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The four phases of cognitive development

The cognitive development of mindset scientifically studies the inner mental functions of humans and pets, including memory, thinking, problem solving, language and decision making. This process is known as cognitivism, and psychologists that analysis cognitivism are considering how information is processed and how it affects our behaviour. The 5 key regions of the cognitive perspective are recognised as PALMT (Understanding, Attention, Language, Storage area, and Thinking).

One of key contributors to the cognitive perspective is Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget. He is well known for his work with children and his theories that describe a child's cognitive development.

Piaget had a theory that the intellectual development of children happens in 4 levels: Sensorimotor Level, Pre-Operational Stage, Concrete Operational Level and the Formal Operational Stage. Piaget detailed the developmental changes to be caused by:

1. Assimilation: where by fitted new encounters into a preexisting schema, for example, a child knows how to grab onto his preferred toy and thrusts it in his oral cavity, he then perceives a rattle and applies this same "grab and thrust" schema by grabbing it and placing it into his mouth area.

2. Accommodation: this is changing the existing schema to match new experiences, for example, the newborn sees a much bigger toy and will try to use the "grab and thrust" schema, but this obviously doesn't work; so a new schema is adapted to the new object - possibly a "squeeze and drool" schema.

Stage 1 - Sensorimotor level (0 - 24 months): This is the stage when the early movements of a child are uncoordinated plus they do everything with the hands.

Piaget believed an infant's knowledge of the world depends on their electric motor development, which points out that the learning of the infant is modified through sensory information being matched by the infant's motor experience; this creates new schemas that the newborn adapts to.

Infants up to eight months old have not yet developed object permanence; this is when babies do not understand that objects persist when they are out of view: "out of perception, out of mind". For example, when playing peek-a-boo, the infant does not understand that the thing remains behind the hands, which explains why they can get so fired up. When the newborn is approximately one years, this is when object permanence starts off to develop.

Stage 2 - Pre-Operational Level (2 - 7 years): By this stage, the kid would understand the difference between former and future. For instance, a child would like a toy and starts crying, when you say "we'll obtain it later", the child will stop crying.

The pre-operational level clarifies the Pre-conceptual sub-stage and the Intuitive sub-stage of a child's development.

A child 2 - 4 years of age would be exceptional pre-conceptual sub-stage. The child would be representing actions through icons (e. g. vocabulary and creative play). For example, a child has a toy doll and presents it as a genuine baby and takes on the role of 'mummy and daddy'. The pre-conceptual sub-stage is also the level when concepts have not yet fully formed; a good example being that a child recognises all men as "daddy".

The Intuitive sub-stage points out the characteristics in children 4 - 7 years of age; including Egocentricism, Centration and what sort of child cannot make clear the underlying guidelines of what they feel/sense.

Egocentricism is the inability to take another's point of view and the child only considers things from his perspective. Piaget conducted an test to investigate this concept; he previously a straightforward plaster mountain range and he put a child on one part of the model and sitting himself on the other hand, he then asked the child to tell him what he, Piaget, could see. The child cannot place himself in Piaget's shoes and only said what he saw from his position.

Centration is when the child focuses only on one aspect and disregarding the other. For example, a child is shown two same sized glasses of normal water and recognises that they are both same. But when one of the glasses of water is poured into a taller a glass, even although amount of drinking water continues to be the same, the child believes that the taller glass has more drinking water than the other.

Stage 3 - Concrete Operational Level (7 - 11 years): By this stage, the kid can adjust to logical guidelines but only concrete instances. This is identified in the concept of "conservation" - which is when the number of the thing is the same despite the change in appearance. A kid by this level can apply rational rules and understand that the quantity of drinking water in the taller a glass and the initial glass is still the same. Piaget thought that a child at this stage cannot understand hypothetical or abstract problems since the child's understanding is limited because of the connection with the physical world.

During the concrete operational stage, the kid starts to build up seriation; which is the capability to put things to be able (e. g. putting dolls in order of size).

Stage 4 - Formal Operational Stage (11+ years): A child is now able to apply abstract and systematic thought to problems - to the there's a stage 3 and a level 4 when training problems. For example, when the child is given problems to resolve, a stage 3 thinker would build an idea and try random combinations to solve it, whereas a level 4 thinker would build a plan and apply a concept a hypothesis and then test it to confirm the answer.

In final result, the cognitive perspective studies the internal mental procedures of humans and pets or animals and how the information we process influences our behavior and learning. Jean Piaget is one of the main contributors to this perspective - he's well known for his ideas in a child's intellectual development. His theory was that a child's development happens in 4 phases - Sensorimotor Level, Pre-Operational Stage, Concrete Operational Level and the Formal Operational Stage; he believed that these changes were brought on by assimilation and accommodation. Piaget believed that the two most important phases were the Sensorimotor and the Pre-operational level, since they form the infant's childhood learning. Piaget's theory was originally rejected by many but also for the past 100 years, his theory has shown useful and observed in a lot of the work that involves a child's development.

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