Posted at 12.14.2018
As due to this the reader is compelled to read on and in doing so the connection with Oskar becomes more powerful.
The characterization of Oskar is interesting; he is a precocious polymath but also destroyed and traumatised. Oskar's trauma stems from the increased loss of his father at the hands of the 9/11 atrocity. Clear indicators of trauma are shown by Oskar, nothing more so than that of repetition. Oskar starts his repetition by listening to his fathers last words on a voicemail kept on the family answering machine over and over as well as timing the previous message. Due to the last concept Oskar concludes that his father must have died when the towers collapsed. The very fact that he replays the information over and over makes his fathers loss of life less abstract as it would be if he had died of natural triggers.
This uncertainty increases Oskar's original trauma as he succumbs from what Sigmund Freud called repetition compulsion as "he cannot break free out of this compulsion to repeat" (Benjamin 147) the function again and again in his mind's eye. This repetition only heightens Oskar's stress as he cannot put thoughts of his fathers' death to relax.
Another reoccurring factor is Oskar's repeated use of the phrase heavy boots which it can be argued is a metaphor for his trauma and also his guilt. Guilt that he survived your day but also guilt over if he treasured his father enough. The fact that Oskar viewed his dad as "just a typical daddy" (Foer 159) whom he wished was famous implies that Oskar will not want his fathers loss of life to be trivialized because even though over 3000 people perished in the catastrophe, his fathers fatality holds significance.
Oskar is an innovative thinker but also an over thinker who often over analyzes things, this in conjunction with him continuously inventing will keep his mind active and halts him heading crazy, "I had a need to take action, like sharks, who pass away if indeed they don't swim" (Foer 87)
In contrast to this over thinking, Oskar's curiosity has suffered as a result of his stress "I wanted to know everything I informed him but that's not true any more. " (Foer 2)
The nearest Oskar reaches breaking this repetitive circuit is when he hides the answering machines but this only goes to show that Oskar is also struggling another typical indicator of stress - denial. By hiding the messages Oskar is denying the impact the announcements have had after him.
Oskar begins his seek out the lock that will fit the main element he discovers in his fathers closet but sees freedom from his guilt and his stress.
Foer's structuralism is sporadic at best; photographs are put regularly which is incredibly effective in making the reader participate completely with the e book as, to offer Roland Barthes (Barthes 84)
"The particular photograph reproduces to infinity has happened only once: the photo mechanically repeats what could never be repeated existentially. "
The juxtaposition of images in the written content material seizes the visitors' attention and regulates the thought process of the reader whilst making a meta-text which is much more than ink and paper. In what of Napoleon Bonaparte "a picture speaks one thousand words. " However Jean Paul Sartre argues that "words are filled pistols" (Nelson 1) and for that reason just like powerful.
The narrative speech changes regularly therefore the reader has to differentiate which personality is indeed speaking as "narrative continuity was cracked" (Tambling 49 ) but this is easily achieved by recognising each of the narrator's distinctive style.
Oskar's grandmother narrates in the first person through letters she published to Oskar and exactly like Oskar she's suffered from injury due to the Dresden bombings which killed her sister. She, however, is pleased to leave her past behind which is shown through the blank web pages she uses to your investment history; she creates blankness in mind and in publication. She creates places of nothingness where she can become invisible and hide from her trauma.
Foer set ups Grandmothers narrative in a very specific and static manner, all her letters commence with lines in a homogeneous design, no paragraph is distinguishable from the last, she uses bare web pages and images are strategically set. This disjointed writing indicates that she is experiencing been jammed in a place with no likelihood of changeover. She uses large places between her writing which really is a connotation for avoidance; she is avoiding writing content that remind her of the traumatic events she's endured. She also seems guilt that she survived but her sister didn't because as Cathy Caruth state governments "survival itself can be a turmoil. " (Caruth 9)
The blank internet pages symbolise how Grandmother is at denial, denying her former by refusing to writer her life tale due to picking the tips from the keyboard.
Grandmother is unable to process the shock she suffers whilst witnessing the twin towers getting rid of as is expressed in the way Foer set ups her narrative describing planes crashing into the building, people covered in dust. This is repeated on numerous situations displaying that she, like Oskar, is suffering from repetition compulsion.
