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The Essential Capacity Test In Football

Football has turned into a sport that interest by all population in this world. To experiment with or become a good football player, the individual must grasp many skills and have a healthy physical and mental. Basketball players also must combine speed, durability, agility, electric power, and endurance as basic features before the specific skills inherent to the taking part in of soccer can be employed and rely upon the position such as protection, strikers, midfielder and goal keeper. The knowledge of the physical and the mental demands of the activity will enable a more scientific method of the training of sports players by (Bell and Rhodes 1975; Caru et. al. 1970; Fardy 1969).

Football is one of the sports that require high depth of workload or exercise, including the combo of walk and repeated sprints need sufficient restoration between activity. Explained by (Nicks et. al. 2006) and Romer et. al.

So the gamer will need to have strong muscles, high muscular stamina, have strong center and have advanced of aerobic capacity because the sports game are played for 90 minutes. So the training must contain high aerobic training to improve cardiovascular and pulmonary functions so the athlete can cope with the activity.

Physiological evaluation of athletes provides an chance to look at or test the version to specific types of exercises and training. These adaptations can be valuable to the clinician, coaches and athletes themselves. For instance, lab test that may be proceed to analyze the version to specific types of exercises and training. To test the adaptation to the lung we can use pulmonary functions test to look at the potency of lung muscles performing, to check on the essential capacity and to calculate the lung quantities.

The function of the lung is to deliver O2 to gas exchanged surface and exhaust CO2 to atmosphere. To do this with brain working normally, breath starts with contraction of inspiratory muscle enlarging the thorax, lowering intrathoracic and pleural pressures, enlarging the alveoli and airways, widening the alveolar gas so lowering its pressure below atmospheric. Air at atmospheric pressure must flow in to the thorax where it is conducted to, and diffuses, out in to the alveoli. The carriage of air through the airways depends upon the patency of the tube as well as on the regularity of the lung and the energy of the respiratory muscles. At anybody moment around 100ml of desaturated blood vessels, with a strong affinity for O2, is distributed over an area of 70 rectangular meters( section of pulmonary capillary bed ) segregated from air by the membrane 0. 2 micron thick. Oxygen from alveolar air diffuses quickly over the alveolar capillary membrane which is finally chemically coupled with hemoglobin molecules within the circulating red blood vessels cells (RBC), CO2 diffuses into opposing direction and is also taken away in expired gas.

The Essential capacity test is one of the oldest and most common respiratory checks. The way of measuring of vital capacity (VC) simply requires an specific blow as large a breath of air as you can into a spirometer. Thus, the individual expels three of the four components of the total lung size when doing the vital test. There are inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal volume level (Tv set) and expiratory reserve size (ERV). It offers an indirect indication of how big is the lung, although it is not a complete way of measuring the whole lung size since it does not take into account residual volume. Generally facts, vital capacity relate with three uncontrolled characteristics which can be age, stature and gender.

Lung function measurements also may be produced for many reasons. They are useful in describing the lung for diagnostic purpose and consequently in monitoring change. Reliability and steadiness are therefore very important, and a convention is out there for the procedure of measurement and appearance of result. In general, a measurement is only going to be accepted after multiple makes an attempt have been scrutinized and portrayed under standard conditions. They are usually body's temperature and atmospheric pressure.

To guarantee correctness, laboratory practice will include regular physical and natural calibration of the gear. Standard once and for all laboratory conduct have been detailed greatly by British Thoracic Population or relationship of respiratory technologist and physiologist 1997. In health there are several factors which effect the magnitude of the lung function. Included in these are height, sex, time, and to a smaller level weight and cultural source (Cotes1979, Anthonisen1986). As a result, evaluation of normalcy can only just be compared with reference beliefs. The better can be acquired from the study of larger amounts of normal people from the relevant society (Western european community for Coal and Metal 1983). Once obtained, results can be expressed as percentage predicted or, more accurately, in comparison with the 95% self-assurance interval for the valves.

