We accept

The Historical Development of Tort Legislations in England



Tort rules is a body of rules that addresses and remedies for civil wrongdoings not arising out of contractual obligations. Somebody who suffers legal damage may be able to use tort laws to receive settlement from somebody who is legally accountable, or liable, for those incidents. Generally speaking, tort law identifies what constitutes a legal harm and establishes the circumstances under which one person may be organised responsible for another's harm. Tort rules spans intentional and negligent works. Tort laws has three purposes. The first is to compensate the victim, the second reason is to punish the wrongdoer, and the third is to deter dangerous activities.


The two basic types of torts are

  • Intentional Torts: An intentional tort is a category of torts that represents a civil incorrect caused by an intentional act for the tortfeasor.
  • Negligent Torts: Negligence is failing to exercise the attention that a reasonably wise person would exercise in like circumstances. The region of tort regulation known as negligence includes harm triggered by carelessness, not intentional damage.


Wrongs are of two types

  • Public wrong - These are works that are attempted in Offender Courts and are punishable under the Penal Law and are called crimes
  • Private wrong - They are acts against an individual person or a person within a community and are tried in Civil Courts and are called torts.




Tort is tried out in Civil Courts

Crimes are tried out in Felony Courts

A one who commits Tort is a 'tortfeasor'

A person who commits Crime is a 'Unlawful' or 'Offender'

The cure of tort is unliquidated injuries or other equitable comfort to the injured

The solution is to punish the offender

Tort litigation is compoundable

Criminal cases aren't compoundable except in case there is exceptions according to Section 320 Cr. PC of IPC



1. Tort, is a private wrong, which infringes the right of an individual or specific band of individuals.

2. The individual, who commits tort is named "tort-feasor" or "Wrong doer"

3. The area of trial is Civil Court docket.

4. Tort litigation is compoundable i. e. the plaintiff can withdraw the suit filed by him.

5. Tort is a specie of civil incorrect.

6. Tort is apart from a breach of contract

7. The treatment in tort is unliquidated damage or other equitable relief to the injured.


Torts are of three types:

  • Intentional Torts

Against the Person: Assault, Electric battery, Infliction of mental distress, False imprisonment

Against the Property

  • Negligence
  • Strict Liability


  • Existence of legal duty from defendant to plaintiff
  • Breach of duty
  • Damage as proximate result.


Maritime Tort: a expression that signifies a civil incorrect that is devoted at sea.

Personal Tort: the term applied to the wrong that is perpetrated against someone else.

Property Tort: the term that is utilized when one individual interferes with a person who is enjoying his own property

Quasi Tort: is a legal term that is sometimes used to spell it out unusual tort activities, based on a legal doctrine that some legal responsibility exists which cannot be classified totally as negligence in an individual duty producing a tort nor as a contractual obligation resulting in a breach of agreement, but rather various other kind of responsibility recognizable by regulations.

Willful Tort: an intentional wrong that is dedicated with the desire to harm someone else.


It is actually a civil liability at the present day and is a means where a person wronged recovers compensation from the wrongdoer. The solution for tort is a "debt of justice, the royal courts are being bound to redress wrongs done by one at the mercy of another. The effort is always considered by the individual aggrieved, who may also decide to forego his claim if he wants. No royal pardon could excuse tort responsibility, though it might excuse criminal responsibility so far as this prerogative is not decrease by Action of Parliament. The courts have a wide power to decide whether a wrong is usually to be cured as a tort or even to be kept unredressed. Many torts are also offences but the two aspects are quite specific, e. g. , causing fatality by careless driving a car. Under the English system, torts and offences are tried out centrally by different courts, but both are attempted at assizes.

Many legal systems clearly distinguish between offences and civil wrongs (our "torts) though both are attempted by the same courts. In a few systems all crimes are automatically also torts when private destruction results. Apart from early confusion between the subject material of tort and offense the main topic of tort has been confounded by its unsystematic growth. The various wrongs that have received a solution are suffering from haphazardly through diverse varieties of action. It is merely lately that certain primary characteristics seem to be established and it is too early yet really to spell it out them as principles applicable to torts generally. Specifically, torts are now classified by reference to the degree of intention or negligence essential to support an action. This is modern and displays a converse movement from that in crime, where the aspect of mens rea in modern crimes will reach a vanishing point.

