Posted at 10.13.2018
Malaysia is a haven for scrumptious food and boosts many local delicacies (Fabulous Food 1 Malaysia, 2010). Thus, food can play a significant role in bringing in both local and international vacationers to come to experience the vacation spot, meanwhile share with others the joys of eating when travel. In such, it is vital for the government and private sector to enhance their cooperation to advertise Malaysian food to vacationers.
Food is one of the vital elements of individual to endure. Eating is one of the physiological needs even though outside our standard environment (Tikkaen, 2007). Now, food also acts as integral part of the visitor experience at a destination. It includes assumed a dominant role in traveler decision-making and satisfaction, travel and leisure products and place advertising strategies (Henderson, 2009). Thus, food can be an important resource in travel and leisure sector.
Food tourism can be explained as tourists' involvement in food related activities at a destination in order to experience its culinary characteristics. Since the get older of post modernity, the experience of consumers plays the progressively important role in financial and interpersonal life (Quan and Wang, 2004). Therefore, the partnership of food and tourism has received several attention from research workers, because of the benefit which it brings to local community, particularly in the economic sector. However, the characteristic of food tourism and specific problems confronting providers change from each destination to each other.
Even though, Malaysia offers many local food specialties with feature of multiracial culture in contribute to connection with consumers, but there continues to be lack of awareness of travelers towards Malaysia food. So, this proposal is to explore the SWOT examination of food travel and leisure in Malaysia to be able to search out the valuable information that will benefit food travel and leisure development in Malaysia.
In most places of Malaysia, it's quite common to see many restaurants; treat bars and avenue/hawker food stalls in which vacationer can discover vary tastes of food. So, it is assume that food gets the potential to become a tourist attraction. Therefore, research proposal is essential to investigate the SWOT evaluation of food travel and leisure Malaysia to seek out valuable information that can benefit food travel and leisure development in Malaysia. On this proposal, the SWOT evaluation will be investigated with identifies research of other countries since Malaysia is insufficient research in food tourism. Therefore, this research will focusing on SWOT examination of food travel and leisure Malaysia to comprehend the current issues and challenges that face by food travel and leisure Malaysia. Hence, improvement or action can be studied to resolve food tourism problems.
The purpose of this newspaper is to explore the issues and issues of food travel and leisure in Malaysia, that may concentrate on SWOT (Advantages, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Hazards) analysis. Within this proposal, questions which need responding to as follow:
What are local food specialties of Malaysia?
What are the factors that encourage traveler toward Malaysia food?
What will be the factors that prevent engagement of traveler in food related activities in Malaysia?
In what extent of consumer satisfaction toward food in Malaysia?
Food travel and leisure can be regard as visitation of tourists to a location for go through the food tasting. Food add lot of advantages to a country like having strategic importance in each countrywide economy and enhance the visitor experience when travel. Therefore, this proposal will check out the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threat of food tourism in Malaysia.
This proposal will research the determination of visitor in food travel and leisure Malaysia. Understanding level interest of visitor in food travel and leisure is crucial because it may use as tool for segmenting the market that facilitate the development of food tourism in a country and ensure the products meet the needs. Hence, it will add value to the durability for the meals tourism.
Besides, this proposal will make contribution related to the marketing and promotion of food tourism. Understanding the various perspectives of food-related-business owners towards food travel and leisure will aptly convey the problems facing by them. Hence, it'll serve as helpful information to help navigate them in current market with integrate with government. In addition, it also offers value to opportunities and reduces threat for food tourism development.
Several aims been identified to be able to perform this research, which are:
1. 5. 1 To identify the talents of food tourism in Malaysia then heighten it
1. 5. 2 To identify the weakness of food tourism then does indeed improvement onto it.
1. 5. 3 To identify the activities which could bring profit to food travel and leisure in Malaysia.
1. 5. 4 To identify the actions that'll be threat of food tourism in Malaysia then reduce it.
