Since Christopher Columbus found America, folks have moved to the continent with so called North american Dream. Early on settler of America dreamt about flexibility from ruler, having reasonable life which is the fact that as they work, as they get. However this meaning of American desire finally altered into more materials way as time passed. People started to have more materialistic goal which is having a greater house, a nicer car etc. The clean meaning and purpose of 'American Dream' corrupted because of materialism. Moreover, as American fantasy more focused on success of materials life, this becomes unreal for normal people. In other words, American dream is becoming 'illusion' which can't be come true real life.
Through this paper, I will observe how the corrupted American dream appears in two modern American novels-The great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Fatality of the sales man by Arthur Miller. The great Gatsby was released 1922 in United Sates to create the 'Roaring twenties'. This time around, all people in the us enjoy the extreme materialistic lives, they converted into extravagant before they ran into profound slump. So in this book, reader can easily see how wealthy people serves and thinks in this time around of period. And Loss of life of your salesman is a play written in 1949 whenever a slightly after the period of deep slump. Though there's slight time gap in these two works, both deal with social framework in early 20th America and folks in that period who pursue so-called 'American aspiration'. Then show the destiny that their dreams couldn't help becoming an illusion for the reason that social context.
In many aspects, a lot of similarities are available in these two books. The main persona, Willian Loman and Jay Gatsby have tons in common in terms of their eyesight and goal of their life, the way they conceive others. And not just these protagonists, but also surrounding of two and public background have tons of similarities. However, distinctions are available between two works when deeply review their reason for pursuing their dream and how adjacent character affects and respond to their protagonists. So, I will see these similarities and variations in three aspects-characters, story, social backdrop and theme through this newspaper. Then answer a question 'why both characters failed to pursue their American fantasy'.
2. 1 Protagonists: Jay Gatsby and Willy Loman
In both storyline, protagonists have been searching for American goal for a life. Jay Gatsby and Willy Loman weren't from upper school, they made their own lot of money. They both have strong belief of becoming successful at the end. For both, American dream they follow is solely centered on becoming prosperous and popular. This notion becomes problematic and ultimately leads these to fail.
Willy is a salesman who only consider about being truly a successful and popular salesman in his company. These types of goal of life were formed of affect from his father who was simply the success salesman. And his desire to be a rich and his mere idea of becoming rich man originated from success from his older brother who made a lot of money from the precious stone mines. His dad and brother were typical North american who achieved their American aspiration by getting a chance in the prosperous time of America. This truth made Willy to trust they can also become one of them and this idea became a good burden to him. As Willy believes that achieving American dream is being wealthy like his brother and daddy, he put these kinds of idea into his sons, Biff and Happy. He continues encouraging them to become outstanding figure in the population, he failed to ask them about what these kids really want to be and how they want to establish their lives, which became problematic by the end.
Gatsby is a man, who is absolutely one of the richest men in the town 'Western egg'. His physique referred to as miraculous in the early area of the novel. However, he's not the main one like Tom Buchanan who was borned and lifted from prosperous family. He was in poverty in his junior which made Gatsby to establish desire to become prosperity. He longed for his new lease of life for his life and he decided to make him by himself. He gave new name 'Jay Gatsby' and also made new background of Gatsby. Not only constructed his former he also made himself to trust what he made was real. In such a aspect, Gatsby was more proactive and ambitious to make his aspiration to become real in comparison to Willy in "Death of the salesman". Willy devoted his life to achieve his aspiration, however, Gatsby modified his whole personal information to make himself to squeeze in his wish. Gatsby also view himself as the hero of the great love story by causing Daisy into perfect and real sweetheart in his history of life. Daisy Buchanan is partner of Tom Buchanan and also cousin of Nick Caraway who also from top class. If they first attained, Gatsby fell deeply in love with her. And he says all the things he made have only 1 goal, to love Daisy and marry her. Though he emphasizes his love which can justify all his tendencies, this love can not be determined just like a true love of Romeo from 'Romeo and Juliet'. The admiration toward her was made because of her background- rich, sophistication and luxury. He admire prosperous aura of Daisy not Daisy herself and had though that she can be a perfect woman of his own novel. He presumed he plays a job of knight who preserved lady-Daisy-from evil character-Tom.