The law was given in the communal courts it remained formless, and no question the wrongs were of the comparatively simple type. The manorial courts also acquired what might be called a legislation of torts, and here the number was fairly extensive. Many cases were admitted there that could not for a long time be noticed in the common legislations courts; for example, defamation had not been an uncommon plea. Nonetheless it is challenging to state what idea, if any, was behind these wrongs besides that of keeping calmness and good order on the manor. This clear failure to identify a mental element in regulations wrongdoing should not cause wonder. Civilization was very of the modern position of general principles ˜primitive, and much of regulations depended upon custom belonging to pre-Christian times. Greek play shows us how civilized pagans viewed liability without fault as tragic but unavoidable. To ensure that a mental aspect may be an ingredient in law there must also be an enough means for ascertaining its presence; this the archaic treatment of the center Ages using its charm to the supernatural scarcely did, or was required to do. In the end, the Divine intervention, implicit in their methods of substantiation, was of itself sufficient proof wrongdoing or of mitigating circumstances or innocence, depending on its end result. In the next place the more primitive folks the greater completely will their philosophical design be occupied entirely with the recognition of external facts.

Law cannot represent the innovative thinking of its age at any time, because it must manage to some acceptance among those for whom it is promulgated, but customary rules from its very character will be even more conservative. Even with our highly developed judicial equipment and relatively advanced thought, external facts play very good the best part inside our legal system. For instance, the adultery of the divorce division is the adultery of the Old and not the New Testament. Infidelity of center or mind is no earth for divorce; there has to be the outward visible indication of physical misconduct. It is true that neglectfulness is recognized as a surface of responsibility, but it generally does not depend upon the carelessness of this individual. It really is dependent upon a finding by way of a jury that the facts show the want of health care of an acceptable and wise man; whether or not the defendant exercised all the good care he could is not the problem. Even for proof of motive a litigant must rely upon exterior facts; today your brain of man may be triable; but the proof is circumstantial.

Sir Percy Wirfield was of Thoughts and opinions that never in Anglo-Saxon law was there any rule of "definite responsibility, or that "a man operates at his peril. He says ?: "No doubt it [Anglo-Saxon rules] experienced no means for an elaborate exploration of intention, but all the Anglo Sax laws with which we could acquainted implies that the system acquired at least the capability for taking accounts of what approved in a man's brain in facts of the most typical occurrence. No sane individual, traditional or modern, needs any mental education beyond that of basic experience to say, ˜A did not mean to get this done, ' and for that reason to inflict a lighter charges or Possibly none at all. Medieval man is at least much removed a beast. But he divides Anglo Sax law for this purpose plans, one interacting with functions and the other with omissions. For serves of fee he cites lots of provisions in the Dooms of the Anglo-Saxon kings which exonerate acts done using circumstances, such as by a guy on behalf of his lord. The generally received Judgment that the Dooms were innovating rather than codifying legislation is correct, it is published with deference that the advantages of these primary exceptions to liability are some proof of the general rule. This can be particularly the case because the Dooms were made under the influence of Christianity, which should have emphasized the mental element in wrongdoing.

The creation of exemptions for works done out of certain laudable motives is also quite different from allowing negligence or accident as defenses; the person who strikes in self-defense is behaving quite deliberately. In dealing with liability for omission, Teacher Winfield expresses the view that regulations "gropes its way along without more than a subconscious understanding of the distinctions between ˜objective', 'carelessness' and ˜inevitable damage. ' "It is significant that his illustrations are largely taken from the relatively modern compilation, the Leges Henrici, but, as he says, a differentiation in the degrees of responsibility appears in preceding choices of Dooms, and "here and elsewhere the Church's influence is at work. He further highlights that omission was known in public law but scarcely in private rules. Summing up the positioning in the light of Professor Winfield's penetrating article, Anglo-Saxon regulation had by enough time of the Conquest attained a notion, albeit Unconscious, that "circumstances modify cases.

