The historical use of drugs medically and recreationally

Drugs have been with us for a large number of years. "A medicine is any chemical that produces a healing or non-therapeutic result in the body (Drugs and Teenager Substance Abuse 2000. )" Most drugs were first used for medicinal purposes, such as marijuana. Active substances were not extracted into drugs before 19th century. Newly discovered substances like morphine, laudanum, and cocaine were completely unregulated and recommended freely by health professionals for a wide variety of ailments. Wounded veterans returned house with their packages of morphine and hypodermic needles (Record of Drug Abuse, n. d. ) The use of against the law drugs is increasing, especially among young teenagers. The discord theory of interpersonal problems claims that, "society is designated by conflict credited to inequalities in school, contest, ethnicity, gender, age, and other divisions that produce conflicting ideas (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 7. )" Solutions to solve communal problems include building better motions in conflicted categories and then possibly engaging in negotiations to reach accommodations. The functionalist approach to social problems, "views culture as a vast organism whose parts are interrelated (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 7. )" Functionalists assume that institutions produce habits of deviance and they must be dealt with through well-calculated sociable reformations. Alternatives include engaging in research and interventions to boost these social institutions. There are lots of ideas between the turmoil and functionalist perspectives about how to solution the wide-spread cultural problem of substance abuse.

Substance abuse can merely be defined as, "a design of hazardous use of any chemicals for mood-altering purposes (What Is DRUG ABUSE, n. d. )" As culture and traditions change, so do the major categories of illegal drugs. The most commonly abused drugs today, in addition to alcohol, are marijuana, cocaine, opiates (including heroin and morphine), hallucinogens, amphetamines, and barbiturates. Some young people are again experimenting with psychedelic drugs like LSD and Ecstasy (Kornblum and Julian, 2004. ) Teenagers use drugs for most reasons including curiosity, because it feels good, to reduce stress, to feel developed or to participate in their peers (Drugs and Teenager DRUG ABUSE 2000. )

Many people view drug abuse and dependency as totally a communal problem. Substance abuse affects society in many ways. At work it is costly in terms of lost work time and inefficiency. More than half the deaths in america involve alcohol, in a few form, such just as homicides and suicides. Drug-related crimes can disrupt the neighborhoods due to violence among drug dealers, threats to residents, and the crimes of the addicts themselves. Also, a great majority of homeless people have either a medication or alcohol problem (NIDA InfoFacts: Understanding SUBSTANCE ABUSE and Craving, 2005. )

Humans have used drugs of 1 type or another for thousands of years. For days gone by last decades, offense and drugs have been called by some, the most crucial problems facing this country. The entire economical cost of drug abuse in america is approximated at about $70 billion annually. In so, America is actually losing money due to use of drugs. Because of many years of studies, it is proven that substance abuse costs the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (known as OECD) countries more than $120 billion per time in medication enforcement, prosecutions, prisons, avoidance programmers, treatment and health care costs, and financial losses incurred from drug-related offences. This is very harmful to the community all together because it also influences many people. In a present research, it was hypothesized that the probability of recent hard drug use would be higher among arrest. They may have a slight disadvantage because of low income, common poverty, high job rate, limited high school graduation, numerous female-headed home, high populace density, and large African-American inhabitants.

The sociological Turmoil Theory holds that we now have higher amounts of chronic drug abusers within lower communal classes, disorganized neighborhoods, and relatively politically powerless places. The disappearance of reasonable paying manual work because the early on 1970's leaves unskilled, uneducated individuals susceptible to poverty. This is when selling drugs, an alternative solution to enduring milling poverty, is a common enough response as the income space had widened. It has increased the assault and criminal offenses rate of population.