He keeps stating himself that the reason why he needs to get wealthy and popular is only for his love Daisy, and justifying all action he made- distributing alcohol and trading in against the law securities. In a nutshell, the desire of Gatsby's fantasy was predicated on false notion.
So Willy and Gatsby both have goal to be successful but how they create their aspiration and why that they had that sorts of dream were different. The reason why that Willy want to be wealthy was motivated by his adjoining, dad and his sibling. And Gatsby's dream was made superficially due to love toward Daisy. Willy practically devoted his whole life to accomplish his dream to be abundant and popular sales man, but he failed. Out of his efforts, he found unseen wall to prevent him to reach goal. Alternatively, Gatsby partially become what he wanted to be. He finally became 'The abundant and great Gatsby' by changing his recent and even his identity to make his wish true. However, it can not be said that he achieve his North american dream successfully as he failed to get love of Daisy and all the sweetness land he built discovered to be false by the end.
As Gatsby comprised his id and built his own wonderland, he attempts to make himself to appears like an innocent young man to others. However, these work made Gatsby something unnatural and suspicious. When Nick first fulfilled Gatsby, Nick realizes unnatural way of Gatsby speaks. "His complex formality of talk just missed being absurd. A while before he created himself I'd acquired a strong impression that he was picking his words with care. "(40) This brand shows that Gatsby will try to make himself in a certain way. He needs to produce himself as great, young, dominant figure.
To satisfy his amount, he adds loving image by adoring Daisy with enthusiasm. That is Gatsby makes Daisy an idealistic perfect girl who can't not suitable for real. Daisy is not really a perfect figure to satisfy the dream of Gatsby. That's, Gatsby doesn't love Daisy herself but he adored the thought of gal like Daisy. He was searching for a number who acts like an object to be enjoyed by him. Then she found Daisy as a perfect one. Or he needs to find a justification to justify all the morally corrupted conducts.
This self-justifying can be also observed in Willy. Willy, even though he is no more any prominent salesman, tries to make himself as renowned salesman. He once a specialist salesman when he was young, but after he acquired older, he's no more in the area he used to be. Though he was once an effective man, he can't be said as a good father or good man. His two sons were under the pressure of Willy's expectation which made those to go after their dreams. And her wife, though she stands by Willy for a life, Willy only dismissed her and even cheated on her faithful wife. However he doesn't want to declare that he made flaws in the relationship along with his family. To justify his behaviours, he sticks to the actual fact that he was and it is a successful deal man. Even after, he get terminated from his office where he commit his very existence, he keeps stating himself that he's still renowned and successful. This self-justifying and strong but phony belief leads these two hero make tragic consequence at the end of the storyplot.
2. 2 Other Characters
2. 2. 1 Nick Carraway.
The important personality in the fantastic Gatsby is Daisy Buchanan and Nick Carraway. Nick is the novel's narrator and at the same time only dear friend of Gatsby. Nick is the one who explains the mysterious personality Gatsby. As being a narrator of The Great Gatsby, every Gatsby's habits view through Nick's eye. So, readers only know about Gatsby from his perspective. Since he achieved Gatsby, he desires to see him in a great way. He tries to understand Gatsby's patterns, though others suspects about him as times goes on. He expresses sympathy of him after he discovers about Gatsby's record. So, readers who only learn Gatsby from Nick's words, obviously have pity toward Gatsby.
And not only Nick performs a narrator in this book, he is also an important bordering figure of Gatsby. He's the main one who made a chance to reunite Gatsby with Daisy. Also, Nick is one who stay Gatsby's funeral. Nick become understanding Gatsby's situation and also have sympathy of his life. Though Gatsby was the great figure who is always in the middle of public eyes, he eventually ends up being only. Nick was the main one who sincerely cares about Gatsby and manages him after his fatality.
