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The Da Vinci Surgical System Nursing Essay

Imagine a predicament where you have just been identified as having an illness needing surgery. You have only two options: either to perform a traditional surgery with large incisions, or laparoscopy which uses small incisions but is merely available for simple types of procedures. However, you now have a feasible option to perform a minimally invasive surgery, thank you to the growth of surgical technology. Minimally intrusive surgery is a concept existed before the inception of robots, discussing surgical treatments that are conducted by keeping away from long reductions as surgeons bring in long-handled medical devices to operate on body cells via small incisions.

The Da Vinci medical system, also called a telesurgical system, happens to be the pioneer device in the robotic field created by Intuitive Surgical, Inc. A telesurgical system requires the medical expert to maneuver the robot through the procedure instead of allowing it to function from an encoded software. This surgical system is named such as a tribute to Leonardo Da Vinci, whom broke new floor in anatomical exactness and the epitome of the time of Renaissance. He was highly regarded for his capacity to bring life to his architectural drawings of futuristic automations. This specific device is meticulously made to aid in intricate surgery such as cardiac valve repair, prostatectomies and gynecologic surgical procedures by a minimal way of 1-2cm incisions. Such ultimate discovery opens a new system, beneficiating patients, cosmetic surgeons, clinics and the medication field as a whole.

Imagine major surgery performed with reduced incisions on the patient's body. Consider a faster treatment, better recovery rate and nominal duration put in in the hospital as well as better medical outcomes. That is all permitted with the inception of Da Vinci operative system. Da Vinci reforms surgery. It offers a whole new strategy to surgery, omitting the painstaking experiences that patients experienced to face before its invention. In such a proposal, we will be introduced to this bizarre medical equipment that is with the capacity of improving the operative field, in conditions of its history, features, unprecedented benefits, criticisms, the future as well as advice of the latest Da Vinci surgical system.

History

Robot assisted medical procedure first strike its limelight in 1985 when the PUMA 560 robotic operative arm was used in a neurosurgical biopsy which is non-laparoscopic. The successful surgery posed greater precision which eventually lead to the first laparoscopic procedure concerning a robotic system, a cholescystecotomy, in 1987. It is then in the following time, the same PUMA system performed a transurethral resection. Therefore in 1990, Food and Medicine Administration (FDA) approved its first robotic medical system, AESOP system, the brainchild of Computer Movement because of its endoscopic medical procedure.

The Da Vinci surgery system became known in 2000 to be the first system approved by the FDA for general laparoscopic surgery. This agreement became groundbreaking as the Da Vinci system is all-encompassing of medical tools and necessary tools for surgery. It has been approved in urological surgeries, standard laparoscopic surgeries, general non-cardiovascular thoracosopic surgeries and thoracoscopically assisted cardiotomy procedures, applicable to both parents and pediatric procedures.

Da Vinci surgical system is a pleased creation of Intuitive Surgery, Inc. The corporation is the global pioneer in robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Originally, the US Army funded Intuitive Surgical to develop a system to execute battlefield surgery. However, they recognized the probable of such technology to speed up the use of a minimally invasive surgery. Intuitive Surgical was then set up in 1995 to further develop this technology to a wider selection of procedures. The Da Vinci operative system was launched in January 1999 and it became the first robotic operative system to gain acceptance by the FDA for general laparoscopic surgery. Subsequently, the FDA cleared this device for breasts surgery, cardiac types of procedures, urologic and gynecologic steps.

Headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, Intuitive Surgical widened its power by acquiring its principal competitor, Computer Movement, reinforcing its world monopoly in robotic-assisted surgical systems. It sustains progress too much by 25% and has effectively broadened to more than 900 academic and community medical center sites. Currently, greater than a thousand Da Vinci Systems are installed in private hospitals worldwide.

