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The COMPONENTS OF Design Cultural Studies Essay


The components of design will be the building blocks used to generate a work of design. The elements form basic vocabulary of the look, while the principles constitute the broader structural grammatical rules of the structure. The concepts of design can be considered as that which we perform with the elements of design.

The components of design are point, series, condition, form, space, coloring, consistency and type.

Point is the most basic element of the design. It is an element which includes position, but no extension. It really is a lone make in space with an exact, but constrained, location. Alone it can form a prevailing relation between positive and negative space.

Even though there is a solo point or one spot on a blank site, there is something created into the brain that provides so this means to it.

If there are two details, the eye will make a visual link instantaneously and 'see' a lines. If there are three factors, it is evident to learn them as a triangle; your brain supplies the links. This impulse to connect parts is discussed as grouping, or gestalt. It is the fundamental tool the developer adopts to develop an illusion (Body 2. 1).


Line is the main element of the design. When several details are joined along, a series is formed. It identifies an elongated draw that connects two or more points. It identifies the form in a picture and creates a sort of visual route in the picture. It also separates one condition from another and everything the shapes from the background of the look. Some techniques you may use lines in your design are to:

Separate shapes

Create movement

Provide texture

Convey a disposition or emotion

Define shape

Provide emphasis

Provide a framework

Types of line

Straight Line


Straight lines denotes rigidity, make, durability, hardness, muscularity, robustness, crispiness, rigidity, etc. It reinforces body lines and perspectives. It also counters curved lines and round body areas.


Figure 2. 2 illustrates how direct lines can be used in the form of structural, useful and decorative aspects of design. Structural applications of a in a straight line line are found in the next forms.

Square & V necklines



Seam lines




Curvy Line


Curvy collection denotes flexibility, liveliness, rhythm, energy, quickness, weakness, delicacy, softness, feminine, elegance, sensuality, etc. It contains attention of viewer for a long period. It reinforces rounded body curves. It also counters upright lines and angular body areas. Curved images like circles, semi circles, arcs, etc. make the curves of your body more strong (Body 2. 3).


Figure 2. 4 illustrates applications of curvy lines by means of structural, efficient and decorative aspects of design. Structural applications of a curvy range include

Round neckline



Round neckline


Seam lines

Directions of line

Vertical line


Vertical brand denotes balance, dignity, majesty, tightness, rigidity, intellectuality, formality, power, stately, conventional, effective identity etc. It reinforces duration & height by dividing your body. It stresses thinness and offers slimming result by countering horizontal series. When several vertical lines are repeated at very close intervals, they take the eye across the body, thus creating illusion of increased width.


Figure 2. 5 shows applications of vertical lines in the form of structural, functional and decorative areas of design. Applications of a vertical brand include

Deep square neckline

Pointed collar

Warp stripes







Row of buttons


Long sleeves

high heels

Illusion created by vertical lines:

The judicious choice of line in fashion design can generate optical illusions to flatter the appearance. Usually, vertical lines which draw the attention up the body without disruption will present taller and thinner illusion. Lines which avoid the attention from moving upward will create a shorter illusion.

The application of a horizontal or vertical line within both rectangles creates a false impression of varied size. When more vertical or horizontal lines are being used in the look, the distance between the lines will have an effect on the illusion produced.

The body with the horizontal stripes looks shorter and fatter, whereas the number with the vertical stripes appears tall, trim and slender. This is because the vertical lines guide our eyes upwards, whereas the horizontal lines produce widening or dispersing effect.

If one wears a top head wear, the other a set straw hat, the person with the very best hat looks heighted, though he is of precisely the equal elevation as the other shape. The basis with this false impression is simple: we see the total span, or height, keeping track of the ugly arrows, and the top hat, alternatively of viewing the lines or statistics themselves (Shape 2. 6).

Figure 2. 7 shows various illusions and effects created by vertical lines. The one vertical line provides the attention up without any interruption to its movements. The 'Y'-magic create a sense of tallness as the eye is directed upwards with little or nothing to limit its upward motion. Two vertical lines spaced way apart move the attention across the figure. Two vertical lines spaced very close mutually shape an excellent panel which draws the attention up the body. A vertical illusion is transformed into a horizontal illusion when a vertical range is crowned with a horizontal line letting the eye to move from side to side. A vertical range abruptly seems shorter when the eye is compelled downward. Physique 2. 8 shows how use of vertical lines and long dresses create illusion of slimming results.