These circumstances may cause a deviation in responsibility for acts related with the moral gravity, and in some cases may exonerate the doer from legal blame. Ancient private laws differed from modern systems because an take action gave climb prima facie to liability, but an omission was disregarded. Yet even for his work a defendant might show that he had not been liable by reason of the situation. Hence we have to use Teacher Winfield's terminology, "tight liability, somewhat than "absolute liability.

Tort is constituted of:

  • Negligence
  • Specific torts
  • Vicarious liability


Liability for carelessness arises when one individual breaches a duty of care and attention owed to another. The landmark case of Donoghue v Stevenson is the starting place for defining the existing scope of liability. In cases like this, Ms. Donoghue, the claimant, used part of a drink filled with a decomposed snail, in a general population house in Paisley, Scotland. The snail had not been visible, as the bottle of ginger beer where it was included was opaque. Neither her friend, who purchased the drink for Ms. Donoghue, nor the shopkeeper, were aware of the snail's occurrence. Ms. Donoghue cannot sue the shopkeeper for breach of deal or under consumer safeguard legislation as the drink was purchased by her good friend, so she pursued Mr. Stevenson instead, the maker of the drink.

The members of the House of Lords agreed that Mrs. Donoghue possessed a valid claim, but disagreed as to why such a claim should are present. Lord MacMillan, as above, thought this should be cured as a new product liability circumstance. Lord Atkin argued that the law should recognise a unifying concept that people owe a work of reasonable treatment to your neighbor.

The components of negligence are:

  • A obligation of care[1]
  • Breach of this duty[2]
  • Breach causing harm in fact[3]
  • The harm must be not too remote a consequence of the breach[4]

Negligence consists of:

  • Duty of care
  • Causation and remoteness
  • Defences
  • Psychiatric injury
  • Pure monetary loss
  • Public bodies
  • Omissions and third parties

Specific torts[5]

  • Product liability
  • Occupiers' Liability
  • Other statutory torts
  • Nuisance
  • Rylands v Fletcher
  • Trespass
  • Defamation
  • Intentional torts
  • Economic torts and competition

Vicarious Liability[6]

Vicarious liability refers to the idea of an employer being liable for torts devoted by their employees, generally for coverage reasons, also to ensure that victims have a way of recovery. The word "vicarious" derives from the Latin for 'change' or 'alternation' and the old Latin for the doctrine is respondent superior. To determine vicarious liability, the courts must find first that there exists a relationship of worker and company. The torts of indie companies generally do not impose vicarious liability on employers; however, Honeywill and Stein Ltd v Larkin Brothers Ltd shows this principle does not apply where specifically dangerous activities are contracted for, or a non-delegable responsibility is owed. Subsequently, the tort will need to have been devoted 'in the span of career'; or while a worker is going about the business enterprise of their employer. A preferred test of the courts for connecting torts to the course of employment was developed by John William Salmond, which suggests that an workplace will be placed liable for the wrongful act they have approved, or a wrongful and unauthorised setting of an action that was certified. Where in Limpus v London General Omnibus Company an omnibus drivers chose to disobey strict instructions from his employer, to obstruct a rival company, these were still liable, as he was just participating in his duties in an unauthorised way. However, in the contrasting case of Beard v London General Omnibus Company, there was no liability in which a conductor drove an omnibus negligently, as it was no part of his obligations. Beneath the test, employers were generally not organised liable for intentional torts of their employees. Lister v Hesley Hall Ltd established a newer test, stating that employers would be liable for torts which were closely linked to the tasks of an employee.


Scholars and legal professionals have recognized conflicting aims for regulations of tort, to some extent reflected in the several types of injuries honored by the courts: compensatory, aggravated and punitive or exemplary. INSIDE THE Aims of regulations of Tort (1951), Glanville Williams saw four possible bases on which different torts rested: appeasement, justice, deterrence and reimbursement.