2. 2. 2 Daisy Buchanan
Daisy is a beautiful young woman from Louisville. The main role of hers is the thing of Gatsby's love. Daisy was the popular young girl who was born in wealthy gamily. This fairness was the reason to Gatsby fell in love with her. Though they adored each others, Daisy decided go and get wedded Tom after Gatsby gone for armed service service. So, Gatsby devoted his very existence to get Daisy back from Tom. To achieve this goal, he opt to become abundant and popular, In the truth, however, Daisy is not the the one that Gatsby imagine. She actually is far lacking Gatsby's ideal kind of lady. She actually is yes, beautiful and alluring, but she is opportunist and has shallow thought. Nick characterizes her as a perfect creature, just like a lady in the typical heroic report, but Daisy was just normal woman who has insufficient moral sense. She strike woman with out a sense of guilt, and leaves Gatsby without hesitation when he is in needed.
That is who Gatsby treasured as not Daisy herself, however the image of her. Which means, Daisy can be shifted by other number. Nick says that "there must have been the moments even that day when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams-not through her own mistake, but as a result of colossal vitality of his illusion. It had gone beyond her, beyond everything. He has tossed himself involved with it with a creative passion, adding to it all the time, decking it out with every shiny feather that drifted his way. "(87) Though this part, as it happens that Daisy is not love of his real life a classic love, she was the great illusion that Gatsby created by himself to decorates his life more attractive or even to make some excuse of what he done to gain his life. Gatsby tries to justify himself from blaming of his immoral life by hiding under truly moving love report.
2. 2. 3 Biff Loman
Biff Loman is one of Willy's sons. Biff presents high expectation of Willy at the same time he shows how Willy acquired tragic errors in his personal life. Though Biff always experienced huge expectation from his father, he didn't satisfy Willy's expectation. Willy believes he was child of his very pleased, he doing flawlessly good in the school and even popular amongst others. The key reason why Willy put burden of expectation to Biff is the fact that he want to get vicarious satisfaction from his boy. As Willy understands inside himself that his life can't be said successful and there's exceptional opportunity for him to make huge return, he want to be satisfied by finding his son's life. However this course of action also failed because what Willy thought about his son is really not real. There's evident evidence that show Biff is not the distinguished child in his university, Willy keeps stating everything is oaky as long as Biff stay popular which is the important value to Willy. Biff was actually a normal learner who failed go get scholarship or grant because he received failed in mathematics course. Finally Biff says Willy that he is not the one Willy imagined, and steps out Western world to find his work by his hands. This thing makes Willy to get frustrated in the end. And this performs huge affect of his suicide.
Biff can be compared to Daisy in the manner that both takes on role as an ideal image by Gatsby and Willy. Though Biff and Daisy was not perfect creature, Willy and Gatsby made them perfect which are worthwhile to admire or give expectation. Willy is convinced Biff may become great amount like his old brother. Presenting too much expectation into his boy, also gives a huge burden to Biff. Willy want to Biff match his unfulfilled North american dream. On this sense, Daisy plays a role as perfect image for Gatsby. By using her as lovable woman in Gatsby's tale, he fulfills his goal and makes his life more charming.
However, Biff and Daisy can't play their role. Not like expectation of Willy and Gatsby, these were far from illusion of Willy and Gatsby. Biff ran off to Western world and become normal farmer in the long run. And Daisy thought we would run from Gatsby and get back to become Tom's wife. On her behalf, the love with Gatsby was just an affair. Or she doesn't want to have a risk to run away with Gatsby who finally turns out as dubious person. After using a talk to Tom, Daisy made a decision to choose reality somewhat than illusion which Gatsby offered to her. Regretfully, Gatsby stay all night before her house thinking that she will turn out for him and two will run way.