Problem Statement

In tandem with the advent in research and technology, the field of robotic surgery is mushrooming. Robotic surgery is defined as the utilization of robot to assist in surgery strategies. The necessity for robotic surgery is eventually demanded in the medicine field to defeat problems come up from surgery with traditional approach. Two decades in the past, surgeons began creating a theory known as Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) where microscopic camcorders called endoscopes or laparoscopes were slotted into the patient's body through small jacks. However, MIS stumbled after major roadblocks to advancement as doctors were operating through standard two-dimensional screen that lacked visualization while fixed-wrist devices and poor ergonomic design limited the surgeon's dexterity. Subsequently, MIS was regarded suitable for thin range of surgical procedures. To counter this issue while maintaining the idea of MIS, robot-assisted surgery was then make-believe. With all the inception of Da Vinci operative system, the medical and medical domains have revolutionized wherein surgeons and patients both reap the benefits of it.

Da Vinci Surgical System - Mechanism

Surgeon's Console

This is where the surgeon is seated in a comfortable manner while scrutinizing the body's interior at a magnified 3D image through highly driven objective lens. The system's three-dimensional and high resolution view screen allows the surgeon to observe the incision area in clearness.

By manipulating the master controls located under the display screen, the surgeon's wrists and hands are positioned perpendicularly to his or her eyes. The expert controls contain a pair of feet pedals and hand controllers each. The surgery may then be performed as Da Vinci translates the surgeon's open-surgery hand activities from the professional control, which functions like forceps, into a much specific motions of miniaturized tools at the patient-side cart. The next illustrates a surgeon's console from the Da Vinci operative system.

Patient-side Cart

The patient-side cart includes three or four interactive robotic biceps and triceps that function to do the surgeon's orders from the surgeon's system. Several of the hands are designated to carry medical instruments such as scalpel, scissors and other dissecting materials; while the remaining arm is an endoscopic camera, outfitted with a set of lens, also known as the EndoWrist, provides a stereoscopic eyesight on the display screen. The laparoscopic arms shaft at the 1-2cm operating jacks, omitting the need for using structure of the incision walls in the individual for leverage, in doing so minimizing injury. Such miniaturized functioning arms proven a significant advancement from earlier inventions such as the PUMA 560. After that, assisting medical officers will assist in in incorporating the right tools for surgery, supply the 1-2cm port in the patient's body and supervise the problem to eradicate mistakes as the tools are being implemented.

EndoWrist Instruments

Patented by Intuitive Surgical, the EndoWrist Devices are another exclusive feature of the Da Vinci System that allows surgeons to use with dexterity on the maximum range of motion. Designed after the structure of your human wrist, this device can broaden beyond the features of a individuals hand by giving various surgical techniques. Internal wires of the EndoWrist Tools mimic the individuals tendons, providing specific surgical mission such as clamping, accurate suturing, dissection and cells manipulation. This state-of-the-art device has incredible features, such as 7 examples of freedom movement, 90 examples of articulation, intuitive movement, fingertip control, motion scaling and tremor decrease. All these contribute to a smooth working surgery as surgeons operate with ambidexterity and unrivaled precision. This device is also available in a broad selection of selection in line with the requirement of a specific surgery. The product series includes various forceps, needle motorists, scissors, monopolar and bipolar electrocautery musical instruments, scalpels; all available in 5 mm and 8 mm diameters to heed a surgeon's need. This tool is also user-friendly in conditions of recognizing different kinds and functions of devices contained to the Da Vinci system. It picks up the instruments via a unique interface; therefore it is easier to identify instruments that require replacements.

Vision System

EndoWrist Tools are first unveiled into the patient's goal anatomy through some dime-sized incisions to permit viewing of your body's interior at a highly magnified three-dimensional image. These images are exhibited via the eyesight system, chosen with high-resolution three-dimensional endoscope and image handling equipments, previewing the exact condition of the body. With image synchronizers, illuminators with adaptable intensities and camera control products, the working images are well-enhanced, offering superior visualization of over a thousand casings of the device position per second. The eye-sight system also offers a built-in video recording processor that filter systems background noise. In the mean time, the endoscope is chosen prevent fogging by regulating the temperature of the endoscope hint. Surgeons are permitted to rapidly switch views on the screen through a straightforward use of the foot pedal.

How The Mechanism WORK AS A Whole

In brief, the Da Vinci system consists of four main mechanisms--surgeon's console, patient-side cart, EndoWrist tools and the eye-sight system. These features work as a whole in the same room under the conduct of a surgeon and few encouraging medical officers. The partnership between your four mechanisms is illustrated as shown in the adjacent shape.