Horizontal line


Horizontal brand denotes relaxation, snooze, peace, weakness, calmness, steadiness, casual, lethargic attitude. It increases width, produces bulk and emphasizes shortness. It also counters vertical range.


Figure 2. 9 shows applications of horizontal lines in the form of structural, efficient and decorative areas of design. Applications of a horizontal series include

Wide square necklines

Flat collars

Bow ties

Weft stripes



Flap pockets

Yoke lines

Wide dual breasted closures

Wide brimmed hat

Figure 2. 10 demonstrates illusions of width created by horizontal necklines. Off-the-shoulder neckline shows up broadest in comparison to boat and round neckline.

Diagonal line


Diagonal lines denotes restlessness, action, movement, exhilaration, vitality, liveliness, computer animation, etc. It reinforces the route of the dominating sides. It counters both vertical and horizontal lines. It useful to create asymmetrical design.


Figure 2. 11 shows applications of diagonal lines in the form of structural, functional and decorative areas of design. Applications of a diagonal range include



Open collar

Raglan sleeve

French darts

Diagonal stripes

Herringbone pattern

Zigzag pattern

A-line skirt

Flared skirt

Crisscross straps


Diagonal lines create aftereffect of slimness. In Number 2. 12 the still left model appears to be slim and taller than the right model due to diagonal neck of the guitar straps. In Amount 2. 13, which body appears to be slimmer or taller? You can view that diagonal lines combined with vertical lines create more slendering effect. This effect is pronounced more on an extended dress.

Weight of line

The weight of your line is gauged in conditions of things or fractions of items, which are units of measurement traditionally found in the printing industry. A couple of 72 things to an inch. The finest brand that can be produced is a hairline, which includes the weight of a quarter of a spot. A recently created series has a 1-point weight. Body 2. 14 illustrates weight of lines.

Thick lines:

Thick lines illustrate boldness, push, masculine, go-ahead, dashing and attention seeking characteristics.

Thin line

Thick lines demonstrate delicacy, weakness, thinness, slimness, timid, introverted and female nature.

Style of line

Generally, the most popular style of brand is sturdy & continuous collection. There may be, however, a dash and dot options you can use to split up the body of the collection. Dashes are brief strokes with spaces in between. Shape 2. 15 shows various styles of lines.

Guidelines to utilization of lines

Fashion designers need to make use of appropriate size of lines. Way too many lines are distracting. Dense lines overpower the other elements and lines that are too slim fade away in to the background. Pay attention to the spacing. Use dots and dashes instead of solid lines to make interest in the look. Pair up heavy and thin lines for dual lines.


Shape can be defined as a set two dimensional area enclosed by lines. Lines create outlines or corners of the inside area. Figures create motifs. The motif can be identified as a 'phrase' of design terminology. Motif is defined as single shape or image.

Shapes or motifs are being used to create patterns. Design is the repetition of shape or form. If motif is the 'phrase', then the routine is the 'sentence' and the around design is the 'paragraph' of the look language. Forms used to make these habits can be of different kinds like leaves, plants, square, circles, etc.

Shapes can be categorized into four categories: Natural, Geometrical, Stylized and Abstract.

Natural shapes

Natural shapes or motifs are the ones that find their source in dynamics. Flowers, birds, pets or animals, fruits, bees, bugs, stars, sun, moon, etc are options for natural shapes. These styles are easy to understand and easy to reproduce.

Many designers use basic format of these shapes as way to obtain inspiration for their structural and attractive designs. Number 2. 16 illustrates fashion apparel inspired from motivation of butterfly. Taking enthusiasm from condition and colour of the butterfly, ornamental designs can be made by various techniques like printing, embroidery, quilting, trimming materials, etc. Amount 2. 17 shows structural aspects of fashion dresses based on inspirational way to obtain flower.

Geometrical shapes

Geometrical patterns, as the name implies find their source in geometry. They are created by using geometrical tools. These geometrical designs are useful to make habits and surface designs on the textiles. Different compositions of the many geometrical figures can be produced for creating beautiful designs.

Regular geometric figures like square, triangle etc. are not very much used in costume designing as they are static in aspect. Geometrical styles of unequal measure have a location in the structure outfit e. g. oblong, ovoid (egg shaped) and the oval are interesting for their dynamic nature. You may convert any natural form into geometric shape by modifying & combining the following fundamental geometric forms.

