Posted at 10.04.2018
In the modern world, when we talk about gender equality, we usually imply identical opportunities in work, education, and in civic participation for women and men. When we speak of equality between the sexes, we usually envision a country where women have the right to choose how many children to acquire and what to do with their systems. In this respect, we can easily say that the have difficulties for equality between women and men in the West and in other civilized countries has pretty much conformed to these requirements. Anywhere else in the world, however, presents a very dismal picture of the problem of women. Women being stoned to death and publicly hanged would seem unthinkable for some. Indeed, the middle ages practice of lapidation or stoning is stunning to listen to but this inhumane treatment is a reality faced by a lot of women in Iran. Not just that, not conforming to the recommended standard of dress is criminalized, and the inability to wear a veil or hejab can get you flogged and abused (Asia Pacific Women's Watch). This paper argues that the barbaric and horrific serves of assault and discrimination against ladies in Iran must stop. The involvement of the US will be helpful in saving Iran's women from other current oppression.
International laws already prohibits the meting out of cruel and degrading punishment in the General Declaration of People Privileges (UDHR), to which Iran is signatory to CEDAW Iran). However, Iran's penal code and legal legislation stay to be inspired by Islamic fundamentalism, and there have been alarming works of violence against women devoted and perpetrated by the state of hawaii. A written report from BBC Information implies that "public hangings, executions, stoning, arbitrary arrests, especially among youths and women, has taken an unprecedented speed" (BBC). As of 2007, international real human rights group Amnesty International reported that there have been 8 women in loss of life row awaiting to be stoned to death by Iranian government bodies. Since 1979, when the mullahs of Iran reverted regulations to conform to fundamentalist Islam, the extent of assault has been unimaginable for ladies:
More than 40, 000 women have been sentenced to die from 1979 to 2005 (Women's Forum Against Fundamentalism in Iran (WFAFI).
Over 34 women have been stoned to fatality between 2001 and 2005 (WFAFI).
Twenty-two Iranian women were publicly hanged between 2001 and 2005 together (WFAFI).
Over 4, 000 runaway young girls were flogged or whipped 100 times, imprisoned, fined, or even sold for intimate slavery (United States Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services).
These statistics by themselves present an already grim basic picture. However, the facts of the execution itself point to the barbaric aspect of the stoning of women. Stoning is the phrase meted out to women who commit adultery and other heinous offences. Corresponding to Iran's Penal Code, especially Article 104 of regulations of Hodoud, how big is the rocks used and the procedure of carrying out the phrase is given in strict conditions. Regulations says that the rocks to be used must not be so large so that they cause instantaneous fatality after being hit two times and must be too small to not cause injury. In other words, the stoning of women as capital punishment is supposed to inflict pain that is grievous such that it contributes to a slow & most painful death (Stoning women to death in Iran: A Special Case Study). The UN Special Rapporteur from the Office of the High Commission rate on Human Privileges delivered to Iran, Maurice Copithorne, concluded within an independent investigation in 1997 that the action of stoning is a form of "a cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment" that is violative of international individual rights laws and regulations (Situation of Human Privileges in the Islamic Republic of Iran). The actual procedure for stoning is visual and too awful to even depict in words, plus some videos of real stoning of women have been smuggled and employed by advocacy groupings to lobby for the eradication of women permanently. There are cases of stoning when the "Special Clerical Courts" of Iran rule that the kids and family members of the woman sentenced to loss of life would be required to watch. If for some miraculous reason the girl can evade from the gap she actually is buried in up to the neck, she is immediately came back and stoned to death, or if she works away, is immediately taken.
In 1994, Amnesty International reported the stoning of a woman who was found guilty of adultery by Iran's clerical courtroom. The judge ruled that the spouse and her children should be there to witness the execution. Despite the woman's protestations to spare her children, the authorites guaranteed that all were present. In the center of the stoning, even if her sight were already "gouged away, " the girl was able to free herself from the ditch and began to break free. However, she was recaptured and instantly shot to death. The identical end befell on a female from the city of Qom, who was also in a position to get away from but was came back and stoned to loss of life (Stoning women to loss of life in Iran: A Special Case Study).
