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The Emergence Of Bangladesh Politics Essay

1. The introduction of Bangladesh in 1971 with the political & military support of India set the level for Indo - Bangladesh relationships. The moral & material support given by India strengthened the foundation of a friendly bilateral relations built on peace & friendship. However this brotherly romance lasted only upto 1975 and concluded with the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rehman. Since then the relations between your two nations has seen many a along. The dynamism in the relations are credited to lots of factors like; pre 1947 historical, ethnic and geographic bonds; dominating political philosophies, national interest of both nations. Historically the relationships between your two countries have been suffering from a number of disputes, the river water writing dispute being one of the very most prominent one. Because the emergence of Bangladesh the problem in regards to to the dreams, interests of both nations have evolved and so hold the status of both the countries both in South Asia and the entire world overall. Keeping in mind the interplay of relations of both these nations with other countries of the spot and the immediate or indirect implication of the same on the bilateral relations, improvement of relations between your two can't be ignored.


2. The purpose of this review is to analyse Indo - Bangladesh relations with respect to river water writing dispute, thereafter attempt to develop a possible means to fix the problem in order to improve their relationships.


Statement of the Problem

3. India & Bangladesh talk about waters of 54 streams with India being the top riparian and Bangladesh being the low riparian point out respectively. Bangladesh being agrarian current economic climate uses the river water mainly for irrigation, taking in and navigation purposes. India too uses the waters for similar reasons apart from the technology of electricity and other uses. River water being essential for both the countries the river drinking water writing has been one of the major irritant between the two, the major issues being learning resource allocation and equal sharing.

4. Development of the Farraka barrage on the Ganges, the Tapaimukh dam above the Barak, by India has caused souring of the relations between the two countries. Bangladesh being the lower riparian state, feel deprived with their rightful share over these waters and rightfully wishes to make the best of it. Bangladesh claims that Indian stand on this issue has disrupted their irrigation and therefore their agriculture, which their economy is based. Other problems being river flooding, siltation, resulting in desertification of some areas. India on the other palm state that these tasks are hydro electricity jobs and would also control flooding of waterways not only in India but also Bangladesh, being one of the major advantages aside from conserving and stocking water to appeal to the low fat period.


5. Resolving the long standing dispute between India and Bangladesh will permit strengthening of India Bangladesh relationships.

Justification for the Study

6. The much touted shifting of global economic centre from the European countries to Asia, places India at a place of great tactical gain. Since 1990, Indian market has been able to grow at a sustained rate. The inherent advantages of any consumer led current economic climate has allowed India to successfully weather the financial slowdown of the world overall economy and Eurozone turmoil.

7. Statistics would have us assume that India would be the leading economy of the world by 2030. However, to translate the economic wealth into national electricity, India will need a secure environment for suffered progress and development. The secure environment that India wants is only going to be possible with a secure and secure neighbourhood. This will likely be possible only by enhancing its relations with its neighbours. India cannot find the money for to stay indifferent to its relations with Bangladesh with which it stocks 78. 86 percent of its edges, 54 of its waterways, its vocabulary, its ethnical and historical bonds. Both countries occupy strong geo-strategic location in the South Asian region and IOR. Thus resolving the river drinking water posting dispute that has historically been a thorn in their relations, will enable those to focus on issues like strengthening their economies, which will define their durability as a nation in your community.


8. The analysis will analyse Indo- Bangladesh relations and attempt to evolve a blue print of recommendations for bettering their relations by resolving the river drinking water showing dispute.

Method of Data Collection

9. Principle function of data has been extra documented sources. These include available literature in the Defence Services Staff College (DSSC) catalogue & open up source information on the internet. The bibliography of the sources is appended by the end of the text.

Organisation of Dissertation

10. The dissertation would be organised as under :-

(a) Introduction and Strategy.

(b) Indo Bangladesh Relationships : Historical and Current Point of view.

(c) River Water Sharing Dispute: The Problems.

(d) Indo Bangladesh Relations: JUST HOW Ahead.

(e) Realization.