Figure 2. 18 illustrates fashion dresses based on inspirational way to obtain geometrical figures.

Geometrical shapes composed of straight line sections are square, rectangle, polygon, triangle, parallelogram, rhombus, trapezium and quadrilateral. Geometrical styles composed of curved line sections are group, ellipse, oval, semicircle, sphere and stadium.

Stylised shapes

Stylized shapes are essentially naturalistic or geometric that is modified or used to accomplish different look. Here, natural elements are revised and represented in an unrealistic manner. Stylized motifs are usually found in nursery prints. Since they are not realistic representations they provide a lot of range for creativity and imagination. Body 2. 19 details up designs based on stylised figures.

Abstract shapes

Abstract shape is sophisticated and difficult to understand. It does not show certainty. Abstract design can be explained as the design which does not represent reality, somewhat, it requires its inspiration from real life but uses patterns for inspiration. By abstraction we indicate what is produced or disengaged from the nature. It has a very complex appearance. Physique 2. 20 shows designs predicated on abstract figures.

Form or silhouette

Form is described the physical structure of an subject. It is the three-dimensional counterpart to design. Form describe amount and mass. Cube, cylinder, cone, sphere are types of the form. When light from a single direction visits an object, portion of the thing will maintain shadow. Dark and light areas within an picture give compare that can imply quantity. Factors that can impact our methodology towards an illustration comprise of the path of the event light, from below or above, and the abruptness or gentleness of the 50 % tones.

Light via back area of a subject can produce a silhouette leading to object that is totally dark in opposition to a lighter shaded background. Silhouettes job as 2-D styles missing form. There are two varieties of form: Illusionary form is developed by using principles like perspective in order to illustrate form on the 2-D work, while the real form is seen in sculpture and other 3-D design.


Space can be viewed as as the area between, around, within, below or above items. Space is set by objects, varieties, and shapes with their sizes. Nothing is out there without it. Positive space in the design is occupied by items. Negative space is the whitespace between objects. In other words, positive space is where items, forms, and shapes can be found; negative space is the unfilled space around them. For images to have a sense of balance, positive and negative space can be used to counter balance one another.

Two dimensional space:

The space in 2-D arts such as drawwings, sketching, photographs, paintings, and prints is basically limited to width and height. Since there is no real distance and depth in such works, music artists have developed ways to demonstrate the illusion of distance and depth on planes surfaces. The next describes some of those methods:

The most famous of these methods is the utilization of linear perspective. Perspective means piecing together items in distance. Objects seem to be large when they are close and small when they are located at distant. The decisive factors of this space based after the horizon range and disappearance factors. Overlapping of items on the canvas can form space as shown in Shape 2. 21. The specific arrangement of items can also develop the illusion of space. Distant figures are higher and nearer patterns are low in the picture planes. Figure 2. 22 shows how linier point of view can be achieved by chaning the planes. Another more important techniques is atmospheric perspective. This request shows far-away objects and spaces with fewer fine detail and intensity than nearer things.

Through the making of the techniques, the custom made seems to nullify the flatness of the picture planes, generating the observer into what appears to be a world of actual space.

Three dimensional space:

Three dimensional space is determined as having width, level, depth, and is referred to as real space. This would include accessories, furniture, rings and ceramics. Within the 3-D design the viewers can freely maneuver around and through it. Three dimensional design may use both positive and negative space for revealing content and interpretation. An easy way to comprehend difference between negative and positive space could possibly be the presence of genuine subject (i. e. positive); or having less it (i. e. negative). The data of the way the designer uses both negative and positive space in the art work for expression can be an important factor.


It's known as typography, and it is considered an component in graphical design. Although it includes elements of design, it is often an element by means of visual communication. There are lots of aspects to typography, and simply a concise research will be mentioned here established around some basic terms like

Baseline: The brand on which all letters break.

Beardline: The line reached by the

descenders of lowercase letters.

Bowl: The round or elliptical parts of a letterform.

Cap lines: The series reached by the most notable of uppercase letters.

Counter: The white space enclosed by way of a letterform, whether completely or partly.

Extenders: Extenders will be the parts of letters that expand either below the baseline (descenders)/above the midline (ascenders).

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