terror waged by unlawful combatants as the United States has done. This has empowered it to bring the full weight of the judicial system, talk about security equipment and law enforcement groups to leading as well as being in a position to enact new regulations and statutes without them being considered as against the values and rights of French individuals.

In 1984 and 1986, following terrorist attacks on French soil of the 1980's the French government shaped two new organizations.

8th October 1984 UCLAT "Unite de Coordination de la Lutte anti Terroriste", was made it falls under the general directorate of the Police Nationale, it was incurred with;

Coordination of most groups involved with counter terrorism businesses from the France Condition, to ensure that intelligence was shared, information pooled and everything agencies could actually bring their full collective weight behind combating terrorism

Conducting procedures, UCLAT would end up being the controlling organization for those businesses, so that regardless of how small or large the unit at the fore entry of the procedure was it might be afforded the full support and control of UCLAT. This was to enable and ensure that investigations could be conducted completely and obligations complied with and most importantly terrorist attacks averted.

Guidance, UCLAT became the unit responsible for setting up and issuing regulations and home elevators the manner of counter terrorism procedures. This enabled all organizations engaged to use on common floor, so that would follow the same standard techniques, and be able to operate alongside one another and go away investigations along to the other person without disruption. (7)

To work hand and hand with the UCLAT, the other corporation produced in 1986 was a special unit of the judiciary the SCLAT "Service pour Coordination de la Lutte Anti Terroriste" (8).

Under the SCLAT, a portion of the14th Arrondisment Trial Court docket of Paris would have sole responsibility for terrorism offences; this would prevent reprisals against judges and also ensure that the judges could have a knowledge bottom part and potential unrivalled in virtually any other court docket in France they can be found from the first stages of a study with the judges looking at the reality and ordering monitoring, phone interception and arrests, this means that the operations are conducted to the judges technical specs to ensure situations are prosecuted efficiently. In addition, it means that in case of major terrorism circumstances the prosecution itself is rock solid as the whole process has been advised and helped by the specialist judges right away. That is in an identical vein to the American status and district prosecutors who assist authorities investigations from the start, however while they cover a wide spectrum of unlawful law, the French SCLAT judges could have an expert knowledge of terrorism becoming specialists themselves in the same ways as the intelligence services that could prevent opportunities being missed to prosecute terrorists and to prevent incidents such as the Guildford and Birmingham miscarriages of justice, whilst guaranteeing terrorists no subject how small or on the fringes would be handled as such. They would also divide politics from prosecution, in a country such as France which has veered from still left to right, has powerful communist functions and way right gatherings it was vital to ensure terrorism getting used as a political tool.

Another unique area of the SCLAT process and the particular trial court docket of Paris was that terrorism tests would not be studies by jury but trials by experts. Seven judges would preside above the circumstance with one presiding as chief executive and six as assessors; this is not a do it again of armed service tribunals of the Algeria battle, or of the Uk Dip lock courts of North Ireland. But acknowledgement that in Frances strategy the techniques of investigation into a terrorism circumstance were far beyond a jury of peers and required to be kept key.

This has been argued that it's against the worth and morals of Human being Protection under the law, but France is convinced it to be the best method of guarding the Human Protection under the law of its individuals against individuals.

In similar vein to the British elimination of Terrorism regulations and statutes, the French enacted their own Article 706 in 1986, these long Police powers and punishments for those convicted of engagement in terrorism offences, these powers included:

Extension of detention boundaries with demand from 48 hours to 96 time.

Increased searches

Increased powers for police personal information checks

No access to a lawyer for 72 hours

No disclosure of arrest to third celebrations for duration of custody

Increase of the utmost phrase for terrorism to 30 years and criminal conspiracy to commit terrorism to 10 years (9)

A further law was unveiled in 1996 Article 647; this created an offence of "Association de malfaiteurs en connection avec une venture terroriste"- Criminal relationship with regards to a terrorist undertaking. (10)

This law gave the French unrivaled power to arrest, demand and convict those on the fringes of terrorism, those where there is inadequate evidence for a more serious charge and also those beginning to enter terrorism before they commit serious offences.

This has been the most widely used laws in the French counter terrorism arsenal, it was made to offer with the singularly French problem in terrorism, that of Algerian nationals in France committing terrorist works for the GIA.