Chapter I - Indo Bangladesh Relations:Historical and Current Perspective

11. This section would cover the quick history of the relationships, present state of the relationships, its importance for the two nations, including the negative fallouts of your unhealthy romantic relationship.

Chapter II - River Water Posting Dispute: The Problems

12. This chapter would draw out the actual dispute is, the issues faced by both nations with regard to water writing. It would also bring out as to the reasons the two nations have not had the opportunity to resolve the dispute up to now despite the various methods both political and technical taken by both countries. Suggested remedial measures to be studied by the nations would also be outlined.

Chapter IV - Indo Bangladesh Relationships: The Way Ahead

13. This chapter would highlight how the two should indulge each other to boost their relations remember their interplay of relationships and their common interest and importance.


1. General. The countrywide interest, ideals and prices form the foundation which the foreign policy and the next relations between two countries be dependent. However the same basis might not exactly be totally relevant to the relations between India and Bangladesh scheduled to ethnical, historical, linguistic and physical bonds that the two countries talk about. Despite all this and that the two countries haven't any major turmoil of interest, statements in comparison with other countries, which cannot be settled with some work the relations have failed to be warm. Among many reasons with India's growing stature on earth, probably it generally does not appear to be excessively worried about its relationships with Bangladesh as it has been Pakistan or China. However the present trends do reflect a change in this frame of mind which is encouraging for both the countries. The political leaders of the two countries and their vested interest have been a major contributor to this thought process. Thus it could be seen that whenever the Congress and Awami Little league parties have been in power the relationships between the two countries have seen improvement and when the greater radicals have been around in ability especially in Bangladesh the relationships have a tendency to get colder. To be more specific in Bangladesh the Awami Group is characterised as pro India. On the other hand, The BNP and the Jamaat are branded as anti India. Whenever the Awami Category is in power the party will try to resolve pending India Bangladesh issues, the BNP and the Jamaat introduction a anti India propaganda marketing campaign against India and the Awami Little league, arguing principally that the Awami Category comes to power by making use of India, and that when in vitality it procures Indian support in exchange for subservience to India on Indian-Bangladesh problems. An important cause of this attitude for the BNP and the Jamaat is the fact that, if problems influencing Bangladesh and India are solved, these parties will lose the foundation of their mass support, viz; anti Indianism. The pre 1947 history so influenced on the masses of the Indian subcontinent, with regards to the Hindu-Muslim relations that even after decades the relationships between India and Bangladesh were basically governed by the this effect. Soon after the delivery of Bangladesh the image resolution of the many bilateral issues begun. Included in this the drawback of Indian soldiers from Bangladesh, trial of warfare criminals, boundary demarcation, diversion of common river waters with more specifically the construction of the Farrakka Barrage in India. The Farrakka Barrage issue probably had the best impact on the bilateral relations. The signing of the 25 yr "Treaty of Tranquility, Friendship and Cooperation" was agreed upon which promised to take the relations between the two countries forwards. Despite the putting your signature on of this treaty and the assistance provided to Bangladesh by India one could see the climb of anti Indianism in Bangladesh. Despite their liberation many people in Bangladesh were still associating themselves with the beliefs and ideology of Pakistan. The abortive makes an attempt of the trial of the conflict criminals, dissatisfaction among the list of civil bureaucracy, dissatisfaction with respect to relief goods supplied by India including large scale smuggling on the borders and rumours that the Farrakka Barrage in India was turning Bangladesh was making it a desert were a few of the reasons which some politicians and radicals used to go up anti Indianism in the people of Bangladesh. The role of media was believe it or not significant in further adding fuel to this flame. Perhaps Shiekh Mujibir Rehman can have dealt with this situation but because of the erosion of Awami Group by factionalism, staging of violent protests by the violent departed and the famine of 1974 therefore started the powerful pattern of right wing anti India politics which till today is being utilized by the rightists, who do not brain if necessary, restricting the pursuits of Bangladesh for this purpose. Because of the same differences with respect to Bangladesh also started out to go up in India especially following the many concessions which India provided to Bangladesh. It is impressive that despite growing depth of the anti India propaganda and the variations on a number of bilateral issues, Sheikh Mujibir and Indira Gandhi, been successful in preserving a special relationship between the two countries, yet, in quest for their respective national interest they could not reach a consensus on resolving some bilateral issues.

