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The Endangered Arabian Leopard Sociology Essay

This project is approximately investigating the biodiversity and the value of protecting biodiversity. Each group have chosen an Arabian types to evaluate it and to investigate its position. Every member of the group has to write one area of the report. Investigating biodiversity, the status of the kinds and how do we protect this species from loss. And how can the society all together donate to the preservation of the biodiversity and the precise species that people chose to come up with.

Biodiversity is an essential subject, as today the planet is facing a biodiversity crises. The biodiversity crises fundamentally means the increased loss of various kinds of different species on the planet that humans lives depend on (IUCN, 2010). Biodiversity is 'the variety of life' it is the variety of most species on the planet. Biodiversity is made up of all different animals, plants, creatures, insects, microorganisms and it includes the diversity within varieties, between kinds and of ecosystems. Biodiversity can be split into three types Genetic diversity, organismal variety, and ecological diversity. The genetic variety covers the the different parts of the hereditary code that cosmetic organisms and the variations between the individuals in the populace and between populations. Organismal variety includes the taxonomic hierarchy from individuals to genera and beyond. Ecological diversity includes the scales of ecological variations from populations, niche categories, habitats, up to biomes (Gaston, K. & Spicer, J. 2004).

We have chosen to write in regards to a very beautiful and amazing canine. This pet lives in elements of the Arabian peninsula. People used to wipe out it to save lots of their cattle from being eaten by this dog, and then they used its nice patterned fur for designing their homes, and they were also hunted for his or her pearly whites and claws (McGregor, T. , Spalton, A. & Hikmani, H. 2007). The animal that people will discuss is the Arabian Leopard, as we realize that it is an endangered dog in the Arabian peninsula and we wish to explore more information about this stunning animal.

Kingdom

ANIMALIA

Phylum

CHORDATA

Class

MAMMALIA

Order

CARNIVORA

Family

FELIDAE

Genus

Panthera

Species

PANTHERA PARDUS

Sub Species

PANTHERA PARDUS NIMR The Arabian Leopard is one of the normal names of the pet, the other common name is the South Arabian Leopard. The Arabian leopard is a sub types of the known leopard panthera pardus. The methodical name of the Arabian Leopard is Panthera pardus ssp. Nimr. The taxonomy of the Arabian Leopard is shown in the stand below (IUCN, 2010). The trophic degree of the Arabian leopard is Carnivore.

The panthera pardus nimr is definitely the smallest subspecies of leopards. Its total length is between 160 cm - 220 cm, the length of its tail only is between 66 cm - 100 cm. The Arabian leopard weight is between 28 kg - 75 kg. The Arabian leopards has special small and extensively spaced locations (Kingdon, j. 1991). The color of the Arabian leopards' body is nearly pale brown or gold color. Its lower area of the body can be yellow or white. The areas are dark-colored and sometimes possess the shape of an flower (Selim, M. & El-Batanouny, K. n. d. )

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The ecological topic means the species' way of life or role in a community or an ecosystem and it includes everything that influences its survival and duplication (Spoolman, S. & Miller, T. 2008). The Arabian leopards depends upon livestock, home goats, Arabian Tahr, and other small birds and mammals as a food source. The Arabian Leopard is known as an extremely powerful predator in the region where it is on control. The habitat of the Arabian leopard is mostly in mountainous and hilly areas and its own rarely opportunity into available plains (McGregor, T. , Spalton, A. & Hikmani, H. 2007). Due to the lower numbers of the Arabian leopards in your community another predator has taken its place which is the Caracal (McGregor, T. , Spalton, A. & Hikmani, H. 2007). So the Caracal has bought out the Arabian leopards' place which is occupying its area, which can cause the Arabian leopards statistics to be less because there is another predator that is taking its food and habitat areas. Corresponding to residents in Oman the Caracal is their enemy because it hunts their livestock in wadis and near their homes while that Arabian leopard only preys on livestock in the mountains so these were competitive towards that Caracal, they hunt it and kill it because it causes a great deal of damage to them. Another thing that damaged the Arabian leopards survival in your community is the continuous civilization and building highways that reaches the very best of the mountains, people also are taking its place by local casing enlargement, over grazing, and farming (McGregor, T. , Spalton, A. & Hikmani, H. 2007). Each one of these individual activities and "modernization" are endangering the Arabian leopards' survival in the region.