France also modified the "Vigipirate" plan in 1995, 2000 and 2004; Vigipirate is the French Country wide Security alert system made to implement safeguards to protect the public and offer them with a caution as to the threat encountered by them of an terrorist assault.

It is divided into 2 systems the amount of threats marked by different shades, and the region the threat is situated.

The colour codes are;

White- No threat

Yellow-Imprecise menace (Increased vigilance)

Orange-Plausible menace ( Reduced public activities, increased police presence in delicate areas)

Red-Proven hazard (Physical security of public establishments, rescue and response organisations on standby, Military patrols supplementing Law enforcement)

Crimson-Imminent risk (Closure of general public areas as needed, intervention units on standby, Crisis measures brought into force, opportunity of condition of emergency) (11)

The areas of risk are;

Piraterre- Land attack

Piratair- Air attack

Piratmer- Sea attack

Piratome- Nuclear attack

Piratox- Chemical attack (12)

The French general public are long used to the sight of armed law enforcement officials and troops on the street and this not considered an infringement on civil liberties, as with the British menace levels, bins are removed from stations and replaced with look out of bags, random inspections are put in place and control points established.

French Intellect Organisation


Intelligence gathering is by the following units;

Ministry of Defence

DGSE-Central Directorate for Exterior Security, the French exterior Intelligence agency comparable to MI6

DRM- Directorate Armed service Intelligence, organizations the three branches of armed service intelligence together

DPSD-Defence Safeguard and Security Directorate, responsible for the coverage of personnel, equipment and materials of the ministry

Ministry of the Interior

DCRI-Central Course of internal Brains, French domestic intellect agency French equivalent of MI5

SDIG-Division of General Information, in charge of public security, urban violence, people disorder

DGGN-Gendarmerie Country wide, paramilitary Police gathering of brains by police methods in rural areas and abroad territories

DRRP-Intelligence Way of the Paris Police Headquarters, in charge of the gathering of cleverness and policing procedures in counter terrorism, this can be considered the equivalent of the Metropolitan Police's Anti Terrorism command

Ministry of Budget

DNRED-National Customs Intellect and Investigations Directorate, responsible for gathering of brains from persons coming into the united states and through ports and airports, the equivalent of Her Majesty's Earnings and Customs intellect unit

TRACFIN-Financial intelligence Analysis and Money Laundering Investigations, in charge of gathering intellect from financial orders, money laundering, fraud and performing financial investigations on terrorism investigations

From these companies the intelligence is gathered, examined and processed, the authorities fulfil the role of road level intelligence collation from information directed at officers in the pub, and from general discoveries throughout law enforcement. That is parallel to the Gendarmerie performing the same role in their areas of responsibility, cleverness and information is approved up to the DRRP, who fulfil the role of over watch for the police and DGGN for the Gendarmerie and who pass on areas for analysis and monitoring to the Police from other businesses, and collate the information from the police and Gendarmerie and go away this on to the National Intelligence Council. The DGSE and companies under the control of the ministry of Defence spread cleverness gleaned from beyond France to be acted on by local agencies, and to formulate programs and actions in the counter terrorism strategy. In the same way these agencies pass on to friendly overseas agencies intelligence from inside France.

The DCRI fulfils the role of home over watch discovering targets for security, cultivating informers and putting of providers inside suspected terrorist groupings, liaising and working the police and Gendarmerie on joint procedures.

France has an advantage and a disadvantage in that it contains a large inhabitants of Maghrebian Muslims; this is actually the area where France has suffered recently from the overspill of the Algerian GIA terror.

Alongside part these The DNRED similarly gathers intellect from persons stepping into France that it can pass these details on for further action, and also to prevent those considered undesired from going into France. That is a primary part of French anti terrorism legislation enabling removing those considered undesirable to the physical condition of the French country, they could do this in a much easier manner than the British authorities, with the People from france being less concerned with Human protection under the law of suspected terrorists

With the TRACFIN, operating to recognize suspected terrorist finances, and moving on dubious details to allow fellow agencies to increase operations.

The National Intelligence Council fulfils the role of the COBRA committee in the united kingdom assessing the risk, and with the UCLAT modifying the Vigipirate level appropriately, and setting up priorities for activities.

