Posted at 11.21.2018
The idea of globalisation and citizenship will be the two areas that been debated very long time earlier. If we look at the idea itself, it is not new and both are the ideas that always be competitive the other person as it require the 'among other things' arguments about politics, personality, privileges, equality, inequality and so forth. However, the word globalisation was first used in 1960s which predicated on the idea of getting the world mutually. Quite simply, it means every person on the planet is the citizen of the world, who gets the status and protection under the law of residents but on a global context alternatively than city or nation state basis. The truth is, globalisation has took place long time ago especially in the term of communication which we sometimes neglect to see them as a form of globalisation for situations international time areas, adoption of Gregorian calendar, adoption of seven days a week and international telegraphic and signalling codes. However, the thought of globalisation started to rise and ever more debated in the latter area of the twentieth century, when the residents are urged to 'think globally and to action locally'. It's the mindset that displays globalisation as something new and prominent. Additionally it is inevitable procedure for development by individual people which emphasises on the free of individual choice. There are a great number of explanations and point of views on globalisation. Giddens (1990, p. 64) details globalisation as 'the intensification of worldwide sociable relations which link distant localities so that local happenings are designed by events happening many mls away and vice versa'. This means that what patterns the locals nowadays may be affected by the happening incidents from different area of the world, resulted from the function of globalisation. In this day and age, the information is super easy to distributed. If we look again 20 to 30 years ago, this may be so impossible but with the aid of it and internet, the world is seemed to be at our fingertips. I quite agree with how Giddens identifies the term globalisation. In my own perspective based on what Giddens' assertions, globalisation is things that change our everyday life which we can not see because it is a hidden process which the effects mostly will come out in long run. However, I believe it is inescapable, make a difference us positively as well as negatively. Refer back again to the definition that Giddens come out, favorably, poor and underdeveloped countries has began to open their eyes and slowly and gradually they can see how outside world appears like. Rich and developed countries begin to see how the unlucky edges of the world and help them to lighten their burden for example in Africa and Palestine. That is good as what styles human's social relationships with others can be the situation that occurs miles from them.
Globalisation has significant influences on educational plans, structures and tactics in countries around the world, though these have been differentially experienced. The driving a vehicle forces of these changes in education have been monetary, political, technical as well as cultural. One of the evident changes is the global citizenship education which plenty of countries on earth take up this in their education plans and practices. In Great britain, Citizenship Education became area of the English primary academic institutions Country wide Curriculum in Sept 2000. It really is then introduced across the curriculum in secondary schools from September 2002 and can include a 'global aspect' (QCA, 2000). The main element principles of global citizenship are thought to include the notion of 'ecological development', 'sociable justice' and the idea of interdependence increased by globalisation. It also includes of understanding conflict and conflict image resolution, human rights as well as duties (Globalisation and Citizenship edu. Jack demaine). There are several critiques on global citizenship education as a fresh reform of education. However, many values that countrywide citizenship is currently being weakened and a fresh reform of education are necessary to handle the growing world nowadays. Global citizenship education is reported to be worried about specific issues and root values and behaviour. It urged people to think and use their brain by questioning and exploring their own and other's ideals within community and different parts of the earth. It encourages people to think and work globally, making them to see themselves as growing up in the global context, no more thinking only in their world and nation status. In fact, there is certainly emphasises on the global sizing to the food they eat, the clothes they wear, other pupils from different parts of the world in their universities and community (Brownie, 2001).
Basically, global citizenship curriculum is designed to develop students' knowledge and understanding internationally. During the contribution, their skill of enquiry and communication will be developed and responsible action appropriate prior with their age will be involved. The requirements are to be met in many ways over the curriculum and will be inlayed in teaching methodology and university ethos (Jack Demaine). Skills, knowledge and knowledge of the key principles of global citizenship education can be developed over the supplementary curriculum in many subject matter areas such as PSHE and citizenship procedure. In subject matter such as Technology, Mathematics, and English, the data and understanding can be developed through the matters, methodology, activities as well as relation to the appropriate concepts. For example given by Demaine (2002), in British, students may compare the reporting of a global issues in various newspaper publishers, and on the Internet, and critically examine the accounts for bias and varying tips of view. While in Mathematics, concepts such as 'mean, setting and median' may be used to investigate average wages about the world. World trade, the idea of 'fair trade' as well as the impact of global relationships on the lives of people along a trade course can be explored in subject matter Geography. Furthermore Walkington (1999) shows how geography and global citizenship education both have complimentary aims and provides specific accounts of school room strategies which have been utilized by the teachers that contain successfully taught global citizenship through subject matter Geography. She then agrees that students can acquire appropriate useful knowledge, skills and understandings through the enquiry-based, participatory approaches to citizenship education.
