'Principles of Political Market' by J. S. Mills is a magnum opus about the polity and current economic climate that ruled in the 1800s. The publication is divided into 5 parts.
Book 1 is about production and elucidates the basic requisites of creation. The two main requisites are labour and natural items. Labour identifies the human work devote for production, whereas natural things are the bounties of dynamics, available in a great deal such as land. Work is devote to convert these recycleables to usable products, which is sourced from labour. Labour also creates resources. Another major requirement of labour is the administrative centre. Capital, matching to Mills, is the gathered stock of the products of labour. Mills also explores alternatively abstract regions of development such as co-operation.
Book 2 talks about distribution. Syndication is the allocation of factors of production, property and produce. He talks about distribution of property from a communist as well as socialist perspective. Distribution of wages explains the income fund theory. Employees and capitalists benefit from the features of labour and Mills acknowledges the difference between them.
Book 3 is on Exchange. Exchange of value, the value-price paradox, and its application to power are few of the topics protected. Value is relative, since it is majorly dependent on number. The functions of money are discussed, the most crucial one being that it imparts value. Effect of credit on prices is comparable to money. Joint price of two commodities contributes to its value in the market. Here the expense of production takes on no role. Money is given best importance as it is a conduit for trade and decides international worth. It goes by from country to country as a medium of foreign exchange and variance may impact trading prices.
Book 4 talks about the effect of societal improvement on the current economic climate. Thus the eco-politico aspect of the book is brought forth. He discusses the connection between economic prosperity and societal progress. Societal progress is can be avoidance of war, increase in wealth etc. he predicts that the recently empowered middle class will generate most the income.
Book 5 mentions government intervention in the economy. He dichotomises the functions of the federal government, into necessary and optional. The necessary functions are security, legislation, taxation and protection. Mills can be an advocate of laissez fairism like the mercantilists. Mills thought that the federal government experienced 'no business in businesses' and should abstain from interfering with individual choice.
Les Miserables is an interval musical film using its central theme revolving surrounding the French trend and the June uprising that took place in the 1799-1815. It shows the autocracy and its domino result through the French economy, culture and polity. The storyplot features the plight of the proletariat through the uprising. We see Jean Valjean, an escaped convict who turns his life around and it is compassionate by heart, yet he doubts his former. We visit a woman, Francine who was working under Jean turn into a prostitute and sell her mane and teeth, for a measly amount. These are only a few cases of the dreadful conditions that prevailed then. The environment is redolent of penury and a hard life. Wrong economical decisions used by the then monarch led to such conditions of life. The climax of the movie is the June uprising that took place 17 years after the French Trend. The Parisian uprising was an unsuccessful anti-monarchist trend. The French Revolution that preceded this was more lucrative in granting liberty to the revolutionists. The normal populace felt that their past revolution was stolen by Louis-Philippe's opportunist coterie, who handed him the energy, thus giving the general public an illusion of democracy.
Issues - Eco-Politico Factors behind the France Revolution
Bankruptcy was one of the main factors behind the French revolution. This cause has widespread ramifications on the overall economy and polity. Deficit spending by the monarch and hard taxes caused a significant financial upheaval. France was mixed up in Seven Year's Battle and the American Revolutionary War. Thus battle spending and other grandeur spending drained the coffers. France was bankrupt by 1789 and had borrowed huge amounts of money. However the interest on the debt exceeded the GNP and so there is heavy deficit spending. This sent the French current economic climate spiralling downwards. There is a duty levied on the nobles. The duty system needed reforms since it was heavily skewed towards the bourgeois and the clergy, so when duty reforms were carried out the ecclesiastical bodies and the nobles revolted contrary to the heavy taxes. Rumours of increasing taxes sparked restlessness in the public. Splendour spending in the judge of Louis and Marie Antoinette was quite high, many friends stayed at the castle on the taxpayer's money. The agrarian problems of 1788-89 induced grave discontent.
Political conflict about the draconian monarchy led to a revolt. Louis XIV experienced vociferous revolt against his economic reforms, which taxed the nobility and the clergy. The privileged category resisted the reforms, which brought on a rift in the courtroom. Other successful revolutions such as the American Trend and the England's Glorious trend gave impetus to the revolutionists. Louis XIV was a complete monarch who inherited the throne in 1774. He was apathetic towards his themes and their monetary and daily needs. His electricity was limitless, even the Estate-General was called by the king, except the very first and 2nd Estates. As the support to the ruler weakened because of the duty norms and the populace were already simmering, it culminated to the People from france Revolution in what's known as the Storming of The Bastille Jail. In France, people were split into three estates. The First House, were the high positioning members of the church and the privileged class. The Second Property, were the nobility and the privileged school and The Third Estate was everyone else, which range from the bourgeois to the peasant course and the non-privileged customers. Thus we can see that the eco-politico situation was the main contributor to the French revolution. The financial reforms experienced a domino result when the polity could not accept the higher taxation. Thus, the signing of the 3rd Estate occurred. Yet rumours circulated that Louis XIV wanted to crush the countrywide assembly, and hence the Third Estate stormed the Bastille Prison killing the guards.
A few social causes which affected the local populace were long drawn out before the trend. The populace of France was 26 million out of which 21 million earned their daily breads through agriculture. Even though these were better off than other agriculturalists in Russia and Poland, the famine and taxation norms managed to get hard to earn enough money. Thus the social inequality which been around because of the taxation norms angered the public. There was major scarcity of food as the famine in 1780s triggered major grievances. There is a series of crop failing, which lead to paucity of grain availableness, consequently raising the price tag on bread. Bread was the staple food of the general populace which lead to great hunger. Speculation that the fantastic starvation was induced by the nobility worsened the problem. There were breads riots which afflicted the daily performing of people.
Although an abstract cause, the spreading of free thought and inter-mingling of ideas from the People in america and English strengthened the French wish of democracy. Many French people had consumed ideas by economical and philosophical thinks of those times and the slogan 'Liberte, Egalite and Fraternite'. France directed its navy and soldiers to aid the rebelling colonists. During this time period there is contact between your People from france and the Us citizens and the ideas disperse. American diplomats like Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, possessed stayed in Paris for a while and shared thoughts with French mercenaries. Furthermore, contact between American revolutionaries and the French soldiers who served as anti-British mercenaries in North America helped spread revolutionary ideas to the French people. Furthermore, the people wanted to go to town.
Les Miserables and Rules of Political Overall economy by JS Mills indicate such a time when there is great political upheaval. We see instances of poverty and severe hunger in the movie which obviously displays collective French sentiment during those times.
- https://www. mtholyoke. edu/courses/rschwart/hist151s03/french_rev_causes_consequences. htm
- http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Triggers_of_the_French_Revolution
- http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/French_Revolution
- http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/French_Trend#Causes