3. 1 Meaning of American desire for two
Willy thinks that he can perform American goal like his brother and dad. The problem of Willy was neglecting small success from his environment. For him reaching American goal and learning to be a successful American can be only done by becoming mighty and popular figure. He considers the meaning of the American Dream is that becoming attractive and renowned man running a business. And he believes he can acquire the material thing from this popularity. The difficult point of his idea is he had misunderstanding of true meaning of American aspiration. That is when American wish is identified, hard working should be placed before becoming successful. Willy's interpretation American dream was incorrect. This misunderstanding occurs because he made his own North american dream by viewing success of his brother and father. Becoming rich from gold or precious stone mine has the rare chance like receiving a lottery. As recognized American dream without hard working, his failing was obvious. As well as the other problem of his understands of American Desire is the fact that his goal is based on uncertain conception. For him 'attractiveness' and 'appeal' are the main thing as he says about success. He stresses only these exact things when calculating others. That is why he dismissed Bernard who's son of Charley when he is at the school and presumed his child, Biff will be better off in the foreseeable future. His belief turns out to be wrong. Bernard becomes successful lawyer when Biff lost his way after senior high school. Willy's blind understanding of the American Dream causes him to put himself miserable life.
Gatsby understand American desire as becoming rich, so he is able to play role as a light man. If it is compared to Death of the salesman, The fantastic Gatsby focus more on corrupted American dream in the whole contemporary society. Through this book, readers can easily see different kinds of corrupted North american dream among higher school and working category. Readers can locates corrupted part of world early 20th period in America. Upper class which symbolized by Daisy and Tom, people in this statue does not have moral sense. Though they may have huge lot of money, they spend this by throwing fancy parties each day. Tom thought he can purchase a female and possessed affair with Mrs. Myrtle. For him, faithful vow of relationship was ineffective. Daisy was the main one who lacks of morality. She hit Myrtle by car and drove away without guilt.
3. 2 Desire toward the past
As Gatsby and Willy dissatisfy their fact, they long to recreate recent. Gatsby longs to recreate past-his time in Louisville with Daisy. He thinks he can come back Daisy easily because Daisy is in the same place like him. In the past, when he previously in poverty, he dreamed of Daisy, but after he become rich man, he think he could possibly be the one for Daisy without obstacle. So, Tom can't be a obstacle to prevent him to gain her again. But, as Daisy confesses, she once adored Tom with great passion. That's Gatsby presumed Daisy also though him as the only person, but Gatsby was yet another one for Daisy. Though Tom comes with an affair with Myrtle Wilson, he does not have any intent of breaking his marriage. And maybe Daisy doesn't want to break their marriage either when since she returns to her statue by the end. So the plan that Gatsby was required to restore Daisy was just his wish.
As really the only goal of his life was regain Daisy, turning back time when Gatsby and Daisy love each other, and make love just like what they had in Louisville. He has strong perception that he can get back his love again, because Daisy still fell deeply in love with him. This opinion makes him fall into deep depressive disorder after he realizes that notion was only his wish.
Just like Gatsby, Willy has strong desire of the past. Now, Willy is old salesman who hardly ever makes earnings. He was once on the roll as a salesman. He has a lot of men and women know and was one of the cherish salesman in his office. However, time exceeded, boss changed who is kid of Willy's manager, and he no longer makes income. His son who was simply the expect Willy's life works out to nothing at all, Happy and Biff are no more visible in their university, and even failed to get scholar. Biff was once a favorite player in his college team, making Willy proud of him more than anything-for Willy, attractiveness is the main value. However, these young boys can't match Willy's fantasy in current situation. This reality makes Willy to look back again earlier and has desire to return to his glorious recent.
3. 3 The relationship
For Willy and Gatsby, relationship is vital value of the life. As Willy is salesman, he understands lots of men and women by eyesight. He is convinced this relationship will last once and for all, and believes these people are true friends for him.
