In this essay, I am going to analyzing chapter 1 and chapter 39 of 'Great Expectations' a novel compiled by Charles Dickens in 1860-1861. 'Great Expectations' is defined and written in the Victorian era in England, when social class was an enormous factor of society. The novel is written as a first-person narrative by the primary character of the novel Pip, as a mature man telling his life story. The novel is focused how Pip matures from a young boy into a fully-grown man. Through the entire essay, I will be taking a look at the dramatic qualities of Dickens writing. To do this I will check out how Dickens uses atmosphere, characterization, and realistic dialogue to build tension.
The opening chapter of 'Great Expectations' is incredibly dramatic and filled with atmosphere. It starts with Pip standing alone in a graveyard next to seven gravestones, that are Pip's mother, father, and five younger brothers. Right away Dickens has hooked the readers in to the story by creating a dark and dank atmosphere surrounded by death. Dickens has set the scene in a graveyard to create dramatic atmosphere to hook the readers on guessing exactly what will happen to Pip and exactly how his journey will establish. This helps create an ominous, sad, and lonely mood in preparation for the appearance of the convict. The graveyard is described as a 'bleak place overgrown with nettles. ' This shows how isolated the area looks and reflect how Pip is feeling. In chapter 1, our company is introduced to Pip as a lonely child, who's quite isolated, innocent, and naive. In the opening of the novel, Dickens creates a 'dark' atmosphere-using pathetic fallacy to portray Pip's feelings. Lots of the words used in the opening chapter have a harsh tone to them, such as "dead, buried, savage lair, devil. " I believe Dickens chose these words to create a shadowy atmosphere.
In the Opening scene of chapter 39, Pip is walking home all alone, which is feeling depressed, lonely, and miserable, for example when Pip says 'I was alone, and had a dull sense of being alone. ' You can view that Dickens has created a dark, gloomy atmosphere to keep the suspense going to see what is going to happen next.
Both chapter 1 and chapter 39 both focus on Pip alone, feeling upset and down, both chapter are occur the dark, and late in the night time. Dickens has done this to create a dramatic atmosphere; to keep carefully the readers engaged with the novel, but also showing the readers how Pip is feeling. Pip in chapter 39 is feeling very anxious and incredibly nervous, as he wants to discover who's his benefactor. However, in chapter 1, Pip also feels the same, as he is nervous, scared, and anxious in regards to what the convict might do to him. The chapters are both similar in the way dickens has used atmosphere to make a gloomy appearance.
In Chapter 1 Dickens uses many descriptive details to create the scene in an exceedingly dreary way. Dickens sets the opening scene in a graveyard; this immediately makes the place feel creepy, gloomy, and sinister. The scene is defined in the middle of the "marsh country, down by the river, within. . . twenty miles of the ocean". Dickens is giving the readers an image of the setting by describing the scene. Among the techniques used to spell it out the setting is a list. This also identifies how Pip is feeling at the time.
'The dark flat wilderness beyond the churchyard, intersected with dykes and mounds and gates, with scattered cattle feeding on it, was the marshes; and this the reduced leaden line beyond, was the river; and that the distant savage lair from which the wind was rushing, was the ocean; and that the tiny bundle of shivers growing afraid of everything and starting to cry, was Pip. '
This shows us that that Dickens sets the scene by describing Pip's emotion by showing the readers how he is feeling. Dickens also uses many verbs to spell it out the setting, so that readers can imagine the picture within minds. The description of the landscape in the chapter 1 is incredibly intense and is prosperous in creating an Erie sense about Pips surroundings. The language used prepares the reader and also instills strong images which enable the reader to observe how Pip relates to his feelings.
In chapter 39 Dickens has set the scene in London, where Pip has been living. The scene is defined completely different to the way it was set in chapter 1. Although scene starts with Pip walking home, where it is all cold and gloomy, Dickens goes on to create the scene in a nice warm room with a fire. This is different to the outside setting in the graveyards in chapter 1. However Dickens still uses descriptive language to set the scene in the chapter by using turbulent images, metaphors and similes, ' The wind rushing in the river shook the home that night, like discharges of cannon, or breakings of any sea"; " Dickens' dramatic images and his acute focus on detail maintain the drama and seriousness of the atmosphere in the chapter.
