The Five Theories of Psychology and Child Motivation

Five well known theory of mindset are particularly behavioral, cognitive, developmental, humanistic and personality theory. These five ideas have gained support from psychology society. Psychologist analysis and research various field observed child development of an attempted responsibilities from your home or school. These five ideas have helped us to understand better of child motivation and better knowledge of child's aid. . Ideas shows the organized study of behavior and experience. However these ideas may or may not work well on every individual, its depends on aspects of one's brain and behavior. Ideas conducted are supported with experiments from labor and birth until adulthood. These evidences, methods and consequence are not expressive enough. Until today mindset theory does not have any right or wrong.

Behavioural theory is a theory about the hyperlink of frame of mind and behavior. The consequence of how we act stimuli both in the surroundings and within ourselves. The action we display helped us learn a great deal about our conducts, the effect the environment is wearing us, how exactly we learn new conducts, and what motivates us to improve or stay the same (Moore, 1995). In the first half of the twentieth century famous psychologists such as John B. Watson and B. F Skinner explored the facet of behavioral theory.

One of the aspect of behavioral theory is traditional fitness. These techniques are useful for treatment of phobias and anxiety problems. An examples of his theory is called Little Albert Test conducted by John B. Watson. His questionable experiment with a graduate helper, of a tiny child and a rat shows how classical conditioning may be used to condition an emotional response. Teachers would apply classical conditioning to motivate student overcome anxiety and stress problems by group display in class. As a result, these scholar will feel relaxed.

Another aspect of behavioral theory is operant fitness. Operant fitness is a method of learning of happening rewards and punishment of a patterns. It is a link associated with an action and the results of that tendencies. Psychologist B. F. Skinner thought that we do have such a thing as a brain, but that it's simply more profitable to study observable behaviour somewhat than inner mental situations ( Moore, 1995; Kalat 2008).

He identified negative and positive types of replies that can follow a behavior. His test called the Skinner's Package which a rat and food dispenser that delivers snacks. Its demonstrates a positive encouragement strengthens a action by providing an individual a rewards. This would motivate a kid to learn whenever a parents would give $5 whenever a child complete an assignment. This behavior may likely be repeated by a kid in the future, strengthening the action of concluding an project.

Negative reinforcement cleans away an unpleasant experience to fortify behavior. (Mcleod, 2007) Precisely the same experiment of your rat but this time researchers ceased providing food, the rat halting touching the lever. Parents may likely to utilize this method of asking $5 from a child who didn't complete an task. Thus a child would complete an assignment to avoid paying $5, strengthening the behavior of concluding an task.

Punishment weaken a reply rather than increase it. Like encouragement, punishment can work directly applying a distressing stimulus such as a shock after a response or by removing a potentially rewarding stimulus. A good example is a child never complete an task allocated by the tutor will punished by cleaning the school room for a week.

Cognitive Theory

Cognitive theory is the internal mental processes of thought such as visual processing, storage area, problem resolving, and terminology (Kalat, 2008). From beginning, babies learn actively. They developed thinking skills through gathering, sorting and processing information around them (Kalat, 2008). In Jean Piaget's view, early on cognitive development entails processes based after action and later advances into changes in mental businesses. Piaget suggested that children proceed through four different phases of a child's maturation and relevant types of encounters (Kalat, 2008). The four phases are known as sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete functional and formal operational stages.

Sensorimotor level in a kid is from labor and birth to about 2 yrs old. Babies gained knowledge by hearing and experiencing action. This level developed a knowledge for a kid that objects that aren't exist to be seen, heard or touched. The preoperational stage is between the time of two to seven years old. Terminology was the most important development. This allows them to describe people, incidents and feelings. It is viewed as own child's view of perspectives. Using symbolic for a task. Children developed in more rational manner. An example is a ball of clay that is rolled into a snake little bit of clay.

By the age of seven to eleven years they know time and space. An example of a comic that hides under a package, then leaves the room. However an adult transferred it into a drawer, the child will still think its inside the pack. Concrete operational stage children can conceptualize the level in their mind and never have to start to see the action performed.

The last stage of formal functional level developed from eleven years to adulthood. It can reason logically about abstract and ideas thus developed strategies and planning beforehand. Piaget's theory shows children encouraged through maturation and environmental stimuli.

Developmental Theory

It is a theory that for thinking about human expansion, development and learning. It is an understanding of what motivates individuals thoughts and tendencies into individuals and society. There are lots of level of developmental theories focus key development of children, others propose levels the maturity of a grown-up to later years.

One of the best known theory is Erik Erikson, explained the eight stages of life time of human. Newborn stage of basic trust versus mistrust. Young child stage of autonomy versus shame and hesitation. Preschool child stage of effort versus guilt. Preadolescent level of industry versus inferiority. Adolescent stage of id versus role misunderstandings. Young adult level of intimacy versus isolation. Middle adult level of generativity versus stagnation. Older adult level of ego integrity versus despair (Kalat, 2008).

The value of his theory would encourage a child in learning trust and autonomy in toddlerhood and at the same time, its guide that may be used to determine coaching and nurture a kid practices a healthy emotional and cognitive development (Erikson, 1987). This might motivate a child to trust their teacher in category when their parents not around. Children learn social skills by interacting with schoolmates.

Humanistic Theory

Humanistic theory handles consciousness, values, values and spiritual activities that people live and pass away for. Humanistic psychologist study the special qualities of a person through counseling and remedy. Carl Roger's regarded as human nature accountable for their own lives. Once we grow up, parents or instructor only give us what we need when we show are valuable. This show someone self applied concept to specific ideal do it yourself. Children developed positive do it yourself regard to become what they could be. An example will be a child get a sweet after concluding an project in class promptly. This motivates a kid to achieve one's full potential. Rogers believed the achievement of your respective probable of natural drive to self actualization by seeking new activities or expert new skills.

Personality Theory

Personality theory refers a feature of somebody who consists design of feeling, thinking and behaving as they lead their daily lives. Sigmund Freud tackled phenomena that are extremely difficult to study. He analyse real human by dreams, intimate desires, internal mental issues and the mental life of a child. His method of explaining and dealing with personality based on interplay of conscious and unconscious makes known as psychoanalysis.

He thought that psychoanalysis could bring parts of the unconscious in to the conscious head. Freud's levels of psychosexual development of oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital level impact adult personality. He stated there are three aspect of personality; id, ego and superego. However Freud test is hazy and difficult to check (Grunbaum, 1986; Popper, 1986). An example will be when a child with a group of friends, each of them experienced a lastest mechanised pencil, the kid who don't have it would like to have it. However, the kid can steal or borrow from the friend. Each individual have a needs. To motivate a kid to be have the mechanised pencil from the parents, they can asked the kid to cross a test and get a reward out of it or the kid could cut costs. According to the theory there are attributes of human habit that are of help to conceptualized in these structural terms.

Conclusion

These five theories of research and evaluation of a child was considered independently. Issues of action of an infant to adulthood each have its basic character of theory. All theories emphasized alone structure, process, growth and development. To encourage a child into the future is relatively important.

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