Posted at 12.19.2018
In traditional Greece two great written philosophers lived. First there was Plato and then Aristotle. Aristotle was a pupil of Plato. Despite being taught by Plato that they had different theories and views. Their ethics were very typical and traditional of historic Greece but Aristotle detailed virtue ethics and the road to contentment. Plato's political ideas for a utopian culture varied from Aristotle's view of 'best condition for each society'. Their metaphysical ideas are complete opposites and incredibly contradicting. Even though Plato and Aristotle originated from the same period and were meticulously linked that they had very different philosophies.
Plato experienced typical views of ethics for an ancient Greek. Aristotle distributed these views he was more specific about ethics and the road to happiness. Plato and Aristotle both thought a good person choose morally sensible choices for their reason and good character. Somebody who employs their good persona and reason instead of wanting to avoid outcomes is a virtuous person. Aristotle believed "virtue is a matter of developing the initial potential to reason. "(Pacquette 268) Being virtuous to Plato and Aristotle also designed, "doing things- no matter what these exact things were- in a way that reflected rational thought and included making the best of one's skills, abilities and opportunities. " (Pacquette 268) Aristotle and Plato both agreed that a person's good moral persona and reason guided their ethical choices. A good moral life to them would lead to "eudaimonia, an ancient Greek term that translates into English as enjoyment. " (Pacquette 268) Though Plato talked and composed about virtue and pleasure, Aristotle went into great fine detail about his ideas. Aristotle is recognized as the originator of the idea of virtue ethics. "Aristotle organised that we now have three types of delight. The first form of pleasure is a life of pleasure and fun. The next form of enjoyment is a life as a free of charge and liable citizen. The 3rd form of pleasure is a life as a thinker and philosopher. "(Gaarder 115) Aristotle believed that for a person to achieve eudaimonia, they must achieve all three forms of happiness otherwise they will not be truly happy and satisfied because their life would be unbalanced. Aristotle thought balance is paramount to happiness. "To be a good person, regarding to Aristotle, is to do something relative to right reason, quite simply, the rational area of the heart must control the irrational parts by choosing to follow a middle avenue or mean between the extremes of extra and deficiency. This is Aristotle's theory of the Golden Mean. "(Pacquette 268) Aristotle thought that true pleasure could only happen when people live balanced life, Plato also decided. "The ethics of both Plato and Aristotle contain echoes of Greek drugs: only by exercising balance and temperance will achieve a happy or 'harmonious' life. " (Gaarder 115) Both Plato and Aristotle arranged that a well-balanced life is an excellent life, which with reason people will make morally good selections but Aristotle assumed that this didn't come by natural means. He felt that "moral virtue is the result of behavior and training. Because if this, he assumed that individuals can be educated to be virtuous. He said that individuals must know- the deliberately choose to do- what is good. "(Pacquette 269) Aristotle and Plato possessed very similar views on ethics anticipated to both living in the same era in traditional Greece.
Political and social theories between your two philosophers were completely different. Plato had very Totalitarian or even communist views for state. He in his novel The Republic, he describes in much details his utopian world. He felt world should be organized into three categories: "rulers, auxiliaries and labourers. "(Gaarder 91) The rulers or guardian class would have reason; education and cleverness this would make them perfect for leadership. Plato called these rulers 'Philosopher Kings', they would rule for the nice of all in the contemporary society. Philosopher Kings would not be permitted to possess material objects concerning avoid corruption. Private possession and wealth would not be allowed in Plato's condition. "Everyone would own property in common, and money wouldn't can be found. "(Pacquette 389) In this manner Plato's utopian modern culture resembled a communist point out but he did this because he "strongly thought that abolishing wealth and private possession of property would get rid of the difference between rich and poor. This might mean that individuals would be recognized only by their intellect and figure, not by family record or personal prosperity. "(Pacquette 389) He not only wanted private ownership forbidden but also family as an establishment because he thought the "rearing of children is known as too important to be still left to the individual and really should be the duty of the state of hawaii. " (Gaarder 92) Plato's hierarchical status do though allow sociable range of motion. "People could move up to the next level if they demonstrated certain talents. "(Pacquette 389) Plato believed his anti-democratic talk about would work very well because "everyone would know and acknowledge his / her position in culture, and everyone would have enough material comforts and education to operate in his / her designated role. Because people's interpersonal class would correspond to their innate characteristics, Plato assumed that the citizens of his imaginary city talk about would know true contentment. "(Pacquette 390) Plato presumed that his Republic would be the perfect state and would work for everybody, Aristotle disagreed. He did not believe one kind of federal government would suit every contemporary society. He "acknowledged that nobody system of federal government suited every contemporary society. Much depended