Posted at 11.02.2018
In the fields of civil engineering, construction is an activity that contains the building or assembling of infrastructure. Normally, the job is managed with a project manager, and supervised by the construction manager, design engineer and construction engineer.
For the successful execution of any project, effective planning is vital. Those involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider environmentally friendly impacts of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety, availability of building materials and inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays.
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS UNDERGOING
Two types of projects are activated inside campus:-
1. Building construction,
2. Maintenance of roads.
Several buildings are under construction inside campus to be used as central library, staff residences, educational buildings for B. D. S. and M. B. B. S. , retail center, boys hostel no. 5, hospital, extrusion of built buildings, passage between hostels, footpath repairing, mending and maintenance, administration building. The contracts are undertaken by different companies to be able to have the work done in the shortest possible time. A few of these companies are mentioned below.
Building construction of two types:-
1. Framed structure construction,
2. Unframed structure construction.
1. Framed structure can be an assembly of slabs, beams, columns and foundation connected to one another such that it behaves as you unit. It really is a methodology, which permits the construction of tall buildings and building with stilts. Most urban structures and multistoried buildings are designed as RCC framed structures. In an RCC framed structure, the strain is transferred from a slab to the beams then to the columns and further to lower columns and finally to the foundation which in turn transfers it to the soil. The walls in such structures are constructed following the frame is ready and are not designed to carry any load. As against this, in a load bearing structure, the loads are directly transferred to the soil through the walls, which are capable of carrying them. A well describing picture of any framed building inside lovely university is displayed on next page.
2. Unframed structures are those where masonry is done with the aid of mortar along with pillars and columns are also extruded. .
VARIOUS OPERATIONS CONTINUING
The foundation. It is the inferior or bottom level of your building that penetrates the terrain it is on, this carries the weight of the building and supports it. Kind of foundations so long as I saw inside the university campus were:-
#Spread footing foundations involves strips or pads of concrete which transfer the loads from walls and columns to the soil or bedrock. Embedment of spread footings is manipulated by several factors, including development of lateral capacity, penetration of soft near-surface layers, and penetration through near-surface layers likely to change volume due to frost heave or swell. These foundations are common in residential construction which includes a basement, and in many commercial structures.
This type of foundation is provided below the buildings to be utilized as boys hostel no. 5.
#Mat-slab foundation are used to distribute heavy column and wall loads across the complete building area, to lower the contact pressure compared to conventional spread footings. Mat-slab foundations can be constructed near to the ground surface, or in the bottom of basements. In high-rise buildings, mat-slab foundations can be several meters thick, with considerable reinforcing to ensure relatively uniform load transfer.
This type of foundation is provided below the building to be utilized as central library and staff residence.
The walls. The walls of any building receive the weight of different ceilings and floors and pass this weight over to the foundation. Masonry did to create walls in all buildings inside campus.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also make reference to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, stone such as marble, granite, travertine, limestone; concrete block, glass block, stucco, and tile. Masonry is normally an extremely durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, and the pattern where the units are assembled can significantly affect the sturdiness of the overall masonry construction
Brick masonry is undertaken inside campus. Solid brickwork is made of several layers of bricks with the units running horizontally called stretcher bricks bound as well as bricks running transverse to the wall called header bricks. Each row of bricks is actually a course. The pattern of headers and stretchers employed gives rise to different bonds including the common bond, the English bond, and the Flemish bond. Bonds can differ in strength and in insulating ability. Vertically staggered bonds have a tendency to be somewhat more robust and less susceptible to major cracking than a non-staggered bond.
A picture of brick masonry is listed below.
Concrete blocks masonry is also under process in some parts of LPU. Blocks of cinder concrete, ordinary concrete, or hollow tile are generically known as Concrete Masonry Units (CMU)s. They usually are much larger than ordinary bricks and are also much faster to lay for a wall of confirmed size. Furthermore, cinder and concrete blocks typically have lower water absorption rates than brick. They often times are used as the structural core for veneered brick masonry, or are used alone for the walls of factories, garages and other professional style buildings where such appearance is acceptable or desirable. Such blocks often get a stucco surface for decoration. Surface-bonding cement, which contains synthetic fibers for reinforcement, may also be found in this application and can impart extra strength to a block wall. Surface-bonding cement is often pre-colored and can be stained or painted thus producing a finished stucco-like surface.