Figure 1: http://www. biosphere-expeditions. org/images/stories/pdfs/reports/report-oman0607. pdf The Arabian leopard can only be seen in a number of areas in the Arabian peninsula. The syndication selection of the Arabian leopard is shown in body 1. Its distribution varies from the mountains of Haqel in the north-west of Arabia, Yemen, the mountains of Hadramout to north-east of Oman, and the eastern mountains of the United Arab Emirates. The Arabian leopards extends from the rugged arid, to semi arid mountains over the coastline of the Red Sea in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Al Johany, A. 2006). The amount below shows the distribution of the Arabian leopard in the Arabian peninsula and the neighboring region and it shows if the Arabian leopard circulation is confirmed, probable, possible, or historical in that particular area.

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Species labeled by Biologists that going toward natural extinction as threatened, extinct and endangered varieties. Firstly, threatened species is a kinds that still abundant in its natural range nonetheless they continues to decrease and most more likely to became endangered in the future. Also, threatened varieties can known as vulnerable kinds and the example of this type of species is Dugong dugon. Secondly, some species not known in outrageous, it only can found in zoos or private collection such as Arabian Oryx and an example of extinct species. Thirdly, an endangered kinds is a few numbers of organism's inhabitants that vulnerable to be extinct or threatened because of environmental changing or human impact and the Arabian leopard is an example of this species(Miller, T. , & Spoolman, S). Endangered species include 1 in 4 mammals, 1 in 8 parrots and 1/3 of most amphibians(The plight of endangered kinds). However, many scientists and some school' training are centering in this type of types to maintain and protect them never to be extinction.

Arabian leopard is one of this endangered types which believed to only 250 older individuals. Also, this amount is at the mercy of decline in the future which mean that Arabian leopards could be extinct as a result of small population they have. The Arabian leopard was pass on broadly in the mountains of Arab countries such as Haqel in the north part of Median Mountains, in Hijaz and the Sarawat Mountains. In addition, this leopard been around in the northern Yemen highlands, in the mountains of Ras al-Khaimah and the eastern region of UAE and in the Jebel Samhan and Dhofar mountains in Oman(Arabian leopard- critically endangered(CR)). However, having less awareness amongst people in the past lead to diminish the amounts of leopards.

What will be the reasons that produce kinds threatened and endangered? Hunting, eradicating and perishing will be the factors behind the reduction of Arabian leopard which largely caused by people in a primary and indirect way. Sometimes leopards were killed inadvertently when they was eating poisoned which is putted to wolves and hyenas. In 1986, four Arabian leopards wiped out in the Ras Al-Khaimah mountains in the UAE(Harman, A). Furthermore, a recently killed leopard within 1992 in the boundary area between Sultanate Oman and UAE, regretfully, in the same area other two leopards found one of these wiped out and another injured. 50, 000 leopard were killed during the early 1960s just in East Africa(Harman, A). Furthermore, a few of farmers and cattle herdsmen are pressured to wipe out the Arabian leopard to save lots of them self and their livestock because they thought that leopard are attacking and eliminating their goats and may attack them and folks who live around.

On the other palm, many people are getting rid of and hunting the Arabian leopards because of the commercial value they have. Hunters take the advantages from leopards through retailing their skins and the leopard furs which happened with some dealers in Africa and Yemen(Harman, A). This sort of illegitimate situation could improve the income of traders but affect adversely in Arabian leopards which will make them endangered and threatens their human population.

