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The Fungus Rhizopus Stolonifer

The fungus Rhizopus stolonifer is a broadly distributed thread like mildew which is commonly found upon bread surfaces and other food. That is why it has the common name of dark-colored bread mold. Due to the fact that it is so common and can certainly grow upon loaf of bread substances it creates it a very appropriate fungal choice to test on. Rhizopus stolonifer grows rapidly when put in a damp environment where the temperature stays on between 15 and 30 certifications Celsius and can certainly reproduce in these temperatures. Rhizopus stolonifer is capable of causing microbe infections in humans therefore it makes it appropriate to choose Dettol, Savlon, and Bleach as substances to apply to the fungi as these substances are known to kill pathogens, fungus and clean floors. Fungi are recognized to have a level of resistance to certain antiseptics however if sufficient concentration of a element is added, the antiseptic can beat such resistances.

Aim:

To determine the effect of certain home chemicals on the growth of the Rhizopus stolonifer fungus infection species.

Hypothesis:

From the study obtained in the literature review, it is expected that- if the parameters of the fungi being analyzed such as types, size are maintained constant- Dettol will have the best influence on the fungal expansion. Since it will most successfully overcome the resistance of the cell membrane as it will be the the first ever to overcome the amount of resistance of the cell membranes of the fungi anticipated to two of its productive ingrients (CHLOROXYLENOL and ISOPROPYL Alcoholic beverages). It is expected that Savlon will have little or no effect on fungal expansion, as through past research collected ( explained in literature review) Savlon only has anti-bacterial properties.

Literature Reviews:

There is a study paper by Mahmood and Doughari from the African Journal of Biotechnology, from the Department of Microbiology, College of Pure and SYSTEMS, Federal University of Technology which was submitted for peer review on 16 May 2008.

It shows an experiment that was conducted to be able to look for the aftereffect of Dettol on the viability of some microorganisms associated with nosocomial an infection such as Candidia albicans which really is a fungus.

The experiment sought to ascertain which amount of Dettol the fungi would become more susceptible to devastation. Results exhibited that after adding Dettol little change took place in the cell count number of the fungus in five minutes however after ten minutes there was an instant decline in the cell matter of the fungi.

Cove and Holland advised in 1983 that to be able to completely eliminate every one of the fungal cells, a sufficiently high concentration of the antiseptic must be in contact with the cells for longer than those skin cells' resistance time.

Cove and Holland also reported that microorganisms which were exposed to harmful agents will more often than not show a regular death rate in the cells.

Doughari found and then supported the thought of Cove who explained that there is a constant death count of the cells when in continuous connection with an antiseptic.

What was good about the test/research?

The same type of fungus was analyzed and all the fungi were grown up to the same size.

The fungi were all subjected to the same volume of antiseptic.

Two types of water were used to dilute the Dettol.

Bad things about the test/research:

It had not been repeated more than double for each amount.

Our hypothesis explained that if fungi, with constant variables, were exposed to similar concentrations of Dettol, Savlon and Bleach, the Dettol would be the first element to conquer the fungus infection' resistance and for that reason start decreasing the progress of the fungus by eradicating its cells. This article shows just how quickly the Dettol kills the cells and therefore supports our hypothesis. [1]

Similarly there was another research newspaper by Emeka, Awodele, Agbamuche and Akintonwa that was peer review and submitted on 16 April 2007 at the African Journal of Biotechnology, from the Department of Pharmacology, University of Treatments, Idi-Araba. School of Lagos, Nigeria. Which was about the antimicrobial activities of some commonly used disinfectants on several bacteria and fungi such as Candilida albicans.

They analyzed Savlon, Jik and Methylated Heart. The experiment revealed that Jik and Methylated Heart experienced inhibitory activities on both fungi and bacterias however Savlon possessed only antibacterial activity.

Good reasons for having the test:

They inoculated and incubated each one of the fungi and bacterias before the experiment to keep them sterile and also to avoid cross contaminants.

Constant parameters such as heat range were kept constant.

A control was unveiled.

Bad reasons for having the experiment

They did not repeat the experiment enough times.

In our hypothesis we expected Savlon to be weaker as an antifungal element compared to Bleach because through this research we have come to realize that there surely is a potential issue that no matter how focused the Savlon is, it shows to struggle to kill the skin cells of the fungus infection and therefore it does not have any influence on the development of the fungi. However we will still be incorporating Savlon in our experiment to be able to test whether this result was valid and correct. [2]

There was a third journal which had a similar test that was conducted in Nigeria by Oyewale, Mojeed and Oladapo at the Office of Applied Sciences. The experiment tested the potency of antiseptic substances such as Savlon and Bleach on fungal growth. The results matched their hypotheses: both Bleach and Savlon managed to completely kill from the mould.

Existing knowledge is the fact Pelczar noticed that there was an initial time which permits penetration of chemical agents in to the fungal cells and then this will interfere with those skin cells' proteins synthesis.

The results relate with our hypothesis since it shows that Bleach can act as a powerful antifungal antiseptic and for that reason you have the potential that our original hypothesis is valid and right however it opposes the test results of Emeka, Awodele, Agbamuche and Akintonwa's test which stated that Savlon does not have any effect after fungal development. [3]

Method:

Data Plan:

We will measure the size of the fungi using a group of utensils such as a square cm grid, as well as utilizing a ruler to gauge the area regularly.

The growth of the fungi will be watched and saved daily.

Then after the fungi have grown to a useable size we will assess and record how big is each fungus infection in each Petri dish using the same methods as before.

We will trim the fungi that are too big as we have to keep size a consistent.

Temperature will remain constant as well as light available to the fungi.