Gilbert (1996) argues that students appear to be well disposed to discourse about the question of the environment. In global citizenship education module, particular emphasises is directed at United Nations Plan 21, an environmental course of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organisations of the UN and national governments. Students can form consciousness on the global issues and deeply understand the concepts. Lasting development, one of the well-known issues more and more debate globally is one of the main element topics mentioned in global citizenship education. Students can be prompted to explore the neighborhood action in response to global issues by looking into local ideas and priorities for ecological development. On this module, they can learn and understand the ideas of sustainable development work and their effect on different aspects of local and nationwide federal government planning and plan decision. Teachers are encouraged to collaborate in order to help students to learn how citizens can contribute to local decision that will influence their environment and life's quality. Additionally, the concept of global citizenship education has been linked with the offer of helping mankind. Students are ever more aware of the human protection under the law, cultural justice and global issues such as battle and calmness.
Some secondary academic institutions in certain countries like England have previously developed their global citizenship curriculum by becoming involved with long-term tasks and school-linking particularly in the European union (Demaine, 2002). They are suffering from strong citizenship elements of their school ethos, insurance policies and curriculum. Some colleges also encourage their students to be a part of decision-making on anti-bullying and anti-racism insurance plan. However, there are questions to be answered about the possible success of school-based citizenship education program. The effectiveness will depend on the professor and the students, as well as institution institutions itself. It is essential to motivate educators that educate the programme by giving enough professional training and excellent materials for the teaching. For the students, the lesson should be integrated with fun and interesting activity whilst the aims of the coaching still can be achieved at the end. Considering the differences in developed and underdeveloped countries, global citizenship education occurs mostly in college in develop countries. This education program still seems weird in underdeveloped countries, making which it only benefits by the wealthy people in abundant countries. People in poor countries still left behind and in my viewpoint, this notion of global citizenship education only accommodate certain kind of people, leaving behind the basic intention of globalisation, that is taking the people around the world jointly.
In my point of view, global citizenship education is a good approach to more and more interconnected world we live right now. Globalisation is an issue that does indeed really are present and even though I aware that I hold the view of negative reasons for having it, it may include positive things too. Actually, I really support the implementation of global citizenship education in most countries as it opens up students mind on the global issues, cause them to become talk about global issues such environmental and battle, as well as preparing themselves for global challenges of the future.
Long time previously, education is thought to be concerned mainly in producing people with knowledge and skill and their well-being. Education can only just affordable by high class and high status people. Later then, as political systems and boundaries and demarcation lines differentiating one country from the other were identified, it can be obviously seen that there was governments' engagement in education through the establishment of the general public schools. The reason behind such an involvement seen by the government was to truly have a good grip of its citizens. Having organised on its residents, the government was able to have a ideology inculcated and used in its citizens. The same principles have been put on the implementation global citizenship education, but in several perspective obviously. The idea and concept of globalisation is supplied and transferred to the people around the world through education. It had been thought as the means to improve the individual's cohesiveness with others internationally. Such an effort is likely to bring unity among citizens across the world, for having a standard goal in the hearts and brains of its people.
Looking at how globalisation is so powerful in influencing people in a variety of types of field such as economical and political, it also offers its strength in affecting the training around the world. Among the obvious ramifications of globalisation is the introduction of technology-mediated learning which has revolutionised the coaching and learning process. Inside the era of it, explosion of knowledge and information helps the globalisation in term of education. The invention of computer systems, internet and technology-mediated learning such as by using CD, webpage etc assists with the growing of information and knowledge to thousands across the world. Compare to 10 to 20 years previously, it is difficult to gain access to knowledge and information from outsides, and much more trustworthy on limited literature and journals available in local libraries. Nowadays, through online and digital libraries, people especially research workers and educationalist can get access to information and knowledge from catalogs and research works done in the other areas of the world without having the necessity to travel to the required places. This certainly important as it make the usage of education easier and save so enough time to do the task. In addition, through the use of the internet, distant learning is currently possible and accessible. People especially students can gain access to knowledge twenty-four time per day and find out anytime they would like to, without having to be present at the lectures in the lecture halls. Actually, in completing this course work, I really do not have to travel around the world to observe how the procedure of globalisation takes place. Searching information from online journal articles and books internet has recently helped me a lot to make progress in this work.