Habitat damage it also regarded as the most serious cause that threatens species when it imply the complete lose of areas with everything resources that species need to survive(Miller, T. , & Spoolman, S). Sadly, the increase of people's people has a poor effect in areas that mammal reside in, there is always a new building of shopping malls, parks, developed houses and factories. Also, there's a daily chop of forests and

Hala Ibrahim

200601460

grassland in areas that Arabian leopard and other mammals live in (Kirkland, G). Kinds are basically need food, shelter, normal water and the correct environment as human needs to endure and reside in suitable environment (Bailey, R. ). Moreover, habitat fragmentation which symbolize the isolation of areas to numerous sections and make it problematic for species to feeding, migration and mating. Also, the number of Arabian leopard declined due to reduction in amounts of deer and cash that reside in the pile area that leopard live in and characterize as the main source of food for leopard(Arabian Leopard). Varieties affected by changing and rendering habitat and that changes result from draining wetlands, creating flood-control tank and plowing native grasslands. Immediately or indirectly, Arabian leopard can be influenced and died because of the environmental pollution, that pollution can limiting and reducing the needs of the mammals. Some mammals expire after having waters that contained a cyanide(Kirkland, G).

Endangered kinds has some certain common characteristics that distributed to other endangered and extinct species including the large size. Some of endangered species has a sizable size which need hundreds or a large number of acres to aid their people, when other mammals such mice need a small woodlot to reside in. Also, endangered species has a low effective rate because some mammals in a natural way produce just one offspring every year and it is difficult to recuperate rabidly if the mortality rate is high(Kirkland, G). Compared to small rodents, they are able to produce many large litters in every year. Endangered mammals and Arabian leopards can also considered as a types that has a tiny population, rare and has high trophic level. Mammals as Arabian leopard become threatened if the specialized habitats they reside in is widely separated to many places and in small sizes, because these kinds need a large areas in order to find their priorities of water and food to endure.

Figure 2: http://gulfnews. com/news/gulf/oman/oman-yemen-tie-up-urged-to-save-leopards-1. 18006

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Over the last million years, practically five mass extinctions have took place since the start of the world. They either determine the end of a time of energy or the start of another. The Ordovician-Silurian extinction, the late Devonian extinction, the Premian-Triassic extinction, the Triassic-Jurassic extinction and the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction was the five mass extinctions. Amount 3

Figure 3

Each one of them had causes, in the long run of the Ordovician extinction about 447 until 444 million years back; mark the boundary between the Ordovician period and the period pursuing which is the Silurian. In that extinction there were a number of important changes in the size of carbon isotopes of essentials of the reaction and the biology of air. Those changes refer to classified different periods in a single event. In those days, complex multicellular organisms lived in the sea, and about 100 groups of them includes about 49 percent of the marine. More reliable estimate of varieties of the pets or animals is becoming extinct. The planet earth lost brachiopods and small bi-valve bryozoans colonials, along with many families of trilobites and graptolites (small colonial marine family pets).

The past due Devonian extinction was equivalent to the global air conditioning and has been advised as a reason behind extinction of the Devonian, as is also suspected of causing the extinction of the terminal Ordovician. Weather change and the drop of sea level induced the Premian-Triassic extinction also. Inside the Triassic-Jurassic extinction and the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, the scientist said that a volcano triggered it. Volcanoes to push out a range of

Haya Sultan 200520663

gases in to the stratosphere which SO2 and CO2 are volumetrically the most important (Devine, J. D. Sigurdsson, H. Davis, A. N. (1984).

Those causes that happened before naturally occurred. But nowadays, we might face another mass extinction but this time around humans are the primary reason behind it. The complexities nowadays are numerous. First on is the devastation of varieties habitat and fragmentation. We remove many forests either to use the trees in making furniture or documents or either to make papers, which destroys lot habitats of many kinds of species. Second thing is quick human population progress. Which means more land to be cleared to develop houses and facilities. Third cause is genetic pollution. Pollution triggered by factories and transportations. Forth cause is Global warming.