The sentencing process is arbitrary and regulations leaves extensive discretion to the judge. In some instances, the sentence isn't only stoning, as in the case of Bamani Fekri. The newspapers Jomhouri Islami reported in 1991 that in the north part of Iran, Bamani was found guilty of murdering her spouse and committing adultery. She was sentenced to fatality by stoning, blinding of both sight, retribution, and compensation of 100 gold dinars. Before she could face her executioners, she wiped out herself in prison (Stoning women to death in Iran: A PARTICULAR RESEARCH STUDY). In another case, a woman found guilty of adultery was sentenced to perish publicly in Neyshabour, Iran. She was sentenced to be tossed off a ten-story building before the public. She passed away immediately upon impact (Stoning women to fatality in Iran: A Special RESEARCH STUDY).
State-sponsored atrocities have been verified by the Special UN Rapporteur to Iran in his survey (CEDAW Iran). In 2002, Rapporteur Radhika Coomaraswamy verified that ladies who are incarcerated in Iran's jail system are being "systematically subject to rape by judges and high-ranking officials" (USA Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services). This was especially true for females imprisoned in Evin prison in Tehran, Iran, where in fact the prison itself has turned into a place of intimate torture.
Adding the violence and human protection under the law violations, the women of Iran are also put through poor socio-economic conditions because they are considered subordinate to the men in every respect.
Almost 90 percent of Iran's runaway women can be purchased in the Persian Gulf in prostitutions wedding rings or in the international individual trafficking market (WFAFI).
About 700, 000 children with age range ranging from 10 to 14 can be purchased in Iran's dark-colored labor market. aged 10 to 14, work in dark labor market in Iran (WFAFI).
More than half Iran's population live below the poverty range and 20 percent of its people go eager on a daily basis (WFAFI).
Sixty-seven percent of Iran's young women between ages 11 and 16 are deprived of basic education (WFAFI).
Twenty-six percent of Iranian women suffer internal problems, and over 70% of the suicides in Iran are women casualties surviving in the rural countryside (WFAFI).
The World Health Corporation places Iran as third country with the best suicide rate (WFAFI).
The oppression of ladies in Iran is the consequence of Islamic fundamentalism and the refusal to abide by the international regulations it has agreed upon and the international conventions it still refuses to sign. In this respect, the US and international pressure can assist in forcing Iran to abide by international human rights requirements in its treatment of women. Iran's penal regulations have been proven by religious fundamentalists once the Shah was overthrown and the Trend installed Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini in ability in 1979 (Shahidian 65). The so-called "Revolutionary Legislation" supposedly includes passages of the Qur'an, the Islamic world's Holy E book, in to the penal system as a means of "rectifying" the morality of Iran and purging Western effect. Women were considered "seductive beings" whose tendencies should be regulated in order never to inflame "Satanic desires" in men (Hughes). It was essentially an work to eliminate decency and civilization out of the penal code and exchanging it instead with Byzantine-period consequence. The primary idea was to protect Islamic culture and modest the consequences of modernity which were seen to be gradually eroding traditional Muslim values (Shahidian 70). This move pushed behind several years of resistance and have difficulties from Iranian women who've been fighting for their rights because the rule of the Shah (Hughes). What's worse, is usually that the subordination of women and the misogynstic tactics against them received binding and legal make (CEDAW Iran). Hence, women's oppression became circumstances policy. Actually, Iran is mostly of the countries that hasn't ratified the CEDAW or the United Nations Convention on the Reduction of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (Abbasgholizadeh 1). As a result, Iran puts constraints on the development of women and legalizes them in order that they are prohibited from aspiring for the presidency, becoming judges, becoming market leaders, becoming informed in the colleges, and in inheritance. Iran's constitution is rooted in the spiritual theory of vali-e-faqih, where in fact the Condition can control the private and general population roles and encroach on the lives of women. Patriarchy is part of the State composition and the concept of "guy surrogate and guardianship of females" gives legitimacy to the rule of Iran's Islamic Fundamentalism. In effect, Iranian women do not have the freedom to choose and control several areas of their personal lives. (WFAFI). Defenders of Iran's techniques invoke admiration for faith and culture and present the Qur'an as its earth. However, even Islamic scholars have denounced the sick treatment of women and the fundamentalist view that women should be limited in their civic and political contribution. Islamic feminists stress that the equality of men and women in the Qur'an is plainly indicated:
"The ones that do evil will be compensated with like evil; but those that contain faith and do good works, both men and women, shall get into the landscapes of Heaven and receive blessings without number" (Shahidian 84).