We will record precisely what the concentration of substance used on each fungus. This can be constant for each dish.

We will gauge the change that substance causes every 30 min for 6 hours.

We will leave the fungi for a week longer, saving results and performances daily.

After weekly we will restart the experiment but raise the amount of the chemicals added to the fungi.

Method:

Prepare the bread which is used to expand the fungus by trimming one slice into 4 identical parts and then eliminating the crusts on all portions. In this manner the kind of bread, thickness and size of the slice and age the bread is stored constant. The size of the bakery should be 5 x 5 cm however this will fluctuate relating to chosen breads size.

Place one part into each Petri dish.

Label the dishes A-D.

Contaminate each part with chosen fungus infection by using sterilized equipment. Each bread piece must obtain spores of the same kinds of fungus.

Monitor the fungi progress for about two weeks until it has grown enough to endure the experiment with. These dishes must be remaining in the same environment therefore keeping light and temperatures equal for any dishes, preferably a temp/light managed room.

Trim the larger grown fungi so the size of the fungi is frequent in all meals however this is not totally necessary.

Record the size of the fungi.

Prepare the household substances which you will be dealing with the fungi with. The attention of compound to normal water must be similar for all your substances; therefore if one element is mixed with water, then each is blended with the same level of water.

Using element A, place 2ml of material on every 1cm of fungus growth in dish A.

Do the same for meals B and C. Place the same amount of sterilized drinking water onto the fungus in dish D.

Record how big is the fungi every 30 minutes for 8 time. Take note of another observational changes such as shade and smell. Notice: Replace the lid on the Petri dish and place back in a light/temperature manipulated room.

After one hour, leave the fungi for the night time and take notes the very next day. Record size changes again if available.

Do this every day for all of those other week.

After a week, clean up the dishes and sterilize all equipment. Do it again the experiments however use a better concentration of substances this time around.

Results:

Table displaying the results recordings every thirty minutes for the size changes in the fungi after 3 different chemicals were individually positioned in contact with the fungi.

Dettol was added to Petri dish A and immediately the fungus infection turned a more luster black colour. Within ten minutes the sporangiophores of the fungus infection began to droop and after one hour we categorized the fungus as deceased. This is because before the Dettol was added, the observations of the fungi showed that it was marginally brought up above the bakery and after it was in contact with the Dettol for an hour it was visibly flat and no living hyphae was apparent. The fungus began at a size of 25cm and after 1 hour we categorized it dead and for that reason it got a average decrease in size for every 30 minutes of 12. 5cm however in order to keep time a regular in our stand we made the common decrease in size for every thirty minutes for 5 time and then the Dettol fungus acquired an average decrease of 2. 5cm.

After Savlon was put into the fungus infection in Petri dish B some parts of the fungus turned a dark green colour while other parts remained dark-colored. Within thirty minutes the Savlon caused a visible regression in the progress of the fungi as it travelled from a size of 25cm to a size of 22. 6cm which really is a 2. 4cm size drop. The common rate for the decrease in size of the fungi every thirty minutes was 0. 91cm. Measurements were considered every 30minutes until the fungus was labeled dead which we do after 6 time. This was because after 6 time the fungi was completely chiseled upon the bread no other regression in progress has took place since. While the fungus regressed in size it lost 9. 1cm in 5 hours before we categorized the fungus as inactive.

Bleach was put into the fungus in Petri dish C and it developed a clear part over the fungus infection of size 25cm. In thirty minutes it induced the fungus infection to regress in proportions over the bakery and was visibly eradicating the fungus infection. The getting rid of of the fungus infection was visible as a pale yellow/green color could be observed in places where there was once black fungus infection. This pale yellowish/green colour was hard when touched an was flat upon the loaf of bread therefore it was interpretted as the useless remains of the fungus. For 5 hours the constant decrease in how big is the fungus extended and after 5 time almost all of the fungus infection was dead. We classified all of those other fungus as useless due to the sporangiophores laying completely flat after the bread and no other regression in proportions took place after 36 hours.

The contol received the same amount of normal water that the other fungi received of the chosen chemical. Because of the fact that the fungus infection covered the whole bread before water was added, no development could happen however there was no regreesion in expansion in any way.

Summerized results: Dettol killed off the fungus infection the quickest in a time of just one 1 1 hour and had the average reduce in size over 5 hours of 2. 5cm. Bleach wiped out off the fungi within 5 hours and had an average decrease in size over 5 hours of 1 1. 62cm. Savlon needed the longest to destroy the fungi. It had taken within 6 time to completely destroy the fungus infection and had an average decrease in size over 5 time of 0. 91cm.

Discusion and Realization:

CHLOROXYLENOL and ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL

ЇCritism: the main critism of the experiment was that there was zero repetion. there where issues in growing the Rhizopus stolonifer fungi. Even after protective measures our bread examples grew multiple clonies of different species, which led to us needing to restart the experiment.

ЇRecomondation about futher research: futher research should be conducted to determine the effect of other chemicals on fungal expansion. One could test other hygene or cleaning substances for usefulness and preventing fungal progress in family members.

ЇImprovements to research procedures: locating publications relevant to our experiment was difficult as there where limited journals available online, as few had been published on this issue. It took time to find them. It would have been much easier to contact the product brands to assemble information on the substances. Then we could have gotten home elevators any experiment which has been conducted in examining the merchandise. Another alternative is always to visit a school library unsing thier journal archives as assistance.

In the books review the experiment conducted by Eweka, Awodele, Agbamuche and akintonwa; gave results which stated that savlon experienced no influence on fungul growth, as it only contained anti-bacterial properties. However through our experiment it is clear that savlon will affect fungul development but at a slower rate than dettol and bleach.

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