From the overdue 1950s several legally focused economists and economically oriented legal representatives emphasised incentives and deterrence, and determined the purpose of tort being the efficient distribution of risk. They are often described as the law and economics activity. Ronald Coase, one of the movement's main proponents, posted, in his article The Issue of Friendly Cost (1960), that the aim of tort ought to be to reflect as directly as possible liability where deal costs should be minimised.

Calls for reform of tort regulation come from diverse standpoints reflecting diverse theories of the targets of regulations. Some demands reform stress the down sides encountered by potential claimants. Because of all people who have accidents, only some will get solvent defendants from which to recover damages in the courts, P. S. Atiyah has called the situation a "problems lottery". Subsequently, in New Zealand, the government in the 1960s established a "no-fault" system of point out compensation for injuries. Similar proposals have been the subject of Command Papers in the UK and much educational debate.

There is some overlap between crime and tort, since tort, a private action, used to be utilized more than criminal laws in ages gone. For example, an assault is both a crime and a tort (a kind of trespass to the person). A tort allows a person, usually the victim, to obtain a remedy that will serve their own purposes (for example by the repayment of injuries to a person hurt in a car accident, or the obtaining of injunctive pain relief to avoid a person interfering with their business). Criminal actions on the other hand are pursued never to obtain remedies to assist a person ќ although often legal courts do have capacity to give such remedies ќ but to remove their liberty on the state's behalf. That clarifies why incarceration is usually available as a penalty for serious crimes, however, not usually for torts.


  • Code Ga. 1882, 2951 (Civ. Code 1910, 4403)
  • Hayes v. Insurance Co. , 125 Ill. 626, 18 N. E. 322, 1 L. R. A. 303
  • Railway Co. v. Hennegan, 33 Tex. Civ. App. 314, 76 S. W. 453
  • Churchill v. Howe, 186 Mich. 107, 152 N. W. 989, 991
  • Strachan Shipping Co. v. Hazlip-Hood Cotton Co. , 35 Ga. App. 94, 132 S. E. 454, 459
  • Keiper v. Anderson, 138 Minn. 392, 165 N. W. 237, 239, I. 4. R. A. 1918C, 299. A
  • Mitchell v. Health Culture Co. , 349 Mo. 475, 162 S. W. 2d 233, 237: A violation of the right in rem which plaintiff has as against all folks with whom he will come in contact or the violation of a right which is created by law and not by any work of gatherings.
  • Henriques vs. Dutch Western Indian Company (1728) 2 Ld. Raym 1532; Newby vs. Colts Patent Firearms Co. , (1872) LR 7 QB 293; A Overseas Corporation (i. e. a Firm established by regulations of a overseas country) may sue and be sued for a tort, exactly like other corporation
  • Raja Pramada Nath Roy vs. Shebait Purna Chandra Roy, (1908) 7 CLJ 514: The responsibility of estate of your idol for wrongs dedicated by its Shebait (person in charge of idol) is analogous to the liability of a company.


  • Potter's Advantages to English Law
  • http://www. lawnotes. in/Law_of_Torts
  • http://wiki. answers. com/Q/What_is_the_goal_of_Tort_law?#slide=11
  • http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/128386/common-law
  • http://www. slideshare. net/mblemieux/common-law-and-equity-a-very-short-history
  • http://globe-union-court. org/info_law_writ/writs_introduction. htm

[1]Donoghue v Stevenson, http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Donoghue_v_Stevenson

[2] Nettleship v Weston, http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Nettleship_v_Weston

[3] Smith v Leech Brain & Co. , http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Smith_v_Leech_Brain_&_Co.

[4] The Wagon Mound (No. 2), http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Wagon_Mound_(No. _2)

[5] http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/English_tort_law#Specific_torts

[6] http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Vicarious_liability_in_English_law,

http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Vicarious_liability

More than 7 000 students trust us to do their work
90% of customers place more than 5 orders with us
Special price $5 /page
Check the price
for your assignment