The Functionalist Point of view in sociology areas that everyone in the world holds a position and in this position their status has a set of tasks or certain manners that must perform the duties accessible (Kornblum and Julian, 2004. ) The functions consist of nurses at the medical establishments, lawyer's at international organizations or just a blue collar worker at any kind of factory. For the most part, each status' role is involved in an institution of some sort and is necessary for the current economic climate and society to operate all together. "The Functionalist Perspective looks at just how major sociable instructions like the family, military, the health-care system, and the authorities and courts actually operate (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 6. )" This in essence means that for these companies that are needed to fulfill these functions and tasks for the market, the roles and manners of employees need to evolve all together so that the institution can function (Kornblum and Julian, 2004. ) For instance, a nurse needs to know certain reasons for having her job like what medicine can treat a certain sickness or when and where CPR is necessary for a victim or if moving that victim could paralyze that person. Sociologists say that, "when all associates of the group perform their functions properly, the group is said to be functioning well (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 6. )" When contemporary society as a whole is said to be operating as "one" this means that "there may be general agreement about how roles are to be performed and the anticipations are strengthened by the society's basic prices (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 6. )" The primary question that is asked is, "why do we've social problems if each institution has jobs in the population? (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 6) " Many say that the main reason that functionalists imagine we as a society have communal problems is because our society is usually changing and the culture is having to adjust to the changes and when the culture fails than then social problems are present (Kornblum and Julian 2004. ) When a population undergoes changes, for example heading from pre-industrial where the majority of the current economic climate was predicated on agricultural to the commercial age where many poverty stricken' farmers became factory staff but of those personnel do not modify, it is said that such an alteration can result in offense, such as substance abuse. The functionalist sociologist says that, "all societies produce their own form of offense and exactly how they respond to this change (Kornblum and Julian, 2004, 7. )"

In days gone by years we've been fighting a war against drugs. Within the mid 1980's, america adopted some aggressive law enforcement strategies and unlawful justice policies intended for minimizing and punishing drug abuse. Changes in the federal government laws required that all sentenced national offenders were to serve 87 percent of their court-imposed phrase. Many drug offenders are subjected to a mandatory sentence based upon the type and level of the drugs which were involved in their arrest. Based on the Uniform Crime Record, 1, 532, 000 drugs arrests were made in 1999, up from 580, 900 in 1980. Some individuals think the increase in drug arrests is a good indication, but others think it denies drug users what they really need, which is treatment. No one seems to argue about the serious problem with drugs in america. Regarding to a 2002 National Survey on medicine use, 19. 5 million People in america age range 12 and old were current illicit medicine users. 1 in every 13 adults can be an alcoholic. The functionalist view is the fact modern culture has norms and recommendations on alcoholic beverages and drug use. Public norms identify the appropriate use of drugs and alcohol. Prescription drugs are incredibly functional in society because they can relieve pain, reduce fever, and can curb attacks. Even alcohol is accepted in moderation and can be consumed with foods and or celebrations. Sometimes there even health advantages, such as burgandy or merlot wine being good for the heart. Culture provides norms regarding the high use of drugs. Drug abuse can also take place when society is unable to provide rules for our behavior. Under certain situations that may be very difficult, people ingest more drugs and alcohol. If people lack norms to control their action they are likely to pursue self-destructive conducts like alcohol and drug abuse.

Drug misuse is one of the biggest issues in communal problems. Many of the people who take drugs face a lot of problems. There are lots of similarities and dissimilarities between your functionalist view and turmoil view pertaining to substance abuse theory. From a functionalist perspective, drug abuse influences almost everyone inside our society, immediately or indirectly. Seventy million adult People in the usa have used against the law drugs at some time in their lives. The out result from this implies that 450, 000 People in america perish from smoking every year. When one particular misuse drugs, they get addicted to it and they tend to abuse it more. Cravings is uncontrollable and plenty of people face the bad repercussions; for example, losing their job, family, friends, health insurance and their wealth. Getting addicted to drugs gets worse because the data implies that, "97% of drug addicts never see treatment (NIDA InfoFacts: Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction, 2005. )" Research has disclosed how substance abuse causes both short-term and long-term changes in brain function. These long-term brain changes are noticeable to researchers who can easily see the proceedings in the brain with new scanning techniques. These changes make it nearly impossible for someone dependent on drugs to avoid using them on their own; they have to get treatment. In the conflict aspect, it shows that, "95 percent of untreated addicts die of these addiction (NIDA InfoFacts: Understanding Drug Abuse and Obsession, 2005. )" There is a parting of classes plus some of people in society feel that making people give up using drugs is their own business; they don't have any concern for it. Some of the healthcare programs which may have developed for people who wish to stop drugs show that, "for each dollar spent on habit treatment, seven us dollars are saved in costs to population in healthcare and criminal activity (NIDA InfoFacts: Understanding Drug Abuse and Craving, 2005. )" Organizations are also intended to help people who wish to quit. The Country wide Institution of Drug Abuse (NIDA) pressured that researchers show that there are no effective treatments that will help people stop their craving and prevent them from using it again. In essence, the conflict perspective views substance abuse as a issue of the classes, distinctly separated due to monetary standing.