According to animals Middle East media they said, " The recent immediate decrease of the Arabian leopard is because of a variety of reasons, most of which are triggered by people. Swift human population development triggers encroachment into wilderness areas, placing pressure on leopards and other wild. Depletion by hunting of natural prey such as Nubian ibex (Capra ibex), Arabian tahr (Hemitragus jayakari), Mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella cora), and rock and roll hyrax (Procavia capensis) leaves little for leopards to consume so some are forced to prey on livestock. This causes issues with villagers who destroy leopards in order to safeguard their herds. Wealthy animal collectors who pay huge amounts for Arabian Leopards encourage the trapping of leopards for the unlawful market".

Different sectaries in the UAE are taking action to protect the Arabian leopard. In 1993, the UAE create the Arabian leopard trust which is likely to protect its habitat in the mountains, and conserving local Arabian wildlife in general. The Arabian Leopard Trust is trying to maintain the impact on the Arabian leopard locally and internationally. Also in Sharjah there is a breeding centre which successfully got the 3rd litter of cubs blessed.

We as individuals we can help protecting the Arabian leopard by stop introducing non-native animals and leave them in the wild. Also recycling and lowering pollution helps. Not just the Arabian Leopard, but also all the varieties that are threaten and endangered. And authorities can help by protect the mountainous habitats and placed laws to avoid hunters from threaten the Arabian leopard. The mass media also have an extremely big effect on people. It could spread awareness among people about endangers animals and how do we assist in guarding them.

Summary & finish:

Biodiversity means all of the life on earth. The Arabian leopard is an Arabian pet animal that faces the threat of being extinct. Endangered species as Arabian leopard is a varieties that still abundant in crazy but their society have the ability to decline. Individual impact and environmental pollution has a significant role of the reduced amount of Arabian leopard's inhabitants. This endangered leopard has some common characteristics such as low productive, small population and large size. There's also some initiatives done to safeguard this creature from damage. After doing research and writing this record we discovered that animals and different species in the complete world are very important. Every single animal, insect, flower, or even bacteria comes with an important role in this ecosystem and in retaining the total amount of life on earth. All these different species, both the ones we uncovered and the ones we didn't, are interconnected in a way or another. Including the species that we based our survey about; the Arabian leopard, has generally disappeared from many regions so another canine had taken its place for the reason that area like the caracal who is now attacking cattle more than the Arabian leopard would do if it was at its normal region. And this thing impacts the ecosystem there. So we noticed that if any varieties is lost it affects the ecosystem in some way; that's why we should be concerned about saving the types and avoiding them from reduction, because you want to live in a balanced healthy world. And the species reduction is breaking the total amount and the tranquility of life.

Islam is an extremely merciful faith for both humans and animals. For example there may be "Hadith Sharif" a declaring by prophet Mohammed serenity be upon him "Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Apostle said, "While a man was walking on a road. he became very thirsty. Then he found a well, acquired into it, drank (of its normal water) and then came out. Meanwhile he observed a dog panting and licking mud because of high thirst. The person said to himself "This dog is experiencing the same talk about of thirst as I did so. " So he transpired the well (again) and stuffed his boot (with drinking water) and kept it in his mouth area and watered your dog. Allah thanked him for your deed and forgave him. " Individuals asked, "O Allah's Apostle! Is there a reward for us in providing the family pets?" He said, "(Yes) There is a reward for serving any animate (living being). " (Good Manners and form, n. d. ). That's why we ought to protect biodiversity out of our own religion, and balance out of the person's principles also.

If the position of our species was reevaluated when we are 50 years old. We think that Arabian leopards will be extinct in the wild, but there will be some increased in captivities and animals preserves. Even as notice this huge development and change in the habitat of the types which lives in the mountains. But if the concerns about its reduction started from now the situation might improve and we may have a rise in the amounts of the Arabian leopards. But they would probably be raised in places definately not this development and they might create more preserves to save what can be preserved from its habitat.

 

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