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The History And Methods Of Soap Making

Some individuals think it is amusing to make their own soaps at home. Soap making has been a pleasurable hobby to some "soapers", because they are frequently called. Isn't it a terrific way to bond with your kids over the weekend? A lot more than that soap making encourages enjoyment either for pleasure or as an earning potentials just by being creative in your talents.

The wonder of soap making is that you can ensure you get your imagination run wild and produce something unique that is completely based to your own specifications and liking. You can likewise create exceptionally fun gifts for any occasions.

Which are better, handmade soaps or commercial soaps? Why not choose commercially produce soap? Little did we know these commercial soaps are unhealthy to our skin? Normally, we tend to buy soaps that provide the most lather and stronger fragrance which is likely a lot more reason that people shouldn't choose. The lather is really just chemicals that we enjoy rubbing in our skins which may eventually cause dry scaly skin.

Handmade soaps are better than those we buy commercially. Why? Because handmade soap uses only oils from flowers, herbs and spices that bring about the natural aromatherapy gives a soothing effect on our body. They are basically hypoallergenic and safe to work with all over the body even to handle and hair.

If you wish to know more about homemade soaps then read on. Within this book, I'll show you how fun and easy it is to create your own handcrafted exotic designed soaps. Plus, the best factor is to turn your personal hobby into a lucrative business. How do you want a grasp of that splendid opportunity?

Soap's Humble Beginnings

We have been using soap every day in our lives since we were born. But have you ever paused for an instant and wonder how all of this started?

The farthest demonstration I can find that individuals uses soap is from the earlier history which goes back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon. A formula was found written in a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC consisting of water, alkali and cassia oil. Before that there were no records or documentation that the grand baths of kings and queens are soaps, instead they use essential oils.

In 1550 BC Ancient Egyptian were found to bathe regularly in animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salt.

Beginning from the 7th century soap was produced in West Bank, Kufa and Vassra (Iraq). Soaps were already perfumed and colored and come in liquid or solid form at that time. Even soaps for shaving already exist.

In the 8th century, soap making was then a renowned necessity for both man and woman. The recognition was related to Charlemagne who mentioned that soap is one of the useful products. Chemists were the ones who produced the soap made from vegetable oil (olive oil), aromatic oils (thyme oil), and lye (al-Sosa-al-Kawia).

During the 13th century, a manuscript was found to contain soap recipes such as sesame oil, a sprinkle of potash, alkali, plus some lime. Mixed all together and boil. When cooked, they are poured into molds and left to set creating a hard soap.

A local record of the Bristol Company of soap makers were within the year 1562 - 1642 which includes the names greater than 180 individuals including members of the family and those who were take part in trading for the business enterprise. Contained in the record was the production of "Bristol soap" which is a soft type of black soap and "Bristol grey soap" which is the harder type was thought to have been largely supplied in London sold only a cent per pound.

In the 16th century finer soaps are introduced using vegetable oil. With this modern time history, a much better knowledge of hygiene emanated due to the need of reducing population of pathogenic microorganisms.

It was before 17th century that a commercial production was born - a high quality transparent soap product was introduced by Andrew Pears in 1789 in London.

It was then during the late 18th century that soaps were industrially manufactured after promoting awareness for cleanliness and health. In 1862 Andrew Pears son-in-law Thomas J. Barratt opened a factory in Isleworth. Low-priced good quality soap was produced by William Gossage. Soap powder was manufactured by Robert Spear Hudson in 1837 by grinding the soap with mortar and pestle. Up to this day, Unilever is the greatest soap business that was founded by William Hesketh Lever and his brother James who bought a tiny soap works in Warrington in 1885.

It was also in 1806 a certain William Colgate opened the first great soap making concern in New York called "Colgate and Company", They started selling individual soaps of the same size or weights only in 1830. Then in 1872 they introduced the first perfumed soap called cashmere bouquet.

Competition started to manifest when William Proctor and James Gamble opened a new business by selling candles and soaps house to house. They started their business enterprise in Cincinnati, and achieve tremendous success in a few years time and became an enormous manufacturer. They distribute products in large quantities to major cities and in 1879, Proctor and Gamble launched "Ivory Soap" in the Western United States. Another company was born, B. J. Johnson making soap completely from palm and essential olive oil. Their soap gained incredible success that that pave way to renaming their company after palm - that caused the birth of Palmolive.