The literature to be examined masks on food travel and leisure in general. First of all, this proposal will concise review the books on food tourism that like the definition of food tourism, role of food in tourism, motivation of tourist in food travel and leisure and need for it to a country. Subsequently, this proposal will review the books on food culture and food travel and leisure in Malaysia that including types of foods, places of food eating out and food festivity and food happenings in Malaysia. Finally, this proposal will review the books on international tourist point of view on food tourism in Malaysia. Fourthly, this proposal will quickly review the literature on the issues that are matter by the people that including understanding of vacationer on food in term of quality and basic safety. Fifthly, this proposal will review the books on obstacles that face by travel and leisure industry and suggest some difficulties which could face by Malaysia in future.
Definition of food tourism
Based on different point of view of several analysts in relation to food tourism, the definition of food tourism is defined as below:
"Food and wine tourism represents a significant growth area as global reputation as a significant culinary and wine vacation spot spreads. " (Shannessy, Minett & Hyde, 2008)
"Food tourism is defined as visitation to key and supplementary food producers, food celebrations, restaurants and specific location for which food tasting and/or experiencing the attributes of specialist food creation region will be the key motivating factor for travel. " (Hall and Mitchell, 2001, p. 10)
"Food tourism can be referred to as travel to specific regions to sample dishes unique to the area" (Ministry's Of Travel and leisure Malaysia, 2010)
Therefore, food tourism can be explained as tourists' involvement in food related activities at a vacation spot to see its culinary attributes. For example, ingest local food product, trip to an area market, and show up at food conferences, trade fairs or food happening etc.
Role of food in tourism
Food plays important role inside our lives. It's not only satisfied being hungry or methods to sustaining life but additionally it is a way for all of us to see other ethnicities in international country. It can be a part of travel experience too. Quan and Wang (2003) also recommended that whether or not trying different types of food is the key purpose for visitors to travel, food can at least provide extra opportunities for travellers to be in a more memorable and exciting trip atmosphere than they expected. Furthermore, food also improves destination attractiveness.
Next, food has a proper importance in each nationwide economy (Meler and Cerovic, 2003). It could bring economic incomes benefits to authorities and local community. For instance, it encouraging entrepreneurship in which stimulating the food creation activities for retailing the neighborhood products to tourists. It could be appear in hawker food industry at Malaysia.
Motivation of visitor in food tourism
Food travel and leisure can be respect as special interest tourism, which holiday has special affinity for food as a travel determination. "Food tourism may well be regarded as a good example of culinary, gastronomic, premium or cuisine travel and leisure. " (Hall and Mitchell, 2001, p. 10). Further on, Hall and Mitchell (2001), added that the importance of a particular interest in food as a travel inspiration can also be divided four hobbies, that happen to be high interest (gourmet and cuisine travel and leisure), average interest (culinary travel and leisure), low interest rate (rural/urban tourism), no interest. The explanation as below:
1) High interest (premium and cuisine travel and leisure): travelling to a destination with the principal motive being a specific restaurant, market or winery. All, or almost all, traveler activities are food related.
2) Average interest (culinary travel and leisure): visiting a local market, event, restaurant or winery when you have arrived at a destination as part of a wider range of lifestyle activities.
3) Low interest rate (rural/urban tourism): browsing to a local market, winery, or restaurant since it is 'something different'.
4) No interest: visiting a familiar restaurant while you are going because you have to consume. (Hall and Mitchell, 2001, p. 11)
The understanding level interest of traveler in food tourism is crucial since it may use as tool for segmenting the marketplace that facilitate the development of food tourism in a country and ensure the items meet the demands. Hence, it'll add value to the durability for the food tourism.
Besides, there exists another methodology can be used in segmenting the travelers for food tourism by using Maslow hierarchy of needs in the foundation of classification predicated on empirical studies by Tikkanen (2003).