Advantages

Enhanced Visualization

Target anatomy in the torso interior is previewed in true-to-life three-dimensional perspective, forming clean images in huge clearness. The endoscopic camera also offers immersive view of the operative field with superior contrast and magnification for an accurate identification of cells layers. Such improvement allows surgeons to perform dissection or reconstruction of delicate tissues with much accuracy, whatever the space allotted.

Steady Movements; Take Control.

The limitation of real human hands is triumph over by Da Vinci's ability to reduce tremors and control motions via proprietary EndoWrist instruments, improving control and intuitive motion. This enables pervasive use of avant-garde techniques, further lowering the training curve since intricate procedures can now be handled in an open surgery procedure. Solo Surgery and two-handed intracoporeal suturing may become standard practice for interns with the addition of a fourth arm from the Da Vinci medical system.

First-Class Ergonomics

Surgeon need not get worried about the fatigue occurring from long hour surgery as the Da Vinci operative system is designed to allow them to operate while seated in a comfortable posture. Such specialized medical advantage also implies that less cosmetic surgeon assistance is necessary because medical instruments are mounted to the robotic biceps and triceps. In addition, with the robotic arms offering extra mechanised durability that is beyond real human functions, higher-BMI patients can be cured in a minimally intrusive approach.

Supreme Hospitality

Inception of Da Vinci marks a historical discovery to nursing homes worldwide by increasing efficiency and functional efficiencies. Patients can enjoy diminished post-operative pain, reduced risk of attacks and surgery difficulties, less complicated nursing good care and faster rate of restoration. Hospital stays are basically reduced by 1 / 2, thus decreasing clinic costs by roughly 33%.

Criticism

Like many things good, Da Vinci operative system also offers its disadvantages. While this developing technology is becoming almost such as a necessity to medical services, critics are questioning the lacking of long-term results studies to prove Da Vinci more advanced than laparoscopic surgery. Besides, this technology costs an average of $1. 3 million, excluding the several hundred thousand dollars of annual maintenance fees. Addititionally there is no existing data to justify the increased costs and private hospitals are having trouble recovering the high cost. Based on the North american Journal of Surgery, 75% of cosmetic surgeons stated that they thought financially tied to any system that cost more than $500, 000

Furthermore, a large portion of surgeons performed the surgery via Da Vinci medical system on approximately 12 to 18 patients before they feel safe using the device. Though training programs are proposed by Intuitive Surgical, most cosmetic surgeons end up intimidated by this device as they sensed obstructed from grasping the feel of body tissue and ultimately, the loss of tactile or haptic feeling. The patient-side cart also occupies a sizable space that hinders the movement of assistant surgeon's access to the individual.

The safety aspects of Da Vinci medical system continue to be doubtful to many people as they still do not trust the power of a robot wholly. Though this system works in a Master-Slave romance, some still think it is unacceptable to risk lives of patients as robots have the potential to be fatal as long as they malfunction. Hence, a huge amount of cost is forked out to lessen these risks with the addition of safe practices features, making them economically inaccessible to some physicians. After that, surgery utilizing this product requires forty to fifty minutes much longer compared to traditional available surgery.

Recommendation

Conclusion - The Future

The Da Vinci surgical system offers a surgery experience like never before to practicing health professionals. Its brilliance in translating the surgeon's hands actions from the gaming console into related micro-movements of EndoWrist instruments integrated in the patient's body interior has changed the surgical domains in many aspects.

A major prospect for this invention is its potential to execute remote operations, as what it was at first created for. This long distance procedure can be produced possible by linking the patient and doctor through some plug-ins from the Da Vinci operative system. Say, a doctor from United States will be able to operate on an individual from across the globe, such as Africa. Financial firms still at its theoretical level and will be developed in near future to globalize the operative field.