"Miller presents in Death of a Salesman who shows Miller's tragic vision. In the play, Willy Loman lives to the theory of close real human marriage in a new pattern of consumer population. Willy models his salesman basic principle on Dave Singleman whose attractiveness brought "a huge selection of salesman and buyer" to his funeral. Willy believes a salesman's success in the local market segments of the 1920s where self-confidence in a salesman counted more than revenue motive. However, the consumer trend of the post-World Battle 2 America was changing as the speedy economic extension produced urbanized mass marketplaces. "(Moon 5)
Willy's pride as salesman was acceptance and true romantic relationship with them. However, as time altered, this salesman and consumer relationship evolved. Willy can't admit this improved and make himself to believe that he still have continuous relationship with his previous consumers. He says "hundreds of salesman and buyer"(32) should come to his funeral and his one dream and belief is that his funeral will be magnificent. But in the finish of the picture, in the funeral, only his wife, sons and only 1 dear friend came. This landscape makes more tragic of him.
Gatsby has similarity with Willy that he desired true romantic relationship but didn't have any. Early on area of the novel, there's many wonderful and luxurious celebrations that Gatsby hold in his home. The picture of the get together time is well referred to in this part. "The lights develop brighter as the planet earth lurches from the sun, and today the orchestra is playing yellowish cocktail music"(34) However, people in the party are anonymous. Nick says that "I believe that on the first night I visited Gatsby's house I had been one of the few guests who got actually been asked. People were invited-they went there"(34). Though get together was huge and many people enjoy amount of time in the Gatsby home, these were not invited and they even don't know of number of the get together they are in. The partnership is so fragile. People are captivated by huge wealth of Gatsby, not himself.
Not only anonymous guests of the get together, Gatsby failed to build true relationship with Daisy. For him, all the pubic reputation he built was to make himself as a great shape, so that Daisy is captivated by him again. Though Daisy and Gatsby have an opportunity to have sex again, this won't last long. Following the real Gatsby uncovered, Daisy simply run away from him and get back to her place. On her behalf, love with Gatsby was not that big and sincere which is often altered easily. The actual fact that she even not appear in the funeral makes this marriage more vain. Exactly like Willy's funeral, the funeral service of Gatsby is shabby. The end of the book, funeral completed with some individuals, of the many effort Nick designed to bring large guests.
However, this fragile relationship was the result of Gatsby's habits. Gatsby want to become number, not person, so he doesn't show the true him to anyone. Every his words and serves were collected by him with deep thought. Like he's wearing face mask of 'The great Gatsby', his every moves show the desire to be the certain shape. So this performing makes him so unnatural and unreal. When Nick fulfilled Gatsby at the very first time, this awkwardness demonstrated. "Sometime before he released himself I'd got a solid impression that he was picking his words carefully"(40) So when Gatsby confess his history to Nick that was absolutely non-sense, his words are unnatural. Nick says "he looked at me sideways-and I recognized why Jordan Baker experienced thought he was laying. He hurried the stage 'informed at Oxford' or swallowed it, or chocked onto it, as if it acquired bothered him before. And with this hesitation, his whole affirmation fell to items, and I wondered if there wasn't something sinister about him in the end. "(42) The confession was all rest, and Gatsby had not been good at lying down which makes Nick to note at the first place. After Nick know the truth that Jay Gatsby was developed by James Gats. So if was Wayne Gats, at least true romance with Nick was possible and they'll share personal interconnection. However, as it was Jay Gatsby that was just illusion of Wayne Gats, the true romantic relationship was never built.
Moreover, not only the relationship with other personality but also the partnership with his true and only love, Daisy was built on the fake. Though Gatsby attempts to influence others that everything he does indeed is made for Daisy and he's always prepared to spend himself on her behalf. However, this loving relationship is also built on his imitation belief. He persuaded himself that he love Daisy, but what he really like is not Daisy, just an illusion of Daisy. So, the real trust and love couldn't make between him and her.
4. 1 America in 1920s
4. 1. 1 Blooming of materialism.
Horton says that the generating power of America to develop modern civilization is Idealism and Materialism.