Naturally, any invention and development has its negative and positive attributes. Although this clinical and impressive way of learning has made people lives a lot easier and better by getting access to knowledge and information fast and efficient, we still can see the downsides of this situation. Folks have becoming more isolated from the globe they use to talk about with others. They made people learn in a more personalised manner in which the effect can be seen through the take off interaction with the city and population around them. Actually, it drives them more towards attaining success and material gains for the benefit for individual somewhat than for population. Fromm (1995) has predicted this aftereffect of the globalisation on real human individuals in the past and he expresses that:
'Modern man is alienated from himself, from his fellow men, and from characteristics. He has been transformed into a item, activities his life forces as an investment which must bring him the maximum revenue obtainable under existing market conditions. ' (Fromm, 1995, p. 67)
From the insurance quotes, it is actually similar from what happen nowadays. People believe that they are suffering from educationally and financially, and feel self-assurance they are being 'modern' enough. They slowly but surely isolate themselves using their company society and surroundings. Anything they did focused and targeted more on getting maximum profit for them. Another aspect that is lacking in the personalised form of learning is the discussion with the teacher and lecturer. Face-to-face connections during teaching and learning between educator and students is significant to the students. This is because they can get acquainted with the instructor by actually being present in entrance of him. In addition, information and knowledge can be more significant when they are properly described by the professor. Unlike online and distant teaching programme, even though it is simpler in conditions of ease of access, certain kind of things such as understanding of the data may be difficult to acquire. This might be because of lack of tangible communication where body language, tone of voice, personality, and feeling are absent in virtual learning.
Moving along the procedure of globalisation, education sometimes appears as an instrument of real human capital development. Economists view education as both consumer and capital good because it offers utility to a consumer and also functions as an source into the development of other goods and services. Human being capital theory emphasises how education escalates the productivity and efficiency of the staff by increasing the level of cognitive stock of financially productive human capability which is a product of innate capabilities and investment in human beings. The provision of formal education sometimes appears as a beneficial investment in human being capital, which the proponents of the idea have considered as equally or even more equally advantageous than that of physical capital (Olaniyan and Okemakinde, 2008, p. 158). Probably one of the most obvious types of the application of individuals capital theory is that there are increasing demands of private education and other factors identifying individual demand for education. Many of the developing countries have realised that the principal mechanism for producing individual knowledge is the education system. Therefore, they spend huge amount of cash on education not only as try to impact knowledge and skills to individuals but also to impart beliefs, ideas, behaviour and aspirations which might be in the nation's best developmental interest. Consequently, most countries have put high finances on education including for development and better quality of education. Many private and international classes are built and they are believed to provide better quality of education rather than standard kind of college. Parents that are able to send their children to such academic institutions choose private and international schools for their children to receive better education, thus providing them with better future and good careers with higher salary. It is also worthy of noting that the causal relationship between education and income has important implications for open public policy. If real human capital theorists are right in arguing that the education is the primary cause of higher cash flow, then it naturally seem sensible to provide better quality of education to low-income groups of society to reduce poverty and the amount of income quality.
The next effect of globalisation on education is seen through the commodity of education especially in higher education. Nowadays, the increasingly popular style in education is the global trade of advanced schooling in which gets plenty of demand across the world. Higher education sometimes appears as a medium for making money for several organisation. More costly education is introduced such as private university or college and international college. It is true that some situations, they provide better quality for learning however the price to be paid is too much. Those originates from rich family can afford the education but what will happen for the center and low school family who could not manage it? Globalisation emphasises the idea of bringing people together, making the status everyone the same however the reality is because of competition among specific people, education is the matter that you have to pay to be able to get it. 'The additional money you willing to pay, the bigger the quality of education you will get', that what the majority of people nowadays believe in. Same would go to the schooling trend which gets popular now, that is international college. The same principle as the concept of globalisation applies to international college which is bringing the people along across the world. It globalised in terms of content learning and students inside. Students share different civilizations and values, but seldom we can easily see they show the same school and social position. Usually students result from top quality and social status as we realize the fees to enter this type of university is far too high. The curriculum usually uses International Baccalaureate which is stated as a exclusive qualification. Here, we can easily see the proof inequality of education being go up. It is apparent for almost all of the circumstances, education is seen as commodity, a tool for making money, somewhat than for open public good.
There are competition to find yourself in schools where the education is known as to be worth the students' or their parents' money. Moore (2000) argues that buying education is same like buying the currency markets. People have to wait long enough for the final results. Just about everyone has a mindset that we can get a better job with high income of we show up at better schools. Quite simply, a certified degree of education is a commodity, means that it's useful and can be turned into commercial benefits.
Increasing in "outcome-oriented" form of education.
Knowledge for its own sake appears to have lost its currency in a global where "benefits" have grown to be the goal of tertiary education. (Mondon, 2010)
Babalola (2003, cited in Olaniyan and Okemakinde, 2008 2) expresses that the contribution of education to economic development and development occurs through its capacity to increase efficiency of an existing labour force in a variety of ways.
In Malaysia for example, the Malaysian administration has made many efforts to make Malaysia as a centre of education quality in the region and to provide you with the industry with the relevant recruiting.