The primary structural benefit of concrete blocks in comparison to smaller clay-based bricks is that a CMU wall can be reinforced by filling the block voids with concrete with or without steel rebar. Generally, certain voids are designated for filling and reinforcement, particularly at corners, wall-ends, and openings while other voids are left empty. This increases wall strength and stability more economically than filling and reinforcing all voids. Typically, structures manufactured from CMUs will have the very best course of blocks in the walls filled up with concrete and tied as well as steel reinforcement to form a bond beam. Bond beams are often a requirement of modern building codes and controls. Another type of steel reinforcement, known as ladder-reinforcement, can also be embedded in horizontal mortar joints of concrete block walls. The introduction of steel reinforcement generally ends in a CMU wall having much greater lateral and tensile strength than unreinforced walls.
cmus can be made to give a variety of surface appearances. They can be colored during manufacturing or stained or painted after installation. They could be split within the manufacturing process, giving the blocks a rough face replicating the appearance of natural stone, such as brownstone. CMUs may also be scored, ribbed, sandblasted, polished, striated (raked or brushed), include decorative aggregates, be allowed to slump in a handled fashion during curing, or include several of these techniques in their manufacture to provide a decorative appearance
A COLUMN in structural engineering is a vertical structural member that transmits through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural element below. Other compression members tend to be termed as columns due to similar stress conditions. These are designed to and frequently used to support beams and arches which upper part of walls or ceiling rests. A column may also a decorative member and but do not need to to aid any load.
Early columns were made of stone, some out of an individual little bit of stone, usually by turning on the lathe-like apparatus. Single-piece columns are one of the heaviest stones found in architecture. Other stone columns are manufactured out of multiple sections of stone, mortared or dry-fit together. In lots of classical sites, sectioned columns were carved with a center hole or depression in order that they could be pegged together, using stone or metal pins. The look of most classical columns incorporates enchases (the inclusion of hook outward curve in the sides) plus a decrease in diameter along the height of the column, so that the top is as little as 83% of the bottom diameter. This reduction mimics the parallax effects that your eye expects to see, and can make columns look taller and straighter than they can be while enchases ads to that effect.
Modern columns are constructed out of steel, poured or precast concrete, or brick. They could then be clad in an architectural covering or left bare.
There are many types of columns such as steel, concrete, wooden etc. but inside lovely professional university, columns preferred are made of concrete.
The high compressive strength of high-strength concrete is particularly advantageous in compressed members such as columns, that can be made more slender and, consequently, make financial benefits possible. However, the behavior of high-strength concrete columns is not yet fully understood. This thesis handles the behavior of reinforced normal and high-strength concrete columns under compressive loading. Numerical results from non-linear finite factor analyses were compared with results from columns tested.
In today's study, thirty reinforced short stub concrete columns and sixteen reinforced long slender concrete columns have been tested under axial compressive short-term loading to failure. In addition, two long slender columns were subjected to sustained compressive loading. The parameters varied in the analysis were the concrete strength, stirrup spacing, reinforcement strength, slenderness of the columns, and eccentricity of the axial load applied.
The test results for the short stub columns show that the load capacity increased compared to the increased compressive cylinder strength. The short stub columns of high-strength concrete exhibited an abrupt, explosive kind of failure. When the concrete strength of the long slender columns was increased, the utmost load capacity became greater. Although closer stirrup spacing didn't provide an upsurge in load bearing capacity, it did supply the columns a more ductile behavior in the post-peak region. The most important parameters for obtaining a ductile behavior were the spacing of the stirrups and the reinforcement configuration. Furthermore, it was observed that the stirrups in the high-strength concrete columns didn't necessarily yield at maximum load. Therefore, to estimate the strength properly it's important to utilize the actual stirrup strain or to design the reinforcement configuration so that yielding is reached at maximum load. Tests showed that the structural behavior of the reinforced high-strength concrete columns is favorable for sustained loading, i. e. , the column exhibited less tendency to creep and may sustain the axial load without much increase of deformation for a longer period of your time.
The nonlinear finite factor analyses show good agreement with the test outcomes. The analyses have been performed with two types of elements, beam elements and three-dimensional solid elements; each type has its advantages. This study has shown that the non-linear finite component method, as well as non-linear fracture mechanics, offers a useful tool for the detailed analysis of reinforced concrete structures and contributes to a better understanding of the structural behavior of reinforced concrete columns subjected to axial loading.