Admittedly, using scripture to demonstrate the compatibility of women's rights and Islam will depend on interpretation. In actual practice, however, Islam and women's liberation have been found to be suitable in the experience of Islamic countries such as Turkey. Iran cannot claim that it is impossible to reconcile esteem and dignity for girls on the grounds of Islam because other Muslim countries have paved the way for greater women's involvement and the observance of real human rights laws relating women.
Turkey's experience suggests that only through modernization in regulations can once-misogynistic regimes end oppression to women. Modernization in Turkey commenced in 1922 under the leadership of Ataturk who was simply responsible for motivating legislation that made women the same partner in nation-building. The struggle for attaining women's rights to equal involvement and equaliy in Turkey has a abundant history. While using founding of republican turkey under Ataturk's control, the law so long as women were similar than men. This basic principle was enshrined in the new Consitution because of heavy affect and pressure by the European feminist movements and the local feminist have difficulties. Turkey's new republican Constitution provided that in order to become truly civilized, the "improvement of women's position" must be the primary aim (Gurpinar 72). From fundamentalism, Turkey switched toward secularization and the eradication of anti-women laws. In place of fundamentalism, Western aspirations for human protection under the law and gender equality were adopted in order to pursue improvements in education, family life, and civil privileges (Gurpinar 78). After hurting a military coup in 1980 and experiencing armed forces guideline for next 3 years, feminist moves and mass resistance in Turkey fueled the need to change the Constitution and take up laws that would benefit women. What's important to comprehend would be that the changes in the Constitution that allowed for Turkey's conformity to international human being rights standards especially international instruments including the CEDAW was made possible with the coordinated initiatives with the United Nations. Article 90 bound Turkey to conformity with international criteria in human rights and treatment of ladies in lieu of local laws. Article 90, par. 5, expresses:
"International agreements duly put into effect carry the drive of law. No charm to the Constitutional Judge shall be made with respect to these agreements, on the grounds that they are unconstitutional. In the case of a discord between international agreements in the area of fundamental protection under the law and freedoms duly put into effect and the home laws credited to variations in provisions on the same matter, the provisions of international agreements shall prevail" (Vital Voices Global Collaboration).
What is the significance of this provision and what's its implication to concluding oppression of the women in Iran? Essentially, Article 90 makes Turkey an active participant to international treaties regarding individual rights. It made modernization and women's emancipation possible because it gave legal push to pro-women treaties including the CEDAW, the Universal Declaration of Individuals Rights (1948), the Convention on the Political Rights of Women (1952), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Protection under the law (1966), and the International Covenant on Economic, Public and Cultural Privileges (1966), among others (Gurpinar 98).
Simply put, due to inclusion of Article 90 into its Constitution, Turkey was required to adjust its regulations so that it complies with international regulations and instruments. Turkey's experience turned out that the participation of the UN in pressuring for constitutional change is important in improving feminist actions and the individuals themselves in creating reforms for the benefit of women.
The case of Iran is not so different. It has been proven to be sensitive to international pressure and local pressure in the past. It must be comprehended that level of resistance has been waging in the united states for many years and the feminist movement in Iran works tightly with organizations such as Amnesty International to international support (Amnesty International). In 2002, after efficiently lobbying for the European Union to pressure Iran into issuing moratorium on its stoning practices, Iran announced that it was briefly halting judgments of lapidation. However, studies leaked that the stoning of women never really ended, especially in the provinces, because there was no recognized directive from Iran's authorities (Amnesty International). Amnesty International is convinced that without repealing regulations the provides for the stoning of women, this barbaric punishment won't stop. Article 19 of Iran's Constitution provides that discrimination based on contest, color, or words is prohibited but Article 20 provides for a booking clause "conformity with Islamic standards" that is often invoked as legal basis to discriminate against women (USA Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services). Moreover, it has been discovered that Iran procedures duplicity in conditions of what it says it is currently doing to end the oppression of women in comparison to what it actually does indeed. The UN Special Rapporteur suggested that in Iran, "the home application of the specifications in place falls short of making certain ladies in Iran enjoy de jure and de facto equality. This situation sustains unequal ability relations between women and men" (CEDAW Iran, 2009).