London was a city that was, dominated by men in the 1860s. The social class in London was for the rich people or people who had money. However, in chapter 39 Pip learns that social class has nothing to do with being truly a good person. Dickens shows through this novel how divided British society is at the 1860s. The criminal 'Magwitch', the indegent of the marshes 'Joe', the middle class 'Pumblechook', and the top class 'Miss Havisham'. The setting of chapter 39 is completely dissimilar to the setting in chapter 1. London is a huge city, which mentioned earlier is polluted by men; it is unlike the naturalistic marshes in which Pip first met the convict Magwitch in chapter 1.
Chapter 1 is dramatic; the sudden appearance of the convict is a lot unexpected.
"Hold your noise!" cried a terrible voice, as a man started up from among the graves beside the church porch. "Keep still, you little devil, or I'll cut your throat!"
Dickens has used a dramatic opening line to introduce the convict. That is a dramatic climax in the novel. Straight away, you can view worries that Pip is feeling and can sympathise along with his character. "O! Don't cut my throat sir, I pleaded in terror. " Dickens changes the writing from narrative to dialogs, to produce dramatic tension. That is to help make the writing more interesting for the readers also to create anxiety between the characters. Dickens also creates a memorable character, Magwitch by causing his character appear strong, aggressive, and violent so that he has a major impact on the audience, so next time he appears he'll be remembered.
In Chapter 39, Pip discovers that Magwitch is his benefactor. Dickens heightens the suspense of this discovery through his use of imagery and dialogue. The very first thing we notice is that there surely is an awful storm. The storm reflects the confusion Pip feels and destruction of the dreams Pip had. This is a climate moment in the novel. When Pip first hears the news headlines that Magwitch is the one who have been supporting him he says, 'I stood so, looking wildly at him, until I graspedat the chair, when the area started to surge and turn. ' Then Pip realizes the worst thing he has done. "But, sharpest and deepest pain of all. . . was that I haddeserted Joe. " Pip finally realises see your face of low class is accountable for all his "great expectation" but that the person will never match the world of expectations Pip himself has generated.
In chapter 39, we also visit a change in Pips character. As Pip walks towards home, he's snobby and rude, however when he learns about Magwitch is his benefactor, he becomes insecure and betrayed. However, in chapter 1 Pips character is, viewed as brave and mature, He listens to the commands of the threatening and scary convict without any hesitation. While, Magwitch character in chapter 1 is the entire opposite of Pips character in chapter 1. The convict's character is rude, aggressive, bad mannered, and immature. However, Dickens has switched the characterization of pip's and Magwitch characters in both chapter 1 and chapter 39. In chapter1, Pip was the nice character and Magwitch was the bad character, and today in chapter 39 Pip started the chapter by being the bad character, until he realised how he has been acting. It really is Magwitch, character that is seen as the nice character in chapter 39. He is humble and subservient, and this remains frequent throughout the chapter. This is a good technique that dickens has used in chapter1, and 39.
The ending of chapter 1, is dramatic and is also left on the cliffhanger to hook the readers. Inside the Victoria time social class was a large factor to society, people didn't can pay for to venture out and buy a book. So Dickens used to create a chapter at a time, for readers to buy. Therefore, the ending of the chapter needs to be interesting for readers going and buy another chapter, when published. The opening chapter of 'Great Expectations' starts with a great hook, there's a vicious escaped criminal, threatening an unhealthy, innocent boy directly into helping him survive and escape. The techniques Dickens uses to make a dramatic ending is by using a pathetic fallacy 'the sky was only a row of long angry red lines and dense black lines intermixed' this is showing us how pip is feeling because red and black colours resemble danger. Therefore, it keeps the audience wondering exactly what will happen next to Pip, leaving it on a cliffhanger.
The ending of chapter 39 is very dramatic, Pip's expectations are ruined and destroyed, and his dreams have been crushed. Dickens uses the metapho