Basically, Maslow hierarchy of needs is a construction in describes the human needs in his typical model. The hierarchy of needs begins in the bottom with basic physiological needs, and progress upward through basic safety, belongingness (communal needs), esteem and self-actualization. Usually, tourists will fulfill the bottom level needs first and make an effort to achieve the advanced after bottom needs been satisfied. Basic physiological needs encompass of food, normal water, clothing and shelter. Safe practices needs include cover and security. Belongingness (communal needs) consist of love, companionship and affiliation with others. Esteems needs involves desire for position and success and last self-actualization is methods to self-fulfillment.
From here, it appears that food can be an essential aspect for individual to survive specifically, but in reality it has a lot more value than that. Based on research by Tikkanen (2003), Maslow hierarchy of needs may be used to classify the sectors of food travel and leisure. Below is the sum up of empirical results indicates that when classifying food tourism areas by apply the Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Figure: Sectors of food tourism in Finland grouped by the hierarchy needs
Based on shape above, it indicates that food travel and leisure is meticulously related to needs. First, physiological needs are related to food itself. Besides, it is the core drive for food tourism. Tourists are largely take part in activities like cross-border food shopping and picking travel and leisure. Second, safeness needs are in the form of food safe practices and cleanliness knowledge. Tourists are concern with the food protection when they are exploring especially in unfamiliar environment. They are often participates in food security conference. Third, interpersonal needs are involve conversation with other people. Visitors' activities such as attend food event and visitation to vineyard. Forth, esteem needs are related to culinary food tourism. Its activities include food ways and provincial ala carte jobs. At this stage, travelers will offers with new culture culinary to give them a memorable experience. Fifth, self-actualization needs are in the form of boosts one experience or knowledge and competencies related to food. So, travellers are participating in trade fairs and international food convention.
From this review, we can have better understanding of the needs of travelers. Therefore, it makes it possible for marketers to effectively aim for specific segment target market and does not oversupply.
Importance of food tourism
Food is an important resource in tourism. Most of travelers spend one-third of these overall expenses into foods and beverages when travel (Meler and Cerovic, 2003).
According to Henderson (2009), contribution created by food to travel and leisure is extensive, such as use of food as tourism product, food travel and leisure as an instrument of destination and standard development. Besides, marketing of food to holidaymakers also improve image of a country. So, Malaysia as multiracial country may raise up image through marketing of food with links of different culture of races.
Importance from food tourism includes contribution to income in which improve the GDP country and point out, provide job work and job opportunities particularly in food and drink, and offer quality of goods and services in which generate competition to the marketplace so tourist have significantly more choices in selection of products to encourage repeated consumers.
Food culture and food travel and leisure in Malaysia
Food tourism in Malaysia reaches introductory level. So, insufficient research done at Malaysia. However, Malaysia has potential to become "food capital" about the world. Presently, Malaysia involves variety types of food like local food, fast food, western-food, Thai food and so forth. The yummy food and friendly people can make Malaysia an excellent destination for international travellers.
A research has been done Shahrim & Chua (2009) in determine Malaysia as a culinary tourism destination predicated on international tourists perspective. They discuss that the uniqueness of Malaysia food is actually a opportunity for Malaysia to become a culinary tourism destination among Parts of asia. In addition, Malaysian food encompasses multiple combination of flavors will further encourage international tourist come to enjoy the meals. Then, it'll become make Malaysia to be food capital among the world.
Malaysian food includes local food that often associates with culture of variety races, such as Nasi Lemak and Laksa (Malay), Bak Kut Teh (pork soup form Chinese language), Roti Canai (Indian) and so on. At the same time, Malaysia also serves non-local foods like western food and junk food. In Malaysia, there's a whole lot of Franchise junk food wall socket like KFC, Pizza Hut, and Mc. Donald and so on around the spot, which provide to foreign visitor using their familiar tastes. Hence, it can give simplicity option for traveler who doesn't prefer to consume local food. In addition Malaysia also have outlet that offers Hong Kong food (Dim Amount among others Cantonese specialties) and Thailand food (Tom Yam), Vietnam food, Japanese food (Sushi) and so forth to meet different needs of traveler.