Problem affirmation.

It is interesting to know whether there are any different of lung volumes and lung capacities bottom part on different position in the basketball team such as striker position and defenses position. In sports team, the defenders position duties are different with the striker position activity, including the defensive position, the job of the centre backs or central defenders is to stop opposing players, particularly the strikers, from getting the possibility to score, and also to clear the ball from other own penalty area. So usually the defense has big physical to stop the striker, but different with the striker position, usually the strikers' position players havent too big physical, because these positions are for the fast person to score the target.

This review of pulmonary function of the Uitm basketball players bottom part on position, took students band of both striker position and defense position of older between 19-25 years and focused on essential parameters including, FVC and has used Spirometer. The spirometer device used to assess these variables. This analysis mainly specializes in lung guidelines including Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and what lengths it varies bottom on the position such as striker and defense. The FVC also use to determine the lung function of Uitm soccer players.

Operational Terms

1. 2. 1 Exhalation is function or an example of exhaling air.

From journal sources Masaoka Y, Satoh H, Akai L, Homma I. (2010)

1. 2. 2 Inhalation is the pulling of air or other substances in to the lung.

From internet resources http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki

1. 2. 3 Total lung capacity are identifies the total amount of air in the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible.

From internet resources http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki

1. 2. 4 Ventilation is a cyclic process of creativity and expiration whereby best levels of Oxygen and cabondioxide are taken care of in the alveoli and arterial blood.

1. 2. 5 Tidal Volume (VT) is defined as the amount of air that is inspired and expired during normal resting ventilation.

1. 2. 6 Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) is the maneuvers where the maximum amount of air that may be exhaled following a inspiratory effort.

1. 2. 7 Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) can be defined as the maximum volume of air that can be breathed by the person in a single minute.

From internet sources http://www. answer. com/topic/maximum-breathing-technique


In this review, there are some purposes or objective that can be seen. They are really;

To gauge the fitness level of Uitm football players by using power vital capacity\

y test.

To determine whether there's a different in pulmonary functions bottom part on position in soccer team such as defense and striker.

1. 4 Hypothesis

H-There is no significant different on pulmonary functions in football position such as striker and defense

H-There is significant different on pulmonary functions in football position such as striker and defense

1. 5 Significant of the study

The significant of the study is principally to assess and compare the lung amounts and capacities among the list of Uitm sports player base on the position. Will the football position such as striker position and defenses position have dissimilarities effects on the lung quantities and capacities? The analysis is important since it can help certain peoples such as instructor, physiotherapy and sports athletes especially in virtually any kinds of sports activities to improve pulmonary functions. In addition, this study can also increase knowledge of coach and sportsmen, and suggest to them how important is to get reliable and strong lung to increases their performances for their sport.

1. 6 Delimitation

The first delimitation is the number of any sorts of research subjects, which comprises thirty (n=30) age range from 19-25 years old will need part in this study. The subjects are picked in the Uitm football team and in physical form active and everything the individuals must be healthy. The topics are divided into two sets of defense and striker. Others delimitation is the topic gender and time. The test will be conduct in Physiology Lab.


In this study, the participants included may have some experience in vital capacity test. The participants which will be selects in this review will be participating in the laboratory test by using spirometer. The contribution is important in this review because it make a difference the results and data if the participants do not cooperate and take part willingly.

Besides that, enough time constrains can also be one of the factors because the participants have their own schedules and can clash with the test schedules and can not sign up for the test.

In addition, money can be a problem because, there is no sponsored in this study. The day to day activities of the individuals will never be controlled.


In this research, it could be assumed that all the individuals can do and completed the essential capacity test. Thus, I also believe that and ensure that all the participants will understand and follow all the instruction given by the technician. The researchers also predict that the members are physically energetic and healthy.

The researcher assumed that the test in this research instrumentation was befitting the target inhabitants. I also anticipate that all the participants totally understood the types of ensure that you method and exactly how to execute it accurately.

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