The emergence of Bangladesh in 1971 with the political & armed forces support of India placed the level for Indo - Bangladesh relations. The moral & material support distributed by India strengthened the foundation of a friendly bilateral relationships built on tranquility & a friendly relationship. However this brotherly romance lasted only upto 1975 and concluded with the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rehman. This progression of Indo - Bangladesh relations can be broadly classified into three stages : Pre 1971 period; 1972-1990; 1991-2012.

2. Pre 1971 Relations. The pre 1971 period pertains to India's engagement in beginning of Bangladesh. East Pakistan was fighting for its regional autonomy that your government resting in West Pakistan were unwilling to give. This turmoil possessed its repercussions on India as well as Pakistan. Quite question that India was required to answer was that would it be worthwhile to intrude in the have difficulties of the East Pakistanis with a view to liberate them? And the bigger question is the fact that why should India intrude? Was it weaken Pakistan on the western world, or ensure a friendly point out on the east would be beneficial on the sensitive North Eastern says of India. Well the most evident reason for India's interference was the good sized quantities in which the Bangladeshi refugees were pouring into India. The way the big powers got divergent stand which aided or abated India's engagement in the problems is relevant to knowledge of India's role.

3. 1972-1990. The relations immediately after the liberation tended to be cordial and friendly. The Awami League federal led by Sheikh Mujibir proclaimed that "Friendship with India is a part stone of overseas policy of Bangladesh". The economical and ethnical exchanges between India and Pakistan experienced virtually come to a standstill after the 1965 Indo Pak warfare. However with the creation of Bangladesh the ties between India and Bangladesh received a major boost. Initially Bangladesh did remain consuming India that was mirrored in its foreign policy. However in the initial years signals of strain started to seem. Bangladesh began to wean away from India and appeared forward to bolster relations with american nations and Islamic countries. Bangladesh strove to improve relationships with USA and China similarly and Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait on the other. The first period of the Indo Bangladesh relations came to an end with the assassination of Mujibir Rehman in August 1975. Post 1975 Bangladesh experienced direct or indirect military services rule which changed internal politics of Bangladesh. It had been as if Pakistan had bought out Bangladesh once again. The military rule acquired two major characteristics : firstly, it wanted to revive a mindset that was reactionary and expert Pakistan; subsequently it tried to determine the dominance of the muscle electric power in society and politics, which would lead to the creation of a fresh category of men and women who unduly acquire privileges and resources while sustaining armed forces guideline. One major impact of the armed forces rule upon the home politics of Bangladesh was to bolster the development of anti Indianism, including a way of thinking that blamed India for just about any and every undesired incident in Bangladesh, natural or man made. Bangladesh had managed to get quite clear that it chose the account of the America-China-Pakistan- Saudi Arabia axis in place of the most well-liked Indo-Russia axis. Using the Zia ur Rehman taking over the power a major bully image of India was projected which alienated Bangladesh from India. Regardless of the safeguards provided to Bangladesh in the Indira-Mujib pact there took place unilateral withdrawals of upstream waters in India which commenced to create better controversies. It had been during this time period that the Ganga waters posting issue grew up in the international discussion boards. The interim arrangement between Morarji Desai and Zia ur Rehman provoked criticism for both leaders in their countries. Other problems like the Moore Island ownership, debates over maritime boundary were also in charge to help expand alienate the two countries. Zia varied aid dependence, left behind secularism and offered a place of take great pride in to Islam in the country which indicated a move from the Indian influence. For a short while at that time the Janata administration in India was at power relations were being restored. It was during this time period that the Ganga waters issue was fixed for five years. But with a big change in the government in India with Indira Gandhi returning to power, relationships again started out to deteriorate further. Bangladesh now deemed India as a neighbour with whom peaceful co-existence was nearly impossible. With Standard Ershad took over the reigns of Bangladesh, the Ganga normal water sharing issue in regards to to augmentation of the Ganga waters still persisted. The issue of infiltration in the North Eastern says triggered further problems in the relationships. General Ershad have try to fix certain border issues as well as the diversion of the Ganga normal water issues including the putting your signature on of the memorandum of understanding on department of the Ganga waters which although lasted till 1984. In the above period India too experienced a great deal of political instability. A fresh era had started after the fatality of Indira Gandhi in 1984 and Rajiv Gandhi taking over as the primary minister. Many excellent ministers took over the electric power but focussed more on Pakistan and relegated India Bangladesh relations to the backdrop. In Bangladesh any effort towards improving relationships with India had been regarded as a sell out to India.