Other than that, eateries food also are a factor that encourage vacationer to take food in Malaysia. As talk about above, Malaysia has a lot of franchise wall plug of fast food restaurants; it also offers hawker food stalls, nighttime markets, bars among others. Hawker food stalls easily found in Malaysia and is the desire place for some Malaysian due to cheap price foods. It can found along the road. Normally, it markets cuisine and local food. While nights market is a place that not only sell foods or refreshments, but it addittionally sell clothes, CDs, literature, fresh fruits and vegetables in Malaysia. It always is a place for social interaction among stores and consumers. Additionally it is a group of street distributors that sell ready food. It often called as "Pasar Malam" with same interpretation to nights market by Malaysian. Next, bars are frequently bought at city area. It usually visits by people who look for relaxation. For additional information for restaurants, it acts the foods and beverages in line with the varieties of different ethnicities.
Food celebrations in Malaysia
Malaysia has different races, thus the party of festivals vary among each others. For example, Hari Raya is celebrated by Malay, Chinese New 12 months is celebrated by Chinese, Deepavali is celebrateed by Indian. During festivals, they will prepare traditional foods. Their traditional food such as cuisines must be well-prepare during party. Besides, addititionally there is a great many other ethnicities or often called indigenous people such as Kadazan and Iban that live basically in rural regions of the united states, which is at Sabah and Sarawak. They are really celebrating Hari Gawai with methods to party of reaped a good harvest of their crops. In the festival day, there will be dances and sings associate with food.
In Malaysia, there may be cross-culture exchange, which "open-house" notion arises among Malaysian. It really is a Malaysian ethnical affair during festive seasons. During festival, Malaysian should to open up house to tourists like friends, neighborhood friends, and relatives. After that, friends will be welcomed and dished up by web host with cookies and traditional delights which is home prepared or bought at industry.
Furthermore, this idea now recognition anticipated to Ministry of Malaysia also participates this very Malaysian culture of open house. This means that anyone has chance to walk in and participate of the spread of food available with uncertainty. Simultaneously, they can share the happiness of hosts' even ethnical and racial dissimilarities. It is a period for all remains together to take pleasure from delightful Malaysian's local foods. In other countries, this idea may quite difficult to found. Nowadays, it participates by more visitor as available house notion get started launce by ministry to encourage more come to enjoy along as 1 Malaysia.
Food occasions in Malaysia
Start from time 2007, Malaysia has structured several events in international level to promote food products. For instance, KL Coffee & Tea Festivity 2007, Epicure Malaysia 2008, Malaysia International Gourmet Festival (MIGF)2009, Malaysia International Halal Food Show off (MIHAS) 2010 and so on. Mostly, the event organized goal is to gather the suppliers, stores, providers, and food service expert to acquire social connection among each other. Sometimes, showcase of latest equipment and related systems also be setup at that time.
Food occasions not only provide a fantastic sales and net working chance of vendors, restaurants, wholesalers, suppliers, vendors and manufacturers, but it addittionally increase the knowing of tourists about food service in Malaysia as well. Hence, food events can be an chance of Malaysian to explore the latest of food service about the world.
Government participation in food event made the event successful all the times. For example, legislation made the interest of stakeholders of that event has been secure. Besides, it also ensures the progression of event run properly without the disrupt. Government participation also gives the confidence to people meanwhile increase knowing of other for food events. In addition, marketing promotions by Tourism Malaysia can make better recognizable of those happenings as these situations that lead to effective marketing strategies in Malaysia.
International tourist point of view on food tourism in Malaysia
Understands the understanding of international holiday towards food in Malaysia is vital since it will ensure the supply meet the demand. From the proposal done by Shahrim, Chua & Hamdin (2009) at Kuala Lumpur, KLIA, and the result shows that travelers are most from Asia, then Australia, Europe, America and Africa. It found that 82% of the respondents will probably enjoy Malaysia food.