The United Nations, working together with leading powers like the US and European union, must exert international pressure to demand a finish to the violence and oppression of Iran's women. It is a moral as well as a responsibility for the UN, being your body of the community of countries, to enforce the conformity of Iran on the international instruments which it is get together to, such as the UDHR. If Iran is honest in providing equality, as it says in its Constitution (Artwork. 3, sec. 4) and considering its personal in the international covenant on individuals rights, it must be presented accountable for the State-sponsored atrocities it includes subjected its women to. Intervention can maintain the proper execution of monetary and political activities of States such as:
Pull-out of all immediate and indirect opportunities of States from the Tehran.
Enforcement of military services and politics sanctions for violations of international human being rights regulations.
Boycott of international non-government organizations (NGOs) sending help to Tehran.
Experience has proven that strong UN treatment and the support of international real human protection under the law organizations and NGOs can pressure compliance (WFAFI). It has been confirmed in the anti-apartheid actions in South Africa and campaigns against genital mutilation (WFAFI). The impact of successful involvement of the UN in placing a finish to barbaric violence against ladies in Iran will be a victory not limited to Iranian women, but also for women all over the world. Laws and regulations that repress women and subject matter those to cruel and inhumane treatment aren't restricted within the restrictions of Iran, making the problem a crux for treatment by the United Nations. Other Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia and Somalia would comply with the international individuals rights covenant and end repressive and oppressive tactics made possible by way of a fundamentalist interpretation of the Holy Qur'an. Many countries still condone misogynistic practice of feminine genital mutilation in Africa and in Saudi Arabia, general public hanging and the so-called flat iron fist of "religious authorities" have limited the protection under the law of women to the point of risking their own lives. Take the plight of the ladies in Saudi Arabia. One evening, a fire emerged that were only available in an all-female boarding institution. More than 200 young women fled the building wearing only their pajamas in order to flee the open fire. When they reached safety, however, they were insulted and threatened by the spiritual authorities who demanded that they go back to the building and put on the hejab. In the process of retrieving their hejab, 12 young women burnt to their fatalities. All with regard to moral conformity and all the brutal punishment that awaits them should they violate the moral regulations, Saudi Arabia's women suffered an unspeakable and avoidable loss of life (Amnesty International).
It is time and energy to open our eye to the brutal realities that face women in Iran and other fundamentalist countries. It wants us to know more, to speak more, and do more, in a world where human protection under the law and justice are blatantly disregarded. In a global where there is no flexibility to choose how to dress, in a world where women are stoned to fatality and publicly performed for moral offences, and in a global where you are punished due to the fact you are a woman - this is a world that we must do more for change.
The oppression and violence against ladies in Iran must stop. Register your indignation to the misogynistic practices of the Iranian government by writing to the US Secretary General, to the President of america, and to the Head of the European Union.
Participate in the on-line petitions to end stoning of women in Iran and pressure Iran to amend its Constitution and ratify the Convention for the Removal of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Join Amnesty International's online appeals at http://www. amnesty. org/en/appeals-for-action.
Stay informed. Go to the website of the Women's Community forum Against Fundamentalism in Iran at http://www. wfafi. org/ and understand how you can help the women in Iran.
In the finish, when confronted with the reality of unspeakable oppression, it is our moral and humanitarian responsibility to take action. Should you just stay watching while women are bludgeoned to their deaths with rocks? In the event you just stay watching while women sexually abused, mutilated, and tossed off a building simply for moral offences? By doing nothing at all, are you not also allowing the Iranian administration to oppress and violate their women?