4. 1990-2011. Post the Zia period Bangladesh was led by General Ershad, Begum Khaleda Zia and Shiekh Hasina, thus mainly the from 1975 to 1996 there is a sort of continuity in the overseas coverage of Bangladesh, except from 1996 to 2000 when Shiekh Hasina attempted to revise that coverage. With many best ministers overtaking the energy but focussed more on Pakistan and relegated India Bangladesh relationships to the background. In Bangladesh any work towards improving relations with India had been seen as a sell out to India. During Khaleda Zia's tenure India and Bangladesh talked about many issues like the border and the Ganga drinking water concern, but Khaleda Zia too resorted to internationalisation of the problem and made statements in the US blaming India for the unilateral drawback of waters. After more than two decades the Awami Little league came to electricity. After Shiekh Hasina came up to electric power, she prioritised two issues of which one was the division of the Ganga waters between India and Bangladesh. It must be noted that after 1977 both countries experienced no water posting treaty. Yet, in june 1996 shortly after she became the Leading Minister, she initiated discussions on Ganga waters and Indian Leading Minister too implemented a good attitude. On 12 December 1996, they signed the arrangement on the department on Ganga waters. However anti India propaganda by BNP and the Jamaat deteriorated India Bangladesh relationships, and in 2001 the BNP Jamaat coalition emerged to power once more and there was no improvement in India Bangladesh relations. The craze generally sustained till the Caretaker Government was in electric power until Sheikh Hasina led Awami Group once again came to power in 2009 2009 and India Manmohan Sigh was re elected as the Perfect Minister of the Congress led coalition. It had been during this time that the politicians of both the nations realised that monetary relations between your two needed to be improved and for that the bilateral issues including the showing of Ganga waters must be solved amicably. Remember the frame of mind of the politicians of Bangladesh the Indian politicians and the politics people and their frame of mind is a lot more important. You can find four determinants of positive procedure of India towards Bangladesh. First India must look towards an equal partnership with Bangladesh, must rise above choosing a favourite political get together and cooperate with any party that will come in power, should show generosity in beginning its marketplaces to Bangladesh and lasltly affix importance to the regional and the sub local role of Bangladesh. The 2010 trip of Shiekh Hasina to India and the signing of the four agreements as also the 50 clause memoranda of understanding has been referred to as a defining moment in time in India Bangladesh relationships including assistance in preserving navigability of streams, steps to talk about waters of 54 common rivers through talk and that the Tapaimukh barrage will not be constructed and water will never be withdrawn from any river without prior information to Bangladesh.


1. It can be seen that Bangladesh perceives the river drinking water sharing concern as the most important outstanding issue between the two countries. Whereas India on the other side is most concerned about the problems like insurgents & militants working from Bangladeshi land. There have been a number of joint committees & mechanisms advanced by the two countries for resolving the issues both countries can do much more than this. It's important to bring out that resolving the river water sharing dispute cannot be achieved in isolation. While considerable steps have to be taken for the same, however assistance in the other areas concerning the two countries also will go quite a distance in increasing the trust and self confidence between the two thus increasing the relations. Therefore that while Bangladesh should think about taking steps to resolve issues which concern India the most, India too should take steps that could help resolve issues that Bangladesh considers most important to them. Chances are that Bangladeshi efforts to meet up with the Indian concerns would provide them with higher negotiating space specially over the sharing of the waters, one of the principal Bangladeshi concerns vis a vis India.

