Posted at 10.13.2018
The concept of learning is affected by the mental study of the training process and it is generally interpreted in the popular use. The psychological concept stretches quite way and includes all elements of children's development, from vocabulary acquisition to communal roles and changes in their personality. Language teaching can be extensively interpreted as all activities designed to aid and cause terms learning. At the beginning of learning the new terms, the learner's knowledge has nothing or hardly any organizations with the language, it is really as a child learning its first words. Having less contact with the dialect and the lack of a safe guide system can give the learner an intellectual and emotional surprise which can discourage from further learning. Thus, the task for the teacher is to get over children's disorientation which characterises the origins of learning, build-up and associate something of positive behaviour and thoughts with the terms: that is, having the ability to reply spontaneously and also to think in the second language. In coaching of the next language, certain social strategy is also needed, so that children should feel a need of imitation and find the second language in the same way as their first one. (H. H. Stern Fundamental Ideas of Terminology Teaching:397-400)
Children's world is dependant on games and having fun and the same should apply to their learning. Children should not be alert to learning, neither lexicon nor sentence structure, but the instructor can certainly use these facts to teach the spanish through games, reviews and sounds. In teacher's use young learners, it is important to instruct them corresponding to subconscious and pedagogical guidelines. The amount of material that your learners can remember depends on teaching techniques and what sort of material is drilled. It is important to keep in mind that insufficient stress in learning makes it more efficient and easier to use within real situations. Furthermore, only friendly frame of mind of the teacher towards a learner, teacher's determination for learning and using all methods of leisure can protect a kid from being discourages and timid in learning and using the foreign language. Any good organizations with parts of the materials can cause that vocabulary or sentence structure will be better and longer remembered. Additionally it is important that children's amount course is quite brief which is crucial to use any types of procedures which can make the learner able to longer concentration. College student should be involved and thinking about the lessons (Brzeziski 1987: 145-150).
Children's learning is dependant on imitation and having fun rather than on the knowing of learning. Imitation is the easiest way of bringing out new vocabulary and its own goal is to lead to correct articulation and intonation of may seem and their memorization. In teaching young learners, intonation exercises are specially useful because of children's overall flexibility of larynx which disappears as time passes. In conditions of imitation exercises, the tutor should pay attention to learners' reactions dependant on their age. Furthermore, the educator should change the techniques of teaching to avoid learners getting uninterested (Wonicki, T. / Zawadzka, E. 1979: 60).
Most activities for children should consist of movement and require their senses. The instructor needs many things, visuals and pictures to utilize, and to develop a possibility to work with all of the school's surroundings. It is also very important to the professor to allow pupils play with the words, talk to themselves around it's possible, use melodies, rhymes and notify stories. As a matter of fact, the instructor should let pupils discuss even nonsense to enable them to experiment with the language. The basic principle in coaching a terminology is a number of activities, pace, organisation, tone and face expressions. Nevertheless, exercises in the school room are also essential so the children can know the guidelines, have the ability to use the symbol system and complete responsibilities. Using familiar situations or activities creates the atmosphere of security, specifically for the timid learners. Another important conditions in making teaching a language efficient is the classroom atmosphere. Through the lesson, there is supposed to be room for distributed activities, group work, couple work; furthermore, rewards and awards should be avoided. It is much more great for the tutor to take notes about each pupil regularly in the event the teacher wish to advise the pupils' parents about their improvement (W. A. Scott Teaching British to Children:5-7).
From around 1975, "terms acquisition" is contrasted with terminology learning. The North american applied linguist Krashen uses the word "acquisition" to spell it out learning of the second words which is analogous to how a child learns "naturally" his or her first terminology and does not give attention to the linguistic form. The disadvantage of Krashen's terminology is that it's contrasted with subconscious conditions. Krashen differentiates between "acquisition" and "learning", as learning for him is pretty much conscious. It is a very valuable differentiation but it means a constraint on the utilization of the word "learning", and sometimes deliberately restricts it to the school-like learning (H. H. Stern Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching: 18-20).