on the aims of the state of hawaii and if the rulers could be trusted to do something for the advantage of all citizens. "(Pacquette 391) Aristotle presumed that there were three forms of good constitution. "Monarchies can do well if the rulers are as sensible as Plato's philosopher kings, but fail if the rulers are tyrants who oppress people. Aristocracies can also succeed provided the small group of individuals who hold vitality do not enslave individuals they rule. "(Pacquette 391) "The third good constitutional form is what Aristotle called polity, which means democracy. But this form also offers its negative aspect. A democracy can quickly develop into mob rule. "(Gaarder 116) Aristotle and Plato both "feared democracy might trigger the guideline of the ignorant many in the informed few. "(Pacquette 392) He felt that it might be possible to combine the best aspects of each constitution while keeping away from their downfalls but the best aspects and the downfalls depend on the state of hawaii. "Unlike Plato, Aristotle assumed firmly that the rule of regulation is the foundation of politics order. "(Pacquette 392) Aristotle noticed this because he thought that rules can ensure that reason prevails, and it can balance the pushes that contend for power in contemporary society. "(Pacquette 392) Aristotle respected the protection under the law if the individual citizen over the energy of a complete ruler. This is as opposed to Plato because Plato puts the greater good of modern culture over the average person citizen. Plato and Aristotle also disagreed about the role of ladies in the state of hawaii and in society. Aristotle looked at women very adversely. He believed women were the imperfect or an "unfinished man"(Gaarder 116) Aristotle thought that women should not participate in the government and "should be excluded from political life. " (Pacquette 392) He founded this on the fact that he thought women "do not have the capacity to reason. "(Pacquette 268) Plato thought the opposite. "Women could govern equally effectively as men could for the simple reason that the rulers govern by virtue of their reason. Women  have a similar powers of reasoning as men, provided they have the same training and are exempted from child rearing and housekeeping. "(Gaarder 92) Plato took his argument a step farther by saying "a state that does not educate and train women is like a guy who only trains his right arm. "(Gaarder 92) Plato's totalitarian utopia with sexual equality is opposing and contradicting to Aristotle's good types of constitution and erotic discrimination.
Plato and Aristotle have unfavorable metaphysical philosophies and theories. Plato assumed that everything has a "timeless 'mildew' or 'form' that is eternal and immutable. "(Gaarder 83) and they can be found in a "reality behind the 'materials world' called the 'actuality of ideas'"(Gaarder 83) Plato called these varieties "ideas"(Gaarder 85) Aristotle disagreed, he stated, "the 'idea' equine was simply a concept that people humans had formed after finding a certain range of horses. The theory horses or 'form' thus had no lifestyle of its. "(Gaarder 107) He did not agree with Plato's theory of ideas of the 'varieties' existing in a global beyond our own. He felt "the 'idea' or 'form' horse was made up of the horse's characteristics"(Gaarder 107) and this "the varieties were in the items, because they were the particular characteristics of the things"(Gaarder 107) Plato and Aristotle have opposing ideas of varieties. Plato presumed the forms can be found first in the 'world of ideas' while Aristotle feels forms come after we see objects numerous times. Plato presumed that natural phenomena are simply just shadows of the eternal 'forms', but most people give no considered to the shadows, never knowing even they are shadows and pay no heed tot he immortality of these heart. (Gaarder 89) That is described in Plato's famous "allegory of the Cave. " Aristotle disagreed with Plato's "Allegory of the Cave", he didn't think all-natural phenomena including humans are just shadows or reflections of another world. He sensed these shadows or reflections were inside our heart and soul and are "reflections of natural objects"(Gaarder 107) Aristotle thought these shadows are inside our souls because we experienced them first in nature. He thought, "nothing exists inside our consciousness that not has first been experienced by our senses. "(Gaarder 107) He did not have confidence in innate ideas and he noticed the "highest amount of reality is that we perceive tings with this senses. "(Gaarder 107) Aristotle respected and presumed what he experienced with his senses while Plato only respected his reason. Plato believed that only with our reason could we understand and obtain true knowledge. We can just have 'viewpoints' about what we experience with our senses. He only trusted his reason because "we can not always trust the evidence of our own senses. The faculty of perspective can vary from individual to individual. "(Gaarder 86) He also did not trust the sense because he noticed we couldn't have "true knowledge of something that is at constant condition of change. "(Gaarder 85) He trusted reason because he felt reason was the same for every person. Plato only trusts his reason and does not believe what he experiences with his senses while Aristotle felt that experiencing things with this sense is the best degree of actuality and believed all our knowledge originates from what we familiar with our senses. Plato and Aristotle's ideas on metaphysical subject areas, of 'forms' and what's reality are incredibly different and completely complete opposite.
Even though Plato and Aristotle lived in the same country during the same time period and Plato was Aristotle's instructor, they had very different ideas about politics and metaphysics while both keeping traditional ancient greek language ethics.