"According to the former(Turner), the best single factor in determining the type of American life has been the democratizing effect of a continually extending frontier. The chance of opportunity for all caused america to operate a vehicle westward, and this expansion helped bring the pioneer into contact with a primitive environment which, while encouraging individualism, at the same time had a leveling effect which tended to erase distinction of beginning, social position and education. "(Horton & Edward 3)
Turner argue that in 'The need for the Frontier in American history', Frontier of America get and individualism, optimism and idealism in the way of developing west. Within this sense, materialism was not used in negative form to begin with. This was effortlessly accompanied by infinite chance in the land of opportunity. The one great motivation to develop west was created from the belief that as they work, they will get. This is actually the basic notion of materialism to begin with. However, as time evolved, materialism became in corrupted way that only go after wealthy life. In the 1920s in the America, which is the primary background of The fantastic Gatsby was the optimum of this materialism. All interpretation of the North american dream turns into useless and folks in this era just want to gain more and more riches. Arthur Mazener represents this period like this.
"The twenties were a ridiculous, happy time when individuals were busy get drunk in speakeasies or out of silver-lasks at Yale-Princeton game in the Dish, or dancing to the pretentiously bad "Jazz" of Paul Whiteman and George Olson, though nobody of any intelligence in the time itself required this aspect of its life seriously"(Mizner 5)
This ridiculous life of royal family looks in the fantastic Gatsby, in particular when Nick represents about luxurious parties that Gatsby hold.
Not only the royal people, people in the middle school of the western also has this materialism in their brain though they may be hard to achieve their dream in reality. But work to imitate upper class patterns is shown by Mrs. Myrtle. A desire of Myrtle to become one like top course can be shown in the manner she screen her apartment. "The apartment was at the top floor-a small dining area, a tiny bedroom, and a shower. The living room was packed to the doors with a couple of tape-stried furniture totally too large for it, so that to move about was to stumble constantly over arena of females swinging in the gardens of Versailles. "(25) Mrs. Myrtle is a woman who comes with an affair with Tom Buchanan who is hubby of Daisy. Mrs. Myrtle is from low class whose husband operates small car repair center. However, she's great ambition to move upper class someday. Which dream makes her to imitate upper school where Tom lives, though her situation is not appropriate to hers. She wants to be hostess like Daisy, and chuck party in very small apartment. Though there's insufficient places, she keep buying extremely large furniture for her apartment. Furthermore, when she's party, she invites so many people that there surely is no place to even stand in her place. These acts show the desire of Mrs. Myrtle to be upper class.
4. 1. 2 Corruption of American dream
Over the ages, many immigrants from Europe escaped their country for free and happy lives. They ran from their house from politics and the spiritual discrimination which will not the condition in the new world-America. They may be whoever they wished to maintain the new world. Inside the land of the opportunity, they can restart their life. As they work, as they get. This makes the essential idea of North american Dream to begin with.
The American Goal is a national truth of the United States, which can maintain social flexibility by individual. In the other words, they can gain rich and comfortable life through hard working. In the definition of the North american Dream by Wayne Truslow Adams in 1931, "life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to potential or achievement".
However, this American fantasy getting altered after America received through World Warfare 1 and 2. Young American happily get involved in war under the fantastic imply that as the new experience and affectionate chance to show his encourage. However, actuality was different. Because they gone through the savage and cruel conflict, they get back to their country frustrated with sorrow. Those that experienced depressing war started to enjoy their life with luxurious consumption. At that time, economy was boom, and North american doesn't need to worry about financial problem. They get whatever they want. This lead to the people stuck into convenience and joy to materialism. They enjoyed the life that material can give.