Further on, the results indicated that most holidaymakers appeared to be satisfied by the meals quality, food variety, price and meals experience in Malaysia. Besides, the results also suggested that visitors quite meet with local food availability in Malaysia. Thus, it can fortify the cause of food into vacationers brain. However, the "Malaysian food uniqueness" image was found to be insignificant. It may due to insufficient understanding and images of Malaysian food. Thus, more work should be placed to increase conscious of vacationers towards Malaysian food.
Besides, the proposal also suggested that holidaymakers do not plan to consider Malaysia as the first on their set of culinary destination, even though they are simply satisfy with food availability, food quality and food experience in Malaysia. Thus, extreme promoting strategies have to be done to encourage them to take in foods in Malaysia.
Furthermore, the proposal also explain satisfaction on tourists on eating out at atmosphere such as food service, environment and service staff is much less high hopefully. Thus, general population and private areas should do improvement upon this dilemma. For instance, teach the employees for further courtesy and quick service and make sure fresh and clean eating environment every point in time.
Overall, a satisfaction o f visitor on food travel and leisure Malaysia must do more improvement to heighten the strength and reduces the weakness, especially in advertising strategies. So, visitors will carry the images of Malaysian food at heart. Hence, it leads repeat visitation of travelers to Malaysia.
Therefore, Ministry of Malaysia is currently aggressively promoting Malaysia's unique local delicacies. It promote via the Ministry's Fabulous Food 1 Malaysia website www. fabfood1malaysia. com. It is an official authorities website that officiated by our Minister of Tourism, Y. B. Dato Ng Yen Yen.
"It isn't only intended to promote popular local food or cultural dishes in any way restaurants and hawker food wall plug, but it addittionally function to encourage the said industry to build unique Malaysia activities and improve service elements to improve Malaysia's competitiveness"(1Malaysia Food - An environment of Fabulous Culinary Delights).
The Fabulous Food1 Malaysia program consists of three tiers: promote our gourmet cuisine capacities and top restaurants, promote food judge (in shopping malls) dishes, and promote multi-culturally-influenced hawker and block restaurant food. So, it can truly add understanding of food for travelers.
Moreover, Ministry of Travel and leisure (MOT) compiles the 50 best outlets of local dishes in Malaysia into a food galore guidebook on year 2010 with hope to promote the local cuisine into home and international market more broadly. The local cuisines include laksa, nasi lemak and Bak Kut The (meats bone tea). MOT also do research on food shops and judge on six conditions such as style innovation, hygiene, rates, frame of mind of the providers and ambience of the wall socket in order to find the best food wall socket for consumers. In addition, MOT also considers the recommendations and recommendations made by the general public through the web site in collection of best food outlets. Thus, it will improve the food connection with tourists for the duration of travel in Malaysia. To be able to maintain the quality of food, MOT will review each year the listing food outlets to ensure that food providers are in their highest standard.
Apart from that, Malaysia also will effort in promote fast food in Malaysia. MOT always considers the general public health. Therefore, in Malaysia, all fast food restaurants do give a whole lot of information in relation to numbers of calories from fat, excessive fat grams and other nutritional details for consumers to reviews their eating styles. It is government assistance for establish healthy eating. However, this can be relevant to other restaurants in Malaysia too. Thus, tourists will more self-assurance with the food safeness in Malaysia. However, Malaysia should put more work regarding to food protection issues in Malaysian such as benchmarking of food suppliers and risk management in food travel and leisure.
At the present time, food tourism industry development is confronted with some challenges of market characteristics to the change of finalizing mode with regards to multiple products and services ( Meler & Cerovic, 2003). Therefore, marketing strategies are other vital factors in identifying the successful of food tourism. Meler & Cerovic (2003) also said that food marketing may be regarded as the connecting link- the bridge- between specific food makers and consumers. For the reason that the marketing initiatives will make the meals product more competitive and recognizable in industry. Hence, Malaysia must be aware to current tendency of food travel and leisure, so that marketing strategies can become more effective.