To show this further an example of intelligence being shared, managed and exceeded downward from another source, would focus on the DGSE being up to date by an agreeable agency of suspected terrorists stepping into France, this information would be handed via the NIC to the DCRI for auctioning and also to the DNRED, to start investigations on the if the suspects had moved into the united states.

On creating that they had these details is then transferred out onto the DGGN and DRRP, so that security can be commenced in conjunction with the DCRI, on identifying other users of the cell, details are exceeded for actions to the TRACFIN to establish financial information of life on the suspects. Cleverness then flows back again from these groupings to form a total profile to be passed to the NIC, to then be acted on prevent an strike occurring.

The exact same would arise if the original information was compiled by the TRACFIN, it could then be exceeded onto the other businesses for functioning on to complete a profile, forming a spider's web of information passing to one another to do something on or having been acted on, that fills in each piece of the jigsaw.


In this section you will:

Evaluate the potency of the counter terrorism strategy, plans and policies

Identify elements or areas that have not been dealt with by the strategy or strategies within the strategy

[40 per cent markings have been accorded to this section. ]

Key in your content material here.

Effectiveness of the France Counter-top Terrorism Strategy

France has been considered the most effective example of Counter Terrorism doing his thing; this has been because of its success in working with ETA, and the GIA skin cells functioning within France. The British had proved themselves extremely adept at dealing with the problems posed by the IRA, in the same way as the French and Spanish did with ETA, but these were single issue terrorist teams and the world of terrorism got changed.

This was due to France facing Islamic extremist terrorism a great deal earlier than other countries, and there being little else to compare against when post 9/11 countries looked to protect themselves from Islamic extremism.

However it's important to understand the fact that France has several features that are unique to it exclusively, when comparing it to other nation's performance in countering terrorism.

The threats confronted by France all fell within single concern to a greater degree, ETA pressing for Basque independence, FLNC for Corsican independence, and GIA and its Algerian Islamic off shoots pressing for the Islamification of Algeria. However since 9/11, France has been faced with the Global Salafi Jihad danger and it must be known that there have been no successful large terrorist disorders by Salfi terrorists in France.

ETA and the FLNC

ETA and the FLNC are both sole issue groups and also have been treated similarly, with a blend of using limited diplomacy with the Corsicans to determine body works for getting rid of them of the platform for violence, mass arrests and high lighting of the fact that they have transferred similarly to the IRA into organised criminal offenses and racketeering. ETA has been very effectively damaged by working with the Spanish government bodies, who have engaged ETA in politics talks as the French have stepped up arrests and surveillance on its participants cutting the top of its command and forcing the group to be unstable and cause infighting.

Both groupings have experienced as well from the fact that in the modern age it is rather hard for american single issue terror groups to use given the level of documentation and monitoring that we gather in daily life. Both teams have been targeted in quite similar way as the British did with the IRA in Northern Ireland.

Islamic terror

The performance can be judged by its capability in determining the risks posed to it, preventing those risks, and in guaranteeing the effective rule of rules.

Identification of threats

The France were the first to understand and take significantly the risk posed by its people becoming terrorists and this of radical Islamists within Muslim communities posed.

France has since the end of the Second World War imposed a policy of required assimilation on its immigrant community as opposed to the British isles system of multi culturalism. It has led to the French developing a wider knowledge and view of its Muslim human population, and to be able to penetrate the wall space of silence which may have been detected within parts of the United kingdom Muslim communities as it pertains to showing information with the security services.

This in addition has led to a considerable range of Muslims portion in the French law enforcement officials and security services; it has provided it with unrivalled access to raw human intellect from the city most vulnerable to Islamic terrorism, the Muslim community itself, this is something other countries have found difficult to emulate. France has used this to great effect, it discovered at the cheapest level that terrorists from the GIA used petty criminal offenses to fund their serves of terrorism and by focusing on those neighborhood level terrorists it was able to identify and follow those further in the line. Similarly with the gang Roubaix, the police utilizing the counter terrorism model could actually establish that this was not a simple case of multiple armed robberies but was the means where a terrorist group was acquiring cash to stage problems. (14)