4. The beams. These contain the horizontal elements that rest over the floor. The beams lean their weight over the pillars and are often times made out of concrete mix with reinforcement. A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. The bending force induced into the material of the beam consequently of the external loads, own weight, span and external reactions to these loads is called a bending moment.
Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but may also be used to transport horizontal loads (i. e. , loads due to an earthquake or wind). The loads carried by a beam are used in columns, walls, or girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members. In light frame construction the joists rest on the beam.
Beams are characterized by their profile (the form of these cross-section), their length, and their material. In modern day construction, beams are usually made of steel, reinforced concrete, or wood. One of the most frequent types of steel beam is the I-beam or wide-flange beam (also known as a "universal beam" or, for stouter sections, a "universal column"). This is commonly used in steel-frame buildings and bridges. Other common beam profiles will be the C-channel, the hollow structural section beam, the pipe, and the angle.
Most beams in reinforced concrete buildings have rectangular cross sections, but the most effective cross section for a simply supported beam is an I or H section. Because of the parallel axis theorem and the actual fact that almost all of the material is away from the neutral axis, the next moment of section of the beam increases, which escalates the stiffness.
An I-beam is merely the most effective shape in one direction of bending: along taking a look at the profile as an I. If the beam is bent side to side, it functions as an H where it is less efficient. The most effective form for both directions in 2D is a box (a square shell) nevertheless the most efficient shape for bending in any direction is a cylindrical shell or tube. But, for unidirectional bending, the I or wide flange beam is superior.
Efficiency means that for the same cross sectional area (volume of beam per length) put through the same loading conditions, the beam deflects less.
Other shapes, like L (angles), C (channels) or tubes, are also used in construction whenever there are special requirements
5. Shuttering and scarf folding. It could be seen in almost all of the buildings. Shuttering is filling the concrete mix to construct pillars, beams, roof slabs etc. Scaffolding is done to give a platform for workers.
READY MIX CONCRETE. Ready-mix concrete is a kind of concrete that is made in a factory or batching plant, according to a set recipe, and then sent to a work site, by truck mounted transit mixers. This ends up with an accurate mixture, allowing specialty concrete mixtures to be developed and implemented on construction sites. Ready-mix concrete may also be preferred over on-site concrete mixing due to precision of the mixture and reduced work site confusion. However, utilizing a pre-determined concrete mixture reduces flexibility, both in the supply chained in the actual components of the concrete. Ready Mixed Concrete, or RMC as it is popularly called, refers to concrete that is specifically made for delivery to the customer's construction site in a freshly mixed and plastic or unhardened state. Concrete itself is a mixture of Portland cement, water and aggregates comprising sand and gravel or crushed stone. In traditional work sites, each one of these materials is procured separately and mixed in specified proportions at site to make concrete. Ready Mixed Concrete is purchased and sold by volume - usually expressed in cubic meters.
Ready Mixed Concrete is made under computer-controlled procedures and transported and placed at site using superior equipment and methods. RMC assures its customers numerous benefits.
CONCRETE MIX PLANT AT L. P. U
Advantages of Ready mix Concrete over Site mix Concrete
A centralized concrete batching plant can serve a wide area.
The plants are located in areas zoned for industrial use, yet the delivery trucks can service residential districts or inner cities.
Better quality concrete is produced.
Elimination of space for storage for basic materials at site.
Elimination of procurement / hiring of plant and machinery
Wastage of basic materials is avoided.
Labor associated with production of concrete is eliminated.
Time required is greatly reduced.
Noise and dust pollution at site is reduced.
Disadvantages of Ready-Mix Concrete
The materials are batched at a central plant, and the mixing commences at that plant, so the traveling time from the plant to the website is critical over longer distances. Some sites are just too much away, though normally, this is a commercial rather than technical issue.
Generation of additional road traffic; furthermore, access roads, and site access have to be able to carry the weight of the truck and load. Concrete is approx. 2. 5tonne per m. This issue can be overcome by utilizing so-called 'minimix' companies, using smaller 4m capacity mixers able to access more restricted sites.
Concrete's limited span of time between mixing and going-off means that ready-mix should be put within 90 minutes of batching at the plant.
I am excited for your satisfaction towards this submission.
=Er. Deepak kumar, J. E. , G. S. TRADERS
=Self visits on sites
=Photography source - self captured images from different sites inside LPU