2. With changing climate and worsening environmental conditions which is impacting the streams, water sharing between the two nations can be critical in the approaching years. Keeping in mind the need for water for agriculture and electric power generation, needs of the river system and unpredictable monsoons friction on this matter increase. Bangladesh would deal for a more substantial quantum of common normal water resources and want India to come to an early contract on water sharing. The way forwards is through good hydro diplomacy and discussion backed by specialized knowledge to manage riparian relations between the two. It is important to keep in mind that Bangladesh cannot change its lower riparian status and thus must accept arrangements based on water sharing co-operation arrangements predicated on water sharing rather than on water privileges. India on the other hand gets the responsibility to ensure that the equitable guidelines are fairly honored without undermining its requirements. Given the advantage that India has as an upper riparian state, it should put it to use to leverage its other security concerns, which Bangladesh has not adequately tackled. The West Bengal authorities has been advocating that India should link security issues and make it depending on Bangladesh to deliver on that entry before India agrees to any mutually acceptable solution of drinking water sharing on the common rivers between the two expresses.

3. More than a period of time non consultation by India with Bangladesh on the river water sharing issue had developed a lot anti India feeling in Bangladesh, which does subside after the 1996 Ganga Normal water Treaty. The identical strategy can thus be used to reach at solution of other waterways too. Impressions in Bangladesh are present that India is pro Awami Group which is exploited by the Bangladesh Country wide Party. Thus India should reach out to all political celebrations of Bangladesh, regardless of which political get together is in electric power. India should at the very beginning have built more powerful institutions that could have taken timely and deliberate decisions for credible peacefulness between the two countries. There is also a need to change just how India is performing its diplomacy. Greater proposal using its smaller neighbours is necessary, to solve bilateral issues. For example greater people to visitors to contact whatsoever levels, trips by trade and cultural groups and higher number of goes to by the leaders of the two nation would change the convinced that Bangladesh did not subject to India. Petty issues brought up by the neighborhood politicians of the states in both countries for personal mileage shouldn't deter taking actions by the get together governing the country. It would be advisable for the multimedia not to be projecting a poorer picture of Bangladesh in India but rather task it in a good light. Many people are of the opinion that India being the larger and economically well advanced set alongside the other nations in the region should do more for her neighbours, even if indeed they cannot meet her aspirations. In the present day era of globalization, trade and market would be the driving drive for growing good relationships. India could give tariff concessions to Bangladesh to reduce trade and at the same time Bangladesh should allow transit facilities for India's North Eastern expresses. For resolving the larger issues both the nations should consider solving the issues of the normal man. There are a number of commonalities between your two neighbours that ought to be exploited for better relations and making certain the region expands equitably. There is a whole lot of range of bettering trade between the two countries. Both bigger and smaller companies have opportunity for development projects in Bangladesh remember the plethora of raw material India has. Upsurge in joint endeavors and increased investment in each others industry is only going to help improve relationships. It could not be incorrect to say that despite being truly a strong and developed country it is not in a position to develop better relations using its neighbours. Thus a few people suggested that since the issues cannot be resolved bilaterally the countries should choose a regional strategy as users of the SAARC community. But all this will rest on the main one most important factor that is of the political will. There's also a few leaders and decision creators that while India should think about all genuine requirements of Bangladesh, she must insist of also taking note of her sensitivities and this reciprocity should be asked for each and every concession made. While so far as solving the river water sharing issues is concerned the international legislations is clear that the top riparian state should consult the low riparian point out, however their vies or objections are not binding as a veto. There is also no need to involve a 3rd country as well as discuss bilateral issues as a regional one, with the 1996 Ganga Drinking water Treaty being a just to illustrate.

4. The present Bangladeshi junior perceives India as a large neighbour, it admires India's economical growth, industrial vitality and political balance. It also holds India's educational establishments in high esteem and would like to have better exchanges with them. The business enterprise community are free of charge trade and want tariffs to be reduced so that illegal trade is reduced. The common man keep s India in high esteem and the ones living close to the border would like to see barter trade being opened up. They might also welcome more freedom of activity and relaxed visa routine with multiple accessibility facility, in order to readily go to India for just about any purposes. The middle class feel that an easier visa program will allow them to visit places of pilgrimage easier, which India should give more concessions in trade and universities being more financially developed. They believe that he fencing is not a friendly act which it will fall season one day. It can thus be seen that the folks of Bangladesh are not too worried about the larger issues like this sharing but are somewhat focussed on increasing their living specifications by becoming economically sounder. Thus dealing with the issues of the normal man should be the target which would finally lead to resolving the bigger issues.