The Great Gatsby shows this corrupted materialism that can be shown atlanta divorce attorneys class of world. Lower course yearns to acquire riches, yet those who curently have wealth and status are unsatisfied and dissatisfied with their lives. In the book, the elitist group exhibits characteristics to be weary and unmotivated as being a dead body. The first arena that Nick travelled into the Tom's house shows the lack of energy in upper class. "Really the only completely stationary object in the room was a massive couch on which two young female were buoyed up as if after an anchored balloon. These were both white and their dresses were ripping and fluttering as though that they had just been blown back in after a short flight throughout the house. "(10) Daisy and Neglect Backer were in the white dress and were motionless. No energy is situated in them. Daisy easily get fed up and look for new thing which lead Tom and Nick go to NY sometimes, but always they failed to find thrilling experience and vitality. However, compare to this upper course people, Mrs. Myrtle described as the woman with vitality. Gatsby committed his life into belonging to the exclusive group, but he approved that his life was disappointed by eradicating himself. So, though higher school has everything they need, they never get happy but get bored with morally corrupted atmosphere.
Willy also lived in the time when the meaning of American desire altered as 'A unlimited desire of materials riches'. He brings more value on that which is the popularity. For him, American dream also means being 'a renowned figure' in the world. This isn't the deep problem that should be defined as corrupted goal. However the main reason that his goal defined as corrupted American dream is that the reason why of achieving his desire is influenced not from his internal head but from others. He just wants to show off his acceptance and wealth to others and get satisfaction by assessing them to himself. Moreover, He justifies what he will to attain his goal. He neglects his life of child, how they think and which life they want to live weren't the problem for Loman. He damages the trust for his partner insurance firms affair with secretary. All of the immoral things he made were justified by his strong belief of fantasy.
4. 2 Hierarchy in society- Invisible wall structure to go higher class
American always symbolized as the world of flexibility, the population with gigantic opportunity. However this is not always true when you look profound inside it. The great Gatsby and death of an salesman shows the limit of going upper category, there's invisible war that makes visitors to go upper level. Willy spends his life to get wealthy and popular. Going top level was his life-longed aspiration. The tragic end comes from the actual fact that he was just a common man. Regarding to Joseph Odd Hruth, the tragic destiny of Willy was made by the world.
"Willy Loman is the victim of the unjust competitive modern culture. He was initially corrupted by the incorrect ideals and then exploited by those more ruthless than he. Society made him what he was and in an improved society his destiny could have been better"(Joseph 328)
This is the fault of Willy little, and the real reason he failed can be blamed that of the modern culture. System of culture is not befitting Willy to accomplish his dream. Which certain restriction for him to look upper, and this makes Willy's life misery. Miller argues that tragic matter occurs, because of that idea that Willy was simply a common man.
"I think that the normal man is as apt subject matter for tragedy in its highest sense as kings were. On the face of computer this ought to be obvious in the light of modern psychiatry, which bases its evaluation upon common formulation, such as the Oedipus and Orestes complexes, for circumstances, which were enacted by royal commences but which apply to everyone in similar mental situation. "(Miller 1)
Miller believes the factor that makes him the tragic hero is public record of him making hard to common man to climb the ladder. Inside the Death of your salesman, Willy do anything to become successful salesman. He become immoral as he become more like a successful salesman in his submitted. He starts to have improper relationship with secretary. Community success leads him to moral problem. However, though he devoted his life into climbing interpersonal ladder to look upper level, he failed. There's invisible warfare above his way in this communal ladder. This disappointment makes him so stressed out that he previously no choice but wipe out himself.
The Great Gatsby shows the invisible wall to travel upper class in modern culture by displaying Mrs. Myrtle life and this of Gatsby. Gatsby and Mrs. Myrtle has in keeping that they both from working category but longing to belong top class. Plus they also found some to lead them to upper world, for Gatsby that guy is Wolfsheim who made him abundant. Mrs. Myrtle also found Tom who can help her to visit upper class, however, she didn't achieve that goal.