The emergence of this four major companies transformed soap into a multi-billion dollar industry. The strong of the competition also give rise to the introduction of laundry detergents in the first 1990's. CHAPTER 1

Superstitions and Myths

The Folklore's of Soap

As I tried to check out the Myths of Soap, it made me aghast to determine the several versions with their story. Some say's soaps are produced from human corpses while others say otherwise. Would you believe that? Yuck!!!! Yes, that was my prompt reaction. But it is exactly what it is they state.

This is the story. During World War II, the mass production of soap was originally taken from the Jewish concentration camp victims. However, the Yad Vashem Memorial denied the actual fact that the Nazis didn't produced in higher quantities soap from human corpses. They said that the story was only composed to scare off of the inmates. On the contrary, evidence shows the opportunity that research facilities did developed an activity of soap production from human bodies.

The speculations of "human soap" came about as a result of presumption of the labels RIF found on bars of soap, meaning Reichs-Juden-Fett or translated as the "State Jewish Fat". It had been then explained that in German acronym, "i" and "j" were frequently interchanged, they vary only long. It had been then afterwards corrected. RIF means Reichsstelle fur Industrielle Fettversorgung or National Center for Industrial Fat Provisioning. The RIF is the German government agency who was in-charge of soap and other washing materials in production and distribution. They concluded that RIF soap is a substitute product of low quality and does not contain human fat at all.

This story has been circulating Lubin in October 1942, apparently the German's knew concerning this. Actually a certain chief Heinrich Himmler received a letter stating that Pole's believed the storyplot of the Jewish people being boiled into soap. As the word spread so widely, instilling fear in the minds of Polish population gave them the reason why to boycott the buying of soaps. This prompted Himmler to cremate or bury the bodies immediately.

I thought that was the finish of an gruesome story but there is certainly more. A particular Sigmund Mazur, a laboratory assistant at the Danzig Anatomical Institute testified in the Nuremberg trial. He attested to the fact production of soap was made from the corpse fats at the camp. Way more, he added that 40 bodies can extract 70 to 80 kg of fat and can produce more than 25 kg of soap. Finished products are kept under the hand of Professor Spanner. This time around there can be found witnesses to his statement, they will be the British POW's (the labors that constructed the camp), Dr. Stanislaw Byczkowski (head of the Department of Toxicology at the Gdansk School of Medicine). The holocaust survivor, Thomas Blatt who investigated the topic found just a few concrete documentations and with great frustration found no proof the said experimental soap. Somehow, evidence came up proving that a small scale of experimental soap production did exist.

Mazur even gave a copy of the recipe. Here it is: "5 kilos of human fat, blended with 10 liters of water with 500 or 1000 grams of caustic soda. Boiled altogether for 3 hours and then cooked. The soap will float and the rest of the sediments and water remains at the bottom. A bit of salt and soda is added to this mixture. Then again water is added boiled for another 2 - 3 hours. Allowing it to cold, the cold then is poured into its mold.

There are definitely more other versions of the story like the report made by Alexander Werth that he did actually start to see the experimental factor and saw the parts of the corpses. We likewise have the Alain Resnais who published the testimony of the Holocaust survivor. Acting on the contrary side is the Historian Yisrael Gutman who specifically said that "it was never done over a mass scale". Then it was corrected by the certain Holocaust historian Robert Melvin Spector that the Nazis "did indeed use human fat for the making of soap in limited quantity though.

The veracity of the myth is difficult to resolve, it is up to you the way you want to summarize this part of the story. On my side, I am still overwhelmed with disbelief. What about you, do you rather believe the myth, or not?

CHAPTER 2

Soap Description and Its Composition

Basic elements of soap amaking

http://www. purenaturalsoap. org/basic-elements-soap-making-ingredients. html

CHAPTER 3

Tools You Need

Let's get started doing your soap making venture

Soap making, it isn't as hard as you think it is. Remember to consider your kitchen you will probably find the things you need, if not you can always visit close by stores.

If you aren't a lot of a kitchen person, I presume that you should need to shop first. Funny as it may sound but you do have to go buy the important and basic tools you need before moving further on.

What you need are the following:

Scale (digital or manual) - have a precise scale measuring 1/10th of ounce. This can be used to measure all of your ingredients like oil, lye, fragrance, additives and water.