5. At exactly the same time Bangladesh should consider moving closer to India because they are doing with China and Pakistan. Bangladesh should also stop blaming India for all those its failures domestically. At exactly the same time Bangladesh should consider moving away from Pakistan as it was moving towards learning to be a failed state. This might greatly enhance trust between the two countries. Also that Bangladesh should not try to match India even although relations between the two may vary on the political and diplomatic level. Playing of the anti India card because of its smaller political benefits in the united states and any attempt to internationalise the bilateral issues will only harden India's stance towards issues which could have been fixed amicably. While as sovereign and indie country Bangladesh should follow an unbiased foreign policy, it should not forget the physical realities and the historical and cultural ties between the two countries. Bangladesh lives in worries of India due to its size, economy and hard ability, thus afraid to reduce its identification Bangladesh should also refrain from projecting India as danger which to numerous people stands no reasoning. This has led to excessive defense spending by the Bangladesh security pushes which being truly a poor and a developing country cannot afford. Bangladesh also needs to make an endeavour to understand India's tactical and diplomatic compulsions. India being a big and growing country has effortlessly to socialize more with developed nations so that she finds her rightful put in place the international discussion boards, however this will not imply that India neglects her small neighbours. While anticipating a few concessions without reciprocating with any offers themselves may work a few times, Bangladesh need to be attentive to New Delhi's economical and security requirements. Most Bangladeshi people believe that India should show magnanimity in resolving all the problems, being the bigger country, thus having the onus of enhancing the relations rests ith India, somewhat than it being reciprocal. Their relationships with India get entangled in the internal political distinctions and debates of the political celebrations of Bangladesh even at the price tag on their countrywide interest.

6. One or two suggested steps for improving relations between India and Bangladesh receive below.

(a) Foreign Policy Options. Your options are to pursue the Gujral Doctrine, take up an insurance plan of reciprocity on each issue, adopt a versatile people friendly coverage. The Gujral Doctrine has historically been disadvantageous to India, however Bangladesh would get many concessions from India especially in the water sharing and reducing trade imbalance, without having to give anything in exchange. The point in case is the 1996 Ganga Normal water Treaty, wherein Bangladesh did not respond to any of India's concerns. Neither do she stop insurgents from using her place, nor have she offer transit rights to India. Thus India remained a loser on both economical and security issues. Thus adopting the Gujral doctrine may well not be implemented in totality. While India should be very sensitive to Bangladeshi requirements it should expect Bangladesh to act in response positively to her vital security issues. At the same time wanting reciprocity for everything should also not be expected as this may cause further straining of the relations and Pakistan and China taking advantage of the same.

(b) Out of Field Options. At the bigger level there's a need to create a confidence in the Bangladeshi's that India wishes her well which India does not have any motives to interfere in her internal matters. A stable progressive Bangladesh is what India wishes in the neighbourhood, which is able to take care of her bilateral, local and international affairs with deal with. As has been presented earlier resolving other excellent issues to create shared trust and self-confidence would go a long way in resolving the river normal water sharing issue a few suggestions are given under:-

(i) Showing of the River Waters. India should be company on the stand that it's top of the riparian state and this she has the to make programs for managing and using the waters of the waterways as she seems appropriate. However also emphasise that the interest of Bangladesh would be considered in each case. It might be profitable for India to see Bangladesh of any new job well in time. All the water issues should be dealt with bilaterally rather than regionally and that Bangladesh does not a have a veto should also be produced clear to Bangladesh. The positive impact that the Ganga Normal water Treaty has already established is not sufficiently publicised by the multimedia of both nations. Thu there are apprehensions on a few dam building projects and the river linking job in India. It could thus maintain India interest to request a delegation of not only politicians but also of the actual users like farmers, agriculturists and the management bodies to India and be taken up to these dam sites to interact with the locals to learn about the huge benefits first hand. Furthermore the advertising too can be invited for the same.