In the light of an early on start of vocabulary learning, Anderson promises that just how a person acquires mother tongue still remains a riddle. Between birth and the fifth season of life, children develop their ability to speak. Children in the first stage observe people' behaviour and any noises they produce. After some time, they start understand this is of such sounds without seeing adults' movements. The next thing is imitation of does sound and (partially) a creation of their own ones. Consequently, children find out they can control individuals' behavior by making sure does sound. Lonnerberg mentions that only 10% of children's utterings is similar to individuals' ones and this 90% of such utterings is their own vocabulary production. As far as it is concerned, children's words acquisition is a dispute between an innate, individual parole and the langue created and employed by the contemporary society (Brzeziski 1987: 22-23).
Regarding the age of the earliest acquisition and learning point as labor and birth, the best instant to start instructing a child the other spanish is age 4-5. This is because of children's flexible larynx which allows for nearly ideal imitation of does sound and the most effective brain which all together produce a great opportunity for words acquisition. Nevertheless, only before get older of 12-13, children keep their overall flexibility and natural readiness for terms acquisition. Lenneberg shows through lengthened case studies the phases of physiological maturity steps occurring in the brain's hemispheres (especially the left one), which is prominent. What is more, if it happens that the left hemisphere is ruined before the era of 12-13, it's possible that the right hemisphere takes over the domination and talk problems can be reduced. Furthermore, after this age such a process is nearly impossible (Brzeziski 1987: 28-29).
The happening of mom tongue acquisition is interesting for linguists, psychologists, neuropsychologists and even neurophysiologists. Furthermore, it is connected with natural bilingualism which occurs when a child learns, in an all natural way, the next language. The process of the second words acquisition in natural conditions is quite like the first language acquisition or even equivalent. The only real difference between those two is the fact that the next words is assimilated later and is based on experience and understanding of the first one and, as a result, the complete process happens faster and better (Brzeziski 1987: 18).
Chomsky(1964) said ". . . it is a common observation a youngster of immigrant parents may learn another language in the pub, with amazing rapidity, and that this conversation may be completely fluent and correct to the last allophone, as the subtleties that become second characteristics to the kid may elude his parents despite determination and prolonged practice" (Brzeziski 1987: 8).
The first international reaching connected with children's acquisition and its own use in educating foreign languages occurred in Hamburg in 1961. Participant tried out to find out if it's right to expose foreign dialects in the principal schools, if it's true that children learn better than teenagers and adults and which techniques are said to be used in instructing them. After four years, the second meeting took place and the first answers were given. During many decades, lots of in contrast opinions developed. As early as 1967, Corder points out: "It still remains to be shown that the procedure of learning second language is of fundamentally different nature from the procedure of key acquisition". On the other hand, in 1972, Moulton strains that in instructing a foreign language to small children you'll be able to choose some methods and intuition steps, used by a kid during mom tongue acquisition, and weave them into learning of the spanish (Brzeziski 1987: 8).
In 1960s, the matter of teaching a spanish during the early age was a subject of many conversations. After the warfare, in many methodological catalogs it was said that children may easily absorb, imitate and produce the new dialect. Learning of languages in the early age is connected with the habit of duplicating words and phrases in a spanish and acquisition of terminology material by making use of various storage techniques. The technique of frequent repetition of the material, as the main key to learning a language, is also backed by many psychologists such as Watson and Thorndike. In many psychological catalogs, it is straightforward to find many completely different definitions of habit. Corresponding to "May sownik psychologiczny", habit is well-practised through numerous repetitions: actions that happen to be done always just as and automatically. This meaning can bring anyone to a wrong opinion that you need to always react in the same way. Lado definites habit as fluency in using products and types of a particular dialect in answering while attention is not paid to models but to content. You will find many more definitions of habit compiled by A. Szulc, Lompscher or Rubinsztejn, but all these definitions come down to the final outcome that the behavior is way of auto mechanic, unconscious repetition and conscious production leading to the conscious process where awareness is removed as long as the automatic element is eliminated. In cases like this, the actual fact that the procedure of repetition is the most crucial originates from the judgment of psychologists based on the theory that acquiring the mom tongue comes from the imitation of men and women. There are also certain reasons immediately influencing and shaping the process of learning and its own efficiency:
age - following the age of 10, terms acquisition convenience diminishes. Children's minds lose their overall flexibility and it is not so easy to get a dialect. Younger learners have better and much more specific memory space but have less ability to learn and need more repetitions. Children are more eager to imitate but employ a short concentration span. Their mechanical recollection is better than that of the individuals, and their brief recollection is more dynamic and far better. The older the child, the greater specific just how of learning is. Older children have their own range of memory, their long-term storage is more developed and more logic. They can focus more easily and have wider general knowledge. Being more mature, having better learning techniques and better determination, the young and parents can easily make up this things, which children can reach because of their imitating skills and even more flexible brains.