France was also the first country to identify the threat posed by radical imams arriving and preaching at mosques within France, to the end it sustains a policy of observing what occurs inside the mosques and maintaining watch over the sermons supplied by the imams. It observed that in the vast majority of cases, imams acquired arrived from in foreign countries and begun the procedure of radicalising a fractured community. To this end it proven as the best policy, one of removing radical imams from France once recognized and in refusing entrance to people it considers radical, by the 7th of January 2010 it possessed deported 29 imams on the grounds that he previously "Shown contempt for our society's worth and incited violence". (15)

Again the French recognised that a person of the main ways in avoiding terrorism and in a powerful counter terrorism strategy was to avoid its own citizens from becoming radicalised in the first place. It recognized that a large ratio of its jail people was Mahgrebian, and that this was the population most vulnerable to being radicalised, that convicted terrorists experienced access to a captive audience and they were looked upon with reverence and were in a position to cause great injury. Those non-Muslim typically Western european offenders were also vulnerable either by coercion to participate in the most powerful group, or as a means to make amends for their crimes these people, the French recognised could become the deadliest Terrorists. To safeguard from this in 2008 they founded the "Conseil Francais du Culte Musulman", France Council of the Muslim Beliefs (16), to ensure moderate imams who preached non Salafi or Jihadi Islam would preach inside prisons, and give you a different voice to that of the Jihadi's. Another effort was the "Detenu Particulierement Signale", a special regime where by inmates can be stored in isolation and evaluated regularly to prevent other prisoners being radicalised. (17)

The French also have made large steps into working with the Muslim communities to separate French Islam from exterior and radical interference, and also use and promote the Muslim neighborhoods in order to grow and move forward preventing its customers from moving towards radicalism.

Preventing the threat

The France have been strong professionals of intervening hard to ensure terrorist episodes are prevented and in identifying that in some instances the best information can be gleaned from those in the bottom of the terror pyramid. The particular invasion group from a terror network may be small however the logistics network can be tremendous and entail many small players. Utilizing the conspiracy to commit terrorist serves and the unlawful association in relation to a terrorist starting, they are able to arrest on mass and offer with those who may have had an extremely slight role that in other countries would only draw in a minor word, and deal with them as terrorists. Using this method they could send a message that even if you can be found on the fringes of terrorism you will still attract the full pressure of the state, these minimal players can also end up being the biggest source of further intelligence and can be between the better to become informers. Further supporting in this is the states full use of the opportunity for those imprisoned to become state governments witness against those higher the string, by utilising these along the French have had the opportunity to create a destabilising influence on groups, who do not know if they have been infiltrated, or concerning whether anyone will flip states witness. However this is something that has been found to be impracticable with Salafi terrorists who prefer to fall jointly.

Another tool in the prevention arsenal is one of using security realtors to provoke those engaged to commit a minor offence to permit them to be imprisoned; this is allowed by French legislations if the percentage of this offence is vital to prevent a far more serious offence.

In view of the sustained hazard posed by the Salafi terrorist's the France have established the FIPN, "Force d'intervention de la authorities nationale", a new anti terrorist product regrouping the involvement items of the French police to give a force to cope with any Mumbai style attacks. (18)

Recognising the value of technology in countering terrorism, the People from france were among the first to ensure that agencies involved experienced the means and resources as well as the legal support to monitor messages and seize information on computers, conduct electronic security and wiretaps.

A final mention is for indefinite detention which is a final resort found in France to detain those against they cannot provide an offence or conviction but who are too dangerous to be allowed to stay at liberty.

Effective guideline of Law

France has enacted since the 1980's various regulations to permit it to prevent and deal with terrorism to its fullest degree, other countries have looked at these laws as being excessive and unlike human rights. However in France the vast majority of the general public have been happy to surrender some methods of freedom to offer greater protection against terror attacks. These laws never have been introduced quickly in the after mathematics of a major terrorist attack, but have been created gradually in line with the ever changing terrorism threats

It has accepted that to have the ability to effectively counter the terrorism threat it needs a superior system of dealing with it, by coordinating all the agencies responsible for protecting against and looking into terrorist attacks. Establishing dedicated judges to deal with the arising investigations and prosecutions, it includes set in place a multi layered company that can methodically and intelligently build a case preventing an attack somewhat than rush in attempt to deal with a predicament ad hoc.

It has benefitted from having over 20 years to refine this system and fine tune it, where most countries are still in the evolving levels of infancy of counter-top terrorism.