As mentioned above, there are reasons that affect the problems of food travel and leisure in country. However, there are still more opportunities and dangers that need to further investigate and discovered to enhance the ongoing development of food travel and leisure in Malaysia.
For occasion, research can be done with linkage with others type of tourism to produce multiplier impact since tourist also will involve themselves in other kinds of tourism at exactly the same time. For instance, food tourists more likely to take part in activities such as sessions museum, shop, be present at music and/or film celebrations and participate in general outdoor recreation (Tourism Queensland, 2003).
Beside, in term of regional aspects, food travel and leisure Malaysia can be divides into rural and metropolitan setting. For urban setting up, it present consumers with variety of ethnical product and international food in restaurants, while at rural area, it present consumers with local foods in places like fruit picking and agricultural plantation accommodation. For metropolitan area, it can also be affiliates with homestay to develop the traveler experience with culture and food.
Issues that are matter by the consumers
Understanding the issues matter by the tourist is very significant in determining the successful of promoting product to customers, especially in food travel and leisure. For Malaysia, food tourism may be considered a quite new principle in comparison to other countries like Japan, Canada, and Taiwan and so on. Because of this, Malaysia is said to be in the introductory stage in offer food product to tourist, so there is certainly insufficient research in consumer tendencies in food travel and leisure. As such, it may make reference to other countries in order to smooth the progress of introductory stage move quickly in to the growth stage. With review the books by Frewer & Rijswijk (2008), perception of holiday on food can be associated with quality and safe practices. These two principles have an effect on decision making of tourist independently or all together. Perception of food quality and protection apt to be influenced by such mental health and ethnic factors somewhat than physiological product encounters exclusively (Rijswijk & Frewer2008).
Furthermore, safeness needs are the motives when tourist participates in food related-activities no subject international food or domestic food. For example, In Malaysia, it is a main concern on hawker food industry. Hawker foods are an crucial cultural traditions that contributes need for benefits in conditions of economic to country Malaysia. By due to its ethnical diversity, Malaysia is also a melting area of various culinary heritages which may have become a great part of experience that could donate to the tourism sector. (Shahrim, Chua & Hamdin, 2009). Now, hawker food industry continuously growing in Malaysia and become popular among local holidaymakers. Therefore, food basic safety or general population health strategies should be regulates to guarantee the development of food tourism effectively. However, the exploratory research by Fiona & Poh (2008), unveils the government ineffectiveness in regulate food safe practices of hawkers across in Malaysia like ineffectiveness of food safeness regulations/ recommendations, licensing, training and relocation. Because of this, the creation of bad image to visitors occurs. Regards with this, improvement of food safety must be implements soon to lessen hazard. To boost food safety, the meals production sector is in part reliant on the context in which operates (Reinders, 2004).
Challenges regards to food tourism
Henderson (2009) emphasize several challenges with regards to food tourism such as preserving the local distinctiveness respected by tourists when confronted with globalization pressures, food cleanliness, different food needs by consumers and quality and services provided. So this is going to provide a cues for those take part in destination area development process which aim to draw food development and tourism in future planning.
In Malaysia, food travel and leisure is still rather unclear or less common anticipated to it is at introductory stage. So, it can base on the situation proposal by other countries as guide. As talk about before, Malaysia is a multiracial country that contains different races such as Malay, Chinese language, Indian yet others. Hence, it provides with different taste of foods. However, the neighboring countries like Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia provide similar foods with us because they also consist of several races. Thus, it could generate a great competition in food market. So, Malaysia need to need to be investigate respect to identified food image by tourist so that it can provide personality to Malaysian food and this will reflects the culture of Malaysia. As a result, it will appeal to repeated customers in future.