There a wide range of functions that are performed in the functionalist prospective, which includes lead to some of the results on the conflict aspect of substance abuse. For example, the federal government plays a huge role in why their country's population is within high or low percentage of using drug. Some countries like america strictly control the use of drugs by restricting access more and offering strict punishment, unlike Afghanistan, Columbia or a few of the other countries. Most likely the federal government in these countries can not work hard upon this issue because they're making income off it or a few of the top politicians are involved in it. In Afghanistan the federal government said that "no matter what we make an effort to do to stop it, but it cannot be cured because drugs expand in almost 99% of the Afghanistan. " Countries like these can only just make an effort to lower drug creation and abuse to a certain point, but not as low as the United States has reduces the trafficking and use of drugs. Parents play the main role of most. In some ways, they are really responsible for why their child is on drugs, or they make it clear that medication use is undesirable and harmful. For instance, some of the parents do not value their children and will have a negative response toward their children. This becomes demanding for the kids plus they start abusing drugs, thinking that it relives them but instead it creates the problems worse. They start abusing more drugs and conclude in a very deep problem. Alternatively, some do mot even take the time for taking the drugs because their parents inform you to them that medication use is never fine. In a recently available study it demonstrates medicine use is high among people who live in high degree of structural disadvantage, individuals who are less informed, low income, common poverty, high unemployment, high society density, low balance, and large BLACK population, which is why for a few of the people using drugs is not really a bad choice to them but it is nearly like their drugs to remedy their social position.

Some of folks think that alcohol consumption is not taking a drug. It can be a medication if some is dependent on it. Data demonstrates, "50 percent of the traffic deaths are alcohol related. " Young adults have the best percentage of sipping age in the USA because teenagers have a tendency to drink much more than the people who are older than thirty. This is all because teens are more extreme, more imitating, more macho, and have some parents or good friends who are prepared to buy alcohol for these people. Many teenagers believe alcohol and medication use is safe and are unaware of the consequences to abnormal use. The common 18 years old has seen 100, 000 tv set commercials encouraging them him of her to drink. Based on the NIDA, that is why 90% of senior high school seniors have tried out alcoholic beverages, 53% gets drunk at least once a month, 43% smoke marijuana, and about 1 / 3 are smoking. From the conflict perspective, a teenager who loses everything early on in life or never had much to get started with, tends to drink or misuse more alcohol simply because they just think that it is helping them to neglect everything. That causes more problems and these children conclude committing crimes and possibly could conclude in jail. Based on the discord theory, people beyond this social course and situation are unwilling to help assimilate these individuals back into society. Some people don't understand that because of their addiction, normally it takes them to the stage where nobody can help them. Today there are about 190 million medicine users all over the world, all of whom need help fighting their addiction. The way to help them, however, can vary between the issue and functionalist perspectives.

In conclusion, substance abuse presents a widespread issue in the current society. The discord theory of sociology claims that society functions so that all individual participant and its group struggles to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to communal change (such as changes in politics and revolutions. ) This theory tries to refute the functionalist point of view of interpersonal problems, which considers that societies function so that every specific and group performs a specific role, like organs in the torso. A issue theorist indicate solving the challenge of drug abuse by accommodating the needs of individuals in the classes suffering from medication use and educating them on the effects of drugs. The functionalist theorist, on the other hand, would suggest becoming more positively included by reforming organizations all together and assisting to redefine the abusers' assignments in society. Substance abuse is an extremely prevalent problem in the United States today and sociological theories provide for numerous solutions.

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