In 2001 and 2003, 2004, it includes again fine tuned its terrorism laws and regulations to grant increased powers to the authorities to have the ability to stop and search vehicles and folks, anonymous witness presentations.

The French have also long used methods that could have been viewed in the united kingdom as being incompatible with human being rights, surveillance within mosques being a essential tool in struggling radicalisation, that the People from france have justified by its parting of religious beliefs from the state of hawaii.

It has fine tuned regulations so that it can bring its full drive after those it suspects of planning or committing terrorist serves against it, whilst informing the general public of the danger it encounters and of the need for these laws to maintain place.


The French system has been applied and has been effective because of the fact that most its terrorism has been unique to France. Almost all the People from france Muslim people is from Algeria, and has existed in France since before the self-reliance of Algeria, this in conjunction with the French system of required integration recommended that the French already acquired a vast understanding of these teams, and a big experience in working with these areas. It remains to be observed how it will fare when working with dangers from groups beyond the Magrehbian community.

The French system is geared towards dealing with bigger groups of terrorists, where we have seen now a shift towards really small categories planning and executing these operations together, or with reduced outdoors support. Mass arrests and focusing on of small level members in these activities are of no use.

The opportunity of the counter terror strategy has been around prevention from local terrorism, but with France part of mainland European countries and home to a large community of folks who can enter and remain typically unmonitored as part of the asylum seeking community it remains to be seen how France can adapt to counter these folks who enter without papers, no settings and float around almost unobserved.

France hasn't yet experienced a major terrorist attack presenting suicide bombers, the framework work of the counter-top terrorism strategy is to avoid and deter problems, how well this technique works in the aftermath of a sizable and devastating strike remains to be seen.

The "Chalabi", network raids in 1998 revealed that mass arrests can have little impact, 138 individuals were attempted for terrorism offences 83 were eventually convicted, and nothing received a phrase of more than 8 years, 2 other networks in Lyon and Lille were completely overlooked in the mass arrests which led to an additional bombing advertising campaign. (20)

Finally the complete counter-top terrorism strategy has been criticised by real human rights solicitors, campaigners and groups, if France was to land foul of the European court of human being rights it would have to massively adapt and change almost all its counter terrorism defence.


France has definitely established an efficient counter terrorism strategy in dealing with the dangers it encounters, and in building up a counter-top terrorism plan for facing Islamic terrorism. It has additionally benefited from the romantic relationships it maintains using its former colonies many of whom are actually on the front type of terrorism, Mauritania, Lebanon, Niger, horn of Africa and from countries it conducts major business with Yemen, this has trained with unprecedented access to home elevators people and communities while it began with these countries.

Relationships have been improved upon and built up with other European and international associates to talk about information, and work together as well to be a spouse in the new anti terror organisations that contain been formed to recognise the global dimension of the new terror threats.

It shows that it's capable of tackling the Salafi danger having tackled groupings preparing to attack the Stade de France 1996, the Holiday market in Strasbourg 2000 and the US embassy in Paris 2001. (19)

They have focused on and identified French nationals who have attended Iraq to acquire training and those returning from going to terror training camps in Afghanistan, targeted those involved in Al Qaeda's Western skin cells and Chechen categories based in the Paris region.

It has turned into a older strategy that has improved from over twenty years of exposure to Islamic terrorism, the one which has been specific to the French people and culture, which is a reason why it may not transfer so easily to other countries.

The soft underbelly remains its people and interests overseas, especially with the actual fact that many of France's passions are in extremely volatile locations, terrorist categories have found it simpler to target and kidnap these citizens abroad and assault France's infrastructure where it struggles to deploy its counter terrorism strategy.

Al Qaeda is focusing its efforts in Algeria with Al Qaeda in the Maghreb and with Al Qaeda in Yemen, becoming a major player, it is without doubt that with France's ties to the two it will become a major target

The biggest test will come if so when France faces a big scale terrorist invasion on its garden soil, whether it'll be able to respond to it efficiently using its counter terror strategy, and whether it'll remain able to convince its citizens that methods and laws it includes enacted are in their best interests. With all the banning of Islamic face veils becoming part of French regulation, it is sure Islamic terrorists will be doing their up most to try and launch a significant successful episode in France.

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