Safety goggles and rubber gloves - you must wear this through the process to safeguard your eyes and hands from lye solutions and caustic raw soap

Stainless steel pitcher with lid or any heat resistant plastic - this is use for mixing your solution.

Large stainless steel or plastic spoon - definitely for stirring solutions. For smaller soaps (2-3 lbs) you may use a large pyrex pitcher, but also for bigger size you'll need an 8-12 quart stainless steel pot.

Glass or plastic bowl or a pitcher- this is use to hold your liquid oils before increasing the soap pot.

Candy or Meat Thermometer - a precise and quick reading is recommended to monitor the temperature of your solution and melted oils.

Small beakers, ramekins or measuring cups - this is used to hold your fragrance oils, colorants, separated soap and additives before increasing the soap.

Small spoons and whisks - use to blend colorants, fragrance oils, and melted oils.

Large stainless steel or plastic ladle - is utilized to ladle out a little of raw soap to blend colorants.

Stick Blender - blend oils and other mixture and start saponification process.

Soap mold - be creative, you can use any condition of container that are leak-proof. You might use plastic, glass, or stainless steel. Never use aluminum or metal. Plastics are preferable.

Rubber spatulas- used for scraping to employ all mixture leaving nothing to waste.

Paper towels or dish cloths - for wiping spills.

Rags - to catch spills while working

Peeler, scotch tape and knife

CHAPTER 4

Easy Steps of Soap Making

Rule of thumb:

There are various approaches to make soap. The easiest way is to buy pre-mixed or soap making packs that are readily available on the market. The other is to buy individually the ingredients needed along with the useful tools necessary for your soap making operandi. The ingredients and tools you will need for your homemade soap depends of course on the method you choose, we've the melt and pour method, hot or cold process, Rebatching or Milled soap, and the liquid soap.

Soap Making Methods

Melt and Pour Soap Making Method

This is the easiest and most common way to make your own homemade soap. If you're a novice on this undertaking you might choose this method, as the title melt and pour suggest all you need to do is melt a pre-made soap base into a liquid then probably then add extra ingredients and then pour it to your desired mold design. and Presto! You could have your own new specially created homemade soap. Using translucent or opaque glycerin soap for melting is completely favorable to your skin since it consists only of vegetable oils.

Cold Process Method

This is more challenging, an assortment of science and personal touch of artistry is what makes this method uniquely your own style. This technique is the most versatile, enable you to visualize and naturally brings about your creativity. In this way, you are obliged to make your own soap base from scratch through "saponification" which means soap making. What's saponification process? It's the process where oil or fat (tristearin) is treated with sodium hydroxide solution called lye to form soap and glycerine. When chemical reaction starts to occur, other ingredients may now be added of your choice excluding artificial ingredients whatever your preference would be.

Hot Process Method

The hot method process is comparable to the cold process only heat is utilized to increase the saponification process. You may use an oven, a crock pot or perhaps a microwave for the heat application.

This has been an age old utilization in soap making. One disadvantage of the method though, is the issue of removing the finished product from its mold. But it has also its advantageous gain; cure time is greatly reduced thus skipping weeks of waiting and able to use your new soap immediately.

Rebatching or Milled Method

This method involves shredding your own soap creation, melting and adding your specially selected selection of additional ingredients. That is probably the same with melt and pours however, in this method you do not use a pre-made soap to shred.

This method requires that you know the hot and cold method first. You may used this method particularly for your unsuccessful batches, save it and re-melt the soap for your next project.

Proper Steps-by-step Process of

Making Soap

B-1 Preparation Stage

I know you are already intensely excited to learn how to begin your soap making adventure. I want to not hinder your curiosity any more, here's what you should do during the preparation stage.

COLD PROCESS METHOD

Step 1 - PLANNING.

Before starting, ensure that you have everything you need. Plan ahead. It is better when you can spare extra time reading and learning all you need to know before trying to make your own homemade soaps. When you can do that I am confident of your enormous success.

Choosing your perfect location.

An ideal area should be near to the oven, easy access to water, a sizable flat table where you could work and an integral part of the home that is free from distractions. Preferably your own private area, if possible if not then any place that gets the least distraction.

Taking care and protecting your workplace.

Cover your area with vinyl table cloth (optional), upon this way it is simpler that you should wipe and clean your surface and prevent oil leaks running through your table. Vinyl cloths are reusable and affordable that's the reason I highly recommend you utilize the same.

Setting up equipments and ingredients.