(ii) No Hostility Pact. India should offer Bangladesh a fifty yr 'No Hostility Pact' which should give no place of any of the nations be employed by any anti national insurgents or militants working against each other. This might help remove apprehensions of an threat from both intellects and also help neutralize anti region propaganda in both the countries. This would firstly take away the perceived threat from the Bangladeshi frame of mind and therefore create congenial environment for discussions on other issues.

(iii) Development Tasks. Indian aid in sectors like infrastructure education, health, water, agriculture will represent sincerity on India's part.

(iv) Land Boundary Disputes. Mutual agreement upon this issue without bodily dislocating people from the enclaves and peaceful demarcation of the border would avoid border clashes and boost people to people trust and a friendly relationship.

(v) Transit Protection under the law. Delaying or denying these to India would strain relations between your two nations. It could help her in minimizing the trade deficit.

(vi) Lowering Trade Deficit. While India is keen to lessen the trade deficit Bangladesh must produce better quality goods that India can buy. At the same time it will encourage Indian companies to invest in Bangladesh.

(vii) Visa, Custom and Immigration Facilities. India being largely been to by the Bangldeshi's more friendly types of procedures and facilities be created to frequent vacationers. This India may take up unilaterally as well if Bangladesh will not respond.

7. Although it is certain that resolving the other exceptional issues would go quite a distance in resolving the river normal water sharing dispute there is a need for India to have a national strategy to tackle the water sharing problems with not only Bangladesh however the neighbours with which India stocks river waters. The India response so far as this diplomacy and water policy decisions is concerned will be dependant on factors like geography, climate change, economics, projects/ programs for utilisation of the river waters as also the changing national priorities of the neighbouring countries. The various factors mentioned previously are discussed at length as under:-

(a) Geography. Geography identifies the state's riparian status vis- -vis a downstream/upstream neighbour and thus enables it to have the bargaining electricity in negotiating drinking water agreements. While some experts argue that the control of headwaters gives a strategic advantages to top of the riparian, some emphasise that the physical location of the state provides a veto advantage with an economically vulnerable neighbour. Thus with respect to the geography a countries ability to take unilateral action is bound and also changes the energy equations, between the two nations so far as water sharing is concerned. It is therefore now obvious that geography is one of the essential factors that will determine how a nation may respond to a water sharing agreement.

(b) Economics. Three factors which could potentially drive drinking water diplomacy in South Asia are energy security, food security and export/transfer of hydroelectricity. Super fast industrialisation will increase demands for water and leads of revenue era through the export of hydro-electricity could lure the smaller says towards credible and enduring water cooperation. Normal water resource plays an important role in economics that it offers is the relative advantage to the top riparian states. The top riparian may be smaller both in terms of size and financial power, but it can deprive the larger and stronger point out of the much needed resources essential to meet even its home demands. Thus school funding and payment to the low riparian point out would thus facilitate co-operation between lower and top riparian states.

(c) Weather Change. Because so many streams emanate from glaciers the climate change is one critical factor which might have disastrous results for almost all of the countries. The results may lead to first order results like seasonal variants of river moves; also, rivers at lower altitude could dry out thus resulting in frequent droughts in that region. The second order effects could be damage of eco-systems, sedimentation and normal water logging thus impacting individuals lives in those parts. Also the reduction in fresh water availableness due to rise in sea level and consequent salinisation of groundwater could have major implications. The increased rate of glacier melting may add to the elope of the rivers for quite a while, but at the same time it will bring more snow avalanches and glacial outbursts floods(GLOFs) at high elevation thus posing hazards for the existing dams and the other jobs at the top gets to of the river systems, but will also make difficult to plan any hydro tasks in the foreseeable future.