Conversely Oskar's Grandfather is aphasic for reasons unidentified, it could however be considered a symbol for the increased loss of his boy. He communicates through his notebooks which supply the most interesting narrative structure of the novel. The note e book contains various assertions with red correction marks on most pages slowly but surely increasing before webpage is a sea of red printer ink, that could symbolise his desire to erase and appropriate the past. Exactly like Grandmother he too has experienced the trauma from the Dresden structures, he lost his wife (grandmothers' sister) to the bombs and this has a substantial impact upon him. Grandfather's use of solitary lines on a full page shows, like grandmother, that he has a hard time communicating both in today's but also about days gone by and a person who will not value himself.
Foer's use of eccentric narrative framework works extremely well and fully engages the readers attention as Adam Phelan avows that "We have three items of view (though only pone narrative voice since all the people viewpoints are indicated in in-direct style)" (Chatman 217)
McEwan's bildungsroman novel Atonement gets the narrative voice associated with an omniscient third person as "the narrator simply does not make reference to himself at all" (Chatman 209)
The book itself works on a bivalent temporal system and it is a metafiction as it "exploits the theory that it is (only) fiction, a fiction about fiction. " (Bennett 209)
The story starts with the reader being launched to a 13 calendar year old young lady known as Briony Tallis whom, Exactly like Oskar Briony is precocious, we quickly establish her as the implied creator. Booth suggests that "the implied creator is apparently an anthropomorphic entity, often selected as the authors' second home" (Rimmon-Kenan 89)
Part one uses six different viewpoints which will make the structure far more complex than other part of the novel. The concluding London 1999 portion of the novel bears the initials B. T revealing that Briony has been the author throughout the book, which is intradiegetically narrated.
The framework of parts one and two are written in a manner that suggests that they may be indeed one third person autobiography although Culler argues that "narrators do not have true omniscience. " (Herman 391)
McEwan, like Foer, uses characters between characters to show communication but the differing perspectives aren't as easily distinguishable as in Foer's novel as they are interwoven in the story.
As the ultimate coda reveals that it's Briony that has written the book it becomes clear that she actually is no more omniscient as she actually is indeed objective as "a target narrative will not get into the brains of the individuals" (McMahan 140)
McEwan's use of characterisation can be best seen through Paul Marshall, a minor yet significant personality. Paul is by all accounts a processed and honourable son deriving from top quality.
However he is also somewhat of any paradoxical number as it his heinous offense (the rape of Lola) that places the whole book in motion. Right from the start it is obvious that he's arrogant as observed by his insistence on making the family cocktails, a work normally expected as the sponsor not the guest at a house party. The fact that the cocktail was not "particularly relaxing" (McEwan 125) only highlighted the sociable protocol he previously broken.
After Paul understated details Cecilia in a intimate manner which is rebuffed he becomes his focus on Lola who accepts his advances until he becomes too heavy handed and leaves a tag upon her. As Paul is from high world the sound created by this step is dismissed by the others as he's from a class that could not act in such a manner and certainly would not be included in Leon's friends if he had not been a good man.
At evening meal Paul is brash and impolite yet makes no apology for it.
After meal it is Paul who Briony views raping Loa but scheduled to her disapproving of Robbie and Cecilia she accuses Robbie who's sentenced to jail as he's from less class.
Lola who knows the truth ultimately stands by and allows an innocent man go to prison for a criminal offense he didn't commit, ironically she and Paul would later marry, uniting the binary opposition of good and evil - rapist and victim. This comes after Levi-Strauss' view that narratives are organised around conflict by binary oppositions. This view is reinforced by Todorov's advice that "all narratives follow a rigorous pattern of equilibrium accompanied by disequilibrium and concluding with re equilibrium. " (Harari 24)
As due to this the book is Briony's work of atonement for the criminal offense against life and love she committed on the fateful day in the summertime of 1935, but as Briony said "atonement was always an impossible activity" (McEwan 371)
Atonement is an anachrony and it is written in the past tense for the first three parts which forms a retrospective polychromic narrative which defamiliarizes the viewers as this is not revealed until the final result as it relies on analepsis, which is suitable as "Novelistic time is time without nicks, amount of time in which multiple causes and choices develop gradually. " (Waugh 221)
As Briony is the protagonist and center point of the book Todorov's perception that "we will understand narrative better if we know that the character is a noun, the action a verb" (Harland 226) seems somewhat apt. Atonement is internally focalized "with this great variety of form related to perspectivesAtonement provides incredible many areas of multi-perspectival narration. " (Mauter 16)