Set up all of your soap making supplies according to your working convenience and flow. An operating place you are feeling comfortable and set up in a fashion that works together with you even with your eyes close.

Preparing your soap molds.

You may fall into line your molds in a single place ready with its plastic wrap or butcher paper.

Preparing your insulation area

Lay down a blanket over a warm draft area where you will allow your process soap to cool off every day and night. And for the reason that side, prepare a supplementary piece of butcher's paper to use for within the top of your soap. A Styrofoam or a plywood is also recommended. It will be put on top of the wax paper to regulate the heat through the cooling period and protects the soap from any possible accidents. Rapid heat loss may result to a chalky soap.

Step 2 - Preparing your preferred Additives.

If you are a novice to soap making, I advise you try on with a couple of additives initially. As you have the feel of soap making you can always add more additive techniques.

How to pre-heat your oven.

Oven must be warm and not hot. Meaning it is possible to remove what you place inside with your bare hands - no dependence on mitts!

How to measure additives and essential oils

Measuring your botanicals or colorants in advance and placing them on ramekins encourage a faster and convenient working scenario once you begin making homemade soaps.

You can do it also with your essential oils or rosemary extracts if you work with it and superfatting nutrients and keep them in a tiny sealed jar.

An organized area benefits you with ease and peace of mind which is very helpful to keep your brain focus on what you are doing.

Step 3 - The Proper Way to Measure Base Ingredients.

All steps in making soaps are considered important, but we need to pay extra attention on weighing ingredients with ultimate accuracy. Become acquainted with the weighing scale.

Inaccurate measurement will just waste your time, money and effort. Lye and oil if measured wrongly will tend to get heavy in cold process soap which either you have to rework or dispose of.

How to get ready and measure lye

Measure water and place in a jug.

Get ready and wear your working clothes - wear goggles, gloves, long sleeve clothing and safety equipment before putting your hand on sodium hydroxide.

You may now measure your lye and slowly pour it in to the water and stirring simultaneously until lye crystals are completely dissolved.

Fumes will begin to manifest as you mix the lye solution. What I really do during this time is to carry my breath until lye is dissolve and leave the working area for a few momemts or until fumes disappear.

IMPORTANT: Always add the sodium hydroxide to the water and not the other way around. In the event that you mistakenly mix sodium to water a distressing and violent reaction could occur.

How to measure base oils

Measure each solid oils and stick it into the stainless pot.

Set heat on the medium- low as you keep up to gauge the other ingredients, your solid oil is also gradually melting.

And after the solid oils have melted take away the pot from your heating equipment before putting the other liquid oils and grapefruit seed extract into the pot. (extracts are optional)

Step 4 - THE RIGHT WAY of Mixing Oils and Lye

Mixing oil varies from 5 to 10 minutes or even up to one hour with regards to the ingredients you utilize.

How to combine lye solution and oil mixture.

Slowly pour the lye solution in to the pot of oils by using a whisk for stirring.

Steadily and firmly continue stirring adequately fast enough to keep the mixture in constant motion however, not too fast concerning spill out some of the mixture. Your goal is to get the oil, lye, and water to combine well to help make the soap.

Thoroughly stir the mixture reaching all areas of the pot. The mixture will turn creamy and opaque and then commences to thicken.

How to stir mixture that reaches its trace point.

Continue stirring until reaching a thin trace. At this time we need to maintain a thin trace yet since we still have ingredients to include.

How can you determine trace? What is trace? Trace means the lye-water and your heated oil are well blended and that the mixture will not separate back to its original oils and lye-water. To check your trace, deep a spatula or spoon into your mix then drip it back again to the mix, if it takes another or two to disappear back to the mix then you have the trace right.

Step 5 - Adding Essential Additives of Your Choice and Pouring Soap towards your Mold.

This is where your imagination comes in. Pour in all decorative and unique design soap making ideas at this time.

How to include additives

B-2 How to Determine Temperature

Step 1 - How exactly to check the temperature

(COLD PROCESS)

Lye solutions can be heated or cooled in a hot or cool water bath in the sink.

Oils can be heated on heating elements or cooled in a cold water bath.

Temperatures of oil mixture and lye solution should be at 90 - 95 degrees Fahrenheit or 32 - 35 degrees Celsius.

It may be difficult to get temperatures almost the same but it becomes easier as you develop on getting the feel of that time period frame or how much time you can get lye to cool off.

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