8. Water sharing contracts between India and her neighbours are governed by bilateral treaties and frameworks. While partitioning of streams into traditional western and eastern streams prominently identifies the platform for Indus Water Treaty, the sharing

of river waters is the defining aspect of the Ganges Drinking water Treaty and Teesta normal water sharing between India -Bangladesh. In every the water sharing engagements India has generally adopted a bilateral construction and Bangladesh has insisted over a multilateral framework. This different solutions by the two countries is principally governed by the geographical locations of the nations. An research of the Bangladesh-India normal water engagement uncovers that securing equitable drinking water allocation plays female role in shaping the aspect of reciprocity between both countries. Economics essentials of both the nations can determine the economics determines the demand of the waters the riparian status will determine the supply part of the water sharing. Dam building and environment change is increasing the resource worries of Bangladesh.

9. India's strategy to take care of these disputes would be dependant on its constraints and what lengths it can hold demands of its neighbours. It might be prudent to look at Bangladesh water eyesight before taking steps towards producing own countrywide strategy. Bangladesh's water vision can be gauged from the targets given under this particular Policy Programs which hinge on two factors, handling surface and groundwater resources, and creating a coastal development strategy, with the overall aim of quality management of drinking water and maintenance of the eco-system are two. The troubles towards which Bangladesh is working are as under:-

(a) Flood Control.

(b) Guaranteed water supply during the dry season.

(c) Providing for the growing normal water needs of a growing economy and human population.

(d) Managing river sedimentation and avoiding loan provider erosion.

10. Thus it could be seen that geography and economics will be the governing factors in the Bangladesh method of the problem. As far as economic factors are worried, to handle the growing requirements, water infrastructure by means of barrages and multi-purpose dams has been suggested, including going for a balanced summary of irrigation facilities, fisheries, navigation, forestry and aquatic life. Inland navigation in addition has been determined as a priority as provides it with the least expensive means of vehicles. Some other issues they are looking to take on will be the development of an early warning and overflow proofing systems to control natural disasters like flood and drought. . The Coastal Development Strategy has been discovered as a national economic coverage, as much of Bangladesh is financial progress and stableness is dependent on the safety of its coastline.

11. While most of the issues have been described or taken into account in India's drinking water diplomacy, prioritising seems to be a missing factor. Thus India's, water diplomacy should consist of the basics which are as under. :-

(a) Revisiting the Political Aim. Water being a finite resource can trigger issues and effect the regional steadiness. Thus the first political objective for countrywide strategy in relation to India's normal water diplomacy is its direct link to regional stability. Some normal water experts, converse of conflicts occurring on the local and regional level, particularly in growing countries where common normal water resources can be critical to success of the population. Beginning with river basin priorities and then working the average person initiatives of particular countries can be a highly effective route to determine India's national strategy. This may enable prioritising rivalling inter-state needs. The political objective now determined, the opportinity for achieving it have to be considered.

(b) Explore the Means to Undertake Water Proposal. The foremost is resolving the needs vis- -vis privileges debate; the second is emphasising responsibility vis- -vis ownership statements and third is reconciling costs of techno-centric models with that of socio-economic paradigms. The needs vis- -vis rights is a major reason behind tension between higher and lower riparian says around the world. Thus a need established approach rather than the assertiveness of rights is the best way to solve the issues. Financial reimbursement to the lower riparian talk about could be helpful. In the case of Bangladesh, help for desalination of rivers to help better navigation or providing support for coastal defences can be some reimbursement. The next point and the top one from the Indian perspective is that of responsibility. For example, so far as Indo-Bangladesh relations are worried, substantial progress has been made on mechanisms of overflow management. Lately India offers flood data regarding Farakkha for Ganga overflow forecasting methods, Bangladesh has also given its consent to joint dredging by the two countries to aid river navigation along the Kolkata-Haldia and Karimganj river routes. Consideration of the ecological, communal and social factors is vital for increased normal water cooperation. Encouraging visitors to people contact across edges, while creating reliable stakeholders along the way, who can take part in joint management and cover of river basins may also be an effective way of facilitating cooperation. Public acceptance of proposals, was a great way to take into consideration the social factor. A combo of multilateral and bilateral solutions thus be utilized to solve the issue amicably. The above analysis thus suggests that a wider eye-sight to translate guidelines into something more credible and viable is thus required.

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