The work of lower course to go higher but punished by society is clearly shown in the life of Mrs. Myrtle. She lives in valley of ashes where represent of poverty. She was also key fan of Tom. This lady attempts to use Tom to make her belong to his sociable statue. Though she now lives with partner who does not have any power or energy in himself, she offers vitality. Unfortunately for her, she chooses Tom, who treats her as a mere thing of his desire. Tom was captivated by her in physical way and love can not be shown between them. There's all about desire, desire of Myrtle to look upper course by Tom's prosperity and desire of Tom to own her body. As Myrtle want better life and attempts to get prosperity, she finally perish of the car incident which Daisy was drives. With this scene, a definite implication are available. Daisy who presents the girl in the upper class avoids Myrtle to find yourself in her school. So Myrtle's vitality and energy can't be used to get into upper class. This frustration of wish is shown in the explanation of Myrtle's death body. "The mouth area was widely open and ripped a little at the sides, as though she got chocked just a little in giving up the incredible vitality, she experienced stored such a long time"(108)
Though person in the reduced class slightly achieve his goal, there's still strong limitation that he is able to be wholly end up being the part of top class. That is shown by Gatsby's case. He achieves wealth by himself and today he are able to have the most luxurious get together in the town. However, he can't entail in royal school. People who asked into his get together always look down on him and has dubious of his prosperity. Even before Gatsby turns out to do illegitimate business to make money, Tom and other friends of Gatsby's get together always whispers about his prosperity and background.
Moreover, where Gatsby live and clothes he wears shows the awkwardness to become the elite school. He wears excessively dressy suits and brilliant clothes which Tom usually makes fun of. Ann though Gatsby own tons of antique catalogs which were absolutely real one, these are clean and neat like no-one ever handled before. This implies that though he imitates behaviors of course he want to belong, he got dubious of his identity. Finally, every his secret is uncovered, people around him apart, and even the love of his life ran away from him. Daisy who presents of his wish to go upper class ran away to her world, and Gatsby lost everything including her and his desire. So last thing he made was only fatality.
Death of an salesman and THE FANTASTIC Gatsby shows the corruption of American fantasy in early on 20th by displaying two ordinary men- Jay Gatsby and Willy Loman. Both are victims of modern culture which has unseen but clear wall structure to prohibit them to attain their dream. Though first thing at fault their failure of achieving dream goes to the corrupted contemporary society, characters themselves likewise have problem.
Gatsby and Willy misunderstood meaning of American desire. Gatsby says all his work are created to have his adoring lady Daisy, which turns out the faith perception of him. He just desires to justify all the immoral manners he made to get rich by hiding loving tale. He even deceives himself that Daisy is the only one goal which lead him to own false notion that Daisy also waited for him to save lots of her from Tom's world. This is absolutely not true, and after realizing this notion was bogus, Gatsby has no longer reason to live on.
Willy also has wrong idea of American wish, for him American fantasy is all about getting rich and popular. This error makes his life misery. He can't get satisfaction from his normal life and discover pleasure from his family. Family was mere subject to meet his fantasy for Willy. Which thinking eventually made all the conflicts between him and his sons, and finally leads him to eliminate himself. As only thing he has was this incorrect belief, he attempts to convince himself that though he is not profitable, he's still well-liked by other. However, this opinion turns out incorrect by the end of the picture that there's no one came up to his funeral.
So, to answer the question I manufactured in the first part of this record, "Why these men didn't achieve their American dream", two aspects need to be considered. Their failing was consequence of corrupted contemporary society which never allows them to achieve their wish and twisted idea of American dream of these men.
A. Most important Sources
F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, Charles Scribner's Sons, Apr 10 1925. Print
Arthur Miller, Death of your salesman, Morosco Theater New York City, 10 Feb 1949
B. Extra Sources
Moon Sun-Jung. Loss of life of an Salesman and Modern Tragedy: Revisited(2005). Studies on English Language & Books, P5
Rod W. Horton and Herbert N. Edwards(1967), Backgrounds of North american Literary Thought, P3
Arthue Mizner, Launch in F. Scott Fitzerald: A collection of Critical Essay, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1963, P5
Joseph Timber Krutch, The American Theatre Since World Warfare 2, NY: George Braziller, 1978, P 328
Arthur Miller, Tragedy and the common man, New York Times, 1949 Fen 27, Chapter 2 P1