attitude - in learning, there are extensive elements that have affect on better acquisition or learning, but attitude is one of the main since it stimulates brain to raised work and makes storage area work more efficiently. Furthermore, the lack of determination can cause that person who is not considering the topic or in learning itself will not bear in mind anything.
previous experience connected with the material that should be learned - a lot more experience the learner has, the easier and better learning is perfect for him or her.
material and content - there are a few units of material which are more challenging to comprehend or remember, for example, phrases which have tons of information. Also, how big is the material, the length of sentences, the sort of material (Passive Tone of voice phrases are harder to remember and require longer time for you to learn than Working Voice sentences) significantly impact the potency of the learning process.
way of learning - Humans use mechanical or logical recollection while the reasonable an example may be more preferred and an integral part of material discovered in a reasonable way isn't just simpler to reconstruct, but also stays on longer in human memory. Certain studies show that communicating in a foreign language isn't just a simple duplication of materials that was discovered. A learner should pay attention to very basic patterns that can be modified and up to date with new vocabulary and set ups. Mechanised memorising of phrases can be even a quite dangerous and difficult factor because certain terms elements happen in a particular arrangement, in a way they were discovered and drilled by exercises.
number of exercises and repetitions - Emotional research demonstrates the long term memory is expanded compared to the learning time. What is more, overlearning is an essential aspect in the memorizing process. The higher the level of overlearning, the slower is the procedure of forgetting. Yet, the amount of overlearning is reached individually after every learner performs a number of repetitions. At the same time, mindless repetitions can't be cared for as overlearning.
time spent on learning - It's important how long and how often repetitions and exercises are done. Repeated and short exercises are better than unusual and long ones (Wonicki, T. / Zawadzka, E. 1979: 30-40).
Learning styles are various ways of learning. They involve education methods, characteristic for an individual, which are being used by the individual to learn best. The alleged basis and effectiveness for these proposals have been extensively criticized. Learning styles be based upon individual choices, and, regarding to Nail Fleming, such styles may be divided into four categories.
The fist group is constructed of visible learners, who, as the term suggestsplies, obtain most information aesthetically. These learners tend to do well at public schools because the majority of what they are trained is offered through visual coaching tools. They prosper with visual supports like pictures. For aesthetic learners, the easiest way to learn is seeing and contacting up visuals in their minds to keep in mind what they analyzed before. They are likely toward appreciating arts: crafts, painting or theatre. They have a tendency to be creative and imaginative.
The second group are auditory learners who have a tendency to learn better through being attentive. They pay attention to instructions and follow them so that they can gather large amounts of information and package with it. Auditory learners are incredibly good at listening to lectures and discussions for a bit longer without getting weary. They are more focused than visual learners and may become more discerning and attentive in the class. They prefer to review with music in the backdrop. These students can also be creative and imaginative. These are good at hearing information and reproducing it in their individual ways.
Students with another style known as kinesthetic learning might be mistaken for too mixed up in classroom. They do not like looking forward to information. They choose to find things out for themselves without any prompts. They are the explorers who wish to make new discoveries. They are quick to learn new things and don't mind being kept independently with a specific toy to discover how it works. They could be successful in sensible tasks, such as carpentry and design. These children favor doing somewhat than thinking. Homeschooling might be a much better for these learners because regular class room activities might not be interesting enough for the coffee lover.
The forth group consists of logical learners who think in a conceptual manner. They explore habits and prefer to understand how things work. They often times ask questions and are good at puzzles, math problems, strategy games and personal computers. They understand abstract concepts faster than others. These students prefer inventing and building their own contraptions, for example, with gadgets (http://www. ehow. com/info_7881656_inventory-learning-styles-child. html#ixzz1MXMcJS9C).
According to many researches, children have a lot of problems when seeking to keep in mind and repeat parts of material or longer phrases. In a situation when a group of kindergarten children was asked to keep in mind and repeat, these were passive and even did not take any action to do so. 8-year-old children are a marginally better and show some will to do what these were asked, although only the 10-year-old children and more mature pupils are able to deal with successful memorization, data handling and are even able to organise new information to remember it better. Corresponding to the research, you can observe that at the beginning children may use only simple techniques and soon after a while those techniques develop, become more complicated and fitted to individual choices and styles. This simple truth is quite disturbing because through the very early school-years children are often required to bear in mind mane, sometimes even complicated information like lyrics, grammar rules or explanations. On the other hand, children can easily learn their mom tongue, they broaden their understanding of society or characteristics quite fast. Children tend to be able to replicate the dialogue of these parents even if indeed they seem not considering it. In their first years, they are not aware of how their memory works. The 'flash recollection' term became very popular in line with the found out phenomena that many people have perfect understanding and choose things they noticed rather than those that they listened to. It is a very important undeniable fact that children use display ram in a metaphorical way because they mechanically transfer the received information to their storage area. Everything seen by people is appreciated for an extremely short time in their operation memory. To get a long-term memorisation, it pays to to add various visual supports the teaching process. Children are able to bear in mind not only pictures but also many details from such pictures. However, sometimes an image shown to a child may be just a little different, may have different colors or figures (especially of these elements which astonished the child). Autistic children employ a efficient flash ram and after a few seconds they could memorise very complicated and thorough pictures; what is more, they do so without much work.
From the recently discussed research, one can deduct that only from age ten children can consciously memorise some facts for a longer time. More effective memory depends on which analysis techniques the child uses. Those research strategies consist of certain elements like:
the level of consciousness and knowing of the aim the child is learning for and willingness the child hasmemorisation strategy
effort used to learn a specific part of the material
Sometimes it's very hard to show which component from those mentioned above is needed. It could be even said that children create memorization strategies in internalisation. Before a child creates its own strategy of learning, a kid cannot achieve better results in learning however when those strategies already are created, the child knows how to review to achieve his or her aim. Then, the process of memorisation becomes faster, easier and more efficient. Over time, children not only learn how to learn faster but can also understand more and do this more freely. Nevertheless, at age six it is still very complicated for the young learner to organise materials which must be learnt, which is why children begin to repeat. Only nine-year-old children are consciously in a position to group certain pictures into categories to accomplish better memorisation. Last but not least, one can simply say that children develop their memorisation skills regarding to their time and in this process children remember those things which they pay attention to but it is short memory and at the same time hard storage which are used. Level of sensitivity on keeping storage area on the alert and reaction do not be based upon where this new information originates from (society, aspect or their own body) but in case of children it is principally automatically received and refined by their brain. This technique happens quickly and almost with no work and the educator cannot see those processes and cannot stop or enhance them. This technique can be only halted and controlled, but then it works much slower and requires some effort. Furthermore, a child needs to be conscious of information and has to recognise it. To distinguish between automatic and controlled memorisation, one can distinguish three degrees of the automatisation operations:
the first level is dominated by the automated use of information (also without attending to)
the second level is partly computerized when attention is not focused on information
the third level is only rarely computerized but full attention is necessary in this case ( E. Gruszczyk- Kolczyska, Ewa Zieliska Wspomaganie dzieci w rozwoju zdolnoci do skupiania uwagi i zapamitywania WSiP Warszawa 2005: 52-68).
Media themselves may create plenty of positive things but also the negative ones into the human life, condition attitudes and mentality of the teenagers. Furthermore, especially children may be easily inspired by commercials. Advertising contents are taken to people through the Internet, radio or television, and such mass media information consists of specific stimuli which affect brain, senses and create or change attitudes and means of looking at the truth. The good area of the press is the fact that it is designed for people's development, making life far more convenient, introducing cultural and personal beliefs and leading to that long distances are much easier to overcome. Because of this, even such aspects as education or culture are nearer to various and segregated nations. On the other hand, mass media turn into a kind of of the boundary or a cage when a person is isolated from the others, as it might create a situation of misunderstanding and limit of your respective sociable life which is then substituted with cyberspace.
Needless to say, the media induced radical reorganisation of the public life. In conditions of education and upbringing of young technology, the mass media are creating new types of personalities, sort of a new civilisation. This new era of media-people is an inextricable part of the modern life, and can be source of many good, positive and enhancing aspects as well as bad, demoralising, violent and the ones encouraging unacceptable deviations.
The reality of striving for far better ways of teaching is a main subject of several modern studies. Nowadays, to be able to attain the goal it is natural to make use of the most entertaining and universal tools like the Internet and other mass media. Thanks to these tools, learning can become more pleasurable and successful for the learners and also easier and less effort-requiring for the instructors. Increasingly more modern coaching techniques make education up-to-date and invite for going out of (old) traditional methods in education and create the modern style of integration of education with entertainment. Within this framework, education becomes something, (almost a scientific device), a way to obtain educational tools and a motivation for the unconscious learning.
Media may be easily and openly used not only in college coaching but also in private, out-school or even global, sociable, personal and ethnic training. They can provide reports, information and educational content using all possible multilingual tools. What is more, this type of device has certain aspects which are singled out by Henryk Grudzie in his work Mass media jako skadnik procesu dydaktyczno-wychowawczego:
direct influence - which means that especially tv programs and movies immediately affect their audience (individuals feelings and intellect)
building-up affect - means accumulating information, associations and feelings linked with videos or TV programs which cause some changes in the individuals psyche
subconscious impact - like the one above, however the audience is not aware of changes in its attitudes because at the beginning the audience refuses the given thought process due to its unsuitable content and after some time its amount of resistance disappears.
Media likewise have a tremendous effect on the lifestyle of the young people, and they have an effect on tons of spheres of young people's lives, for example:
the influence on just how that an individual behaves (making decisions, extreme behaviour, social activities etc. )
the effect on the level of knowledge (degree of information, selection of knowledge, level of communication skills etc. )
the influence on frame of mind (believes, religion, judging of other people, etc. )
the effect on physical fitness (damaging of senses, insufficient motion, dependency)
The processes mentioned previously be based upon many conditions such as age, psyche, actual situation in one's life, degree of knowledge, weather, host to getting such information or influences, company or gender. For example, the most influential may be considered a film observed in a theatre where the level of focus is very high, a little weaker may be television and the weakest the radio.
Nobody can refuse that modern tools has evolved and revolutionized education. Teachers also have quickly adjusted their teaching methods in a response to new technology because devices in the classroom can create a far more interesting, interactive and enjoyable environment. If colleges strive to match technological trends, then the learning that occurs there becomes more relevant and meaningful for the learners. The Internet and computer knowledge and literacy of major software packages is no longer reserved only for higher educational systems or special trade academic institutions in the present day society. ( http://www. ehow. com/about_5410187_uses-modern-technology-classroom-teaching. html#ixzz1Iai4xP5X)
Many children, when going to school, deal with individual issues based on their opportunities. Nowadays, from the early time, children get accustomed to computers, the web and other modern technology. The gain access to and the utilization of the Internet fulfil many of the aims of education. What is more, it broadens children's head horizons, provides them a feeling responsibility, builds up their self-esteem and develops their autonomy. An enormous advantage of the net is its quick access and lack of duty to truly have a face-to-face contact. The writer of the publication Special educational needs and the Internet: issues for the inclusive class Chris Abbott cases that there are four guidelines and each one shows that websites and the web have become an important tool for teaching as the pupils are:
Informed - THE WEB is a source of information and media used in subject work, planning trips, internet sites pictures of classmates' work, connection with other pupils even outside the school, community or town and also link with past friends.
Involved - Inside the virtual tour, in preparing materials, in creating and sharing their ideas; in group with the built in activities where physical presence is not significant.
Empowered - permitting access for children with any physical problems, various tools, e-mails
Recognised - pictures online of the children and their work, whiles of the school council assembly, aiding successes and building self-esteem. (111-112)
The Internet has a big part to experience in the foreseeable future education of the young people. In this booklet, the writer included many useful tips when using computers in instructing young learners. For example, the webpage a teacher needs to work with should be placed on the display screen before children enter into the classroom. What is very important, personal computers should be set in a way so that the children cannot available unauthorized sites and also it is important to remind the kids of behaving in a good way to avoid the pupils from running to get to the computers first. Additionally it is useful to develop a set of computer room rules. Wherever possible, there must be no more than three pupils per one computer. If children cannot start to see the screen, they could quickly lose interest in their assignment work and may not be happy to learn. Each one of these elements can make children more focused and make learning far better (C. Abbott Special educational needs and the Internet: issues for the inclusive classroom New York 2002).