Albeit the criticisms, the Da Vinci surgical system is deemed as a mere preview of what to expect from future technology. From the high cost to the lack of touch experience from doctors' feedback, the existing Da Vinci surgical system has many hurdles to triumph over before it can be wholly integrated into the healthcare system to meet everyone's needs. To mention a few, questions such as misconduct responsibility, credentialing, training prerequisites and licensing requirements for telesurgeons remain puzzling. However, Intuitive Surgical claims a noticable difference of Da Vinci medical system in terms of size, haptic experience and cost as their present emphasis before coping with other relevant problems that are causing ambiguity to users.

Although robotic surgery continues to be at its infancy, a lot of its known advantages are sustaining its progress and they have confirmed itself to be worth the value, particularly in areas unattainable to traditional laparoscopic steps. For example, the complexity of movement controls and manifold degrees of independence by the Da Vinci operative system offers minimal tremor and increased flexibility which managed to get possible to go ahead of the individuals capacity. Robotic technology is aimed to bring surgery in to the digital age and whether its effective usage can get over the cost to perform it remains to be exercised. Despite being feasible to needs, further forthcoming research investigating efficacy and safe practices must partake for robotic surgery to use full main over conventional therapy.

Appendix

On the Market

Two robotic medical systems have obtained FDA clearance to be sold in the United States: The da Vinci Surgical System, created by Intuitive Surgical, Inc. of Sunnyvale, Calif. , is cleared to perform surgery under the course of a medical expert. The ZEUS Robotic Surgical System, made by Computer Motion, Inc. of Goleta, Calif. , has been cleared by the FDA to assist surgeons.

"[The] da Vinci is cleared to assist in advanced surgical techniques such as slicing and suturing [sewing], " says Neil Ogden, chief of the FDA's Standard Surgery Devices Branch in the guts for Devices and Radiological Health. "ZEUS is cleared to assist in grasping, keeping, and moving things taken care of, but isn't cleared for lowering or suturing. " Medical studies on ZEUS are underway with the goal of obtaining FDA clearance to assist in the performance of advanced surgical tasks in the United States, relating to Paul Nolan, older director of customer training and education at Computer Movement.

Here's a account of each system:

The da Vinci Surgical System

In July 2000, the FDA cleared da Vinci as an endoscopic instrument control system for use in laparo-scopic (abdominal) surgical treatments such as removal of the gallbladder and surgery for severe heartburn. In March 2001, the FDA cleared da Vinci for use in general non-cardiac thoracoscopic (inside the upper body) surgical treatments - surgeries relating to the lungs, esophagus, and the internal thoracic artery. This is also called the internal mammary artery, a bloodstream vessel inside the torso cavity. In coronary bypass surgery, surgeons detach the internal mammary artery and reroute it to a coronary artery. In June 2001, the FDA cleared da Vinci for use during laparascopic removal of the prostate (radical prostatectomy).

The da Vinci is intended to aid in the control of several endoscopic musical instruments, including rigid endoscopes, blunt and razor-sharp dissectors, scissors, scalpels, and forceps. The system is cleared by the FDA to control cells by grasping, cutting, dissecting and suturing.

In use, a medical expert rests at a console several ft away from the operating table and manipulates the robot's medical instruments. The robot has three hands mounted on a free-standing cart. One arm keeps a camera (endoscope) that is passed in to the patient through small opportunities. The surgeon functions the other two hands by inserting fingers into rings.

The forearms use a technology called EndoWrist - flexible wrists that cosmetic surgeons can flex and twist like individuals wrists. The cosmetic surgeon uses hand actions and ft. pedals to control the camera, change focus, and reposition the robotic arms. The da Vinci has a three-dimensional lens system, which magnifies the medical field up to15 times. Another medical expert stays beside the patient, altering the camera and musical instruments if needed.

There are 50 da Vinci systems put in U. S. medical centers, 34 placed in European countries and five positioned in Asia.

ZEUS Robotic Surgical System

The FDA cleared ZEUS in Oct 2001 to aid in the control of blunt dissectors, retractors, graspers, and stabilizers during laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgeries.

ZEUS has three robotic biceps and triceps that are mounted on the operating desk. One robotic arm is called the Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Placement Robotic System (AESOP). AESOP is a voice-activated robot used to hold the endoscope. The FDA cleared AESOP to carry and position endoscopes in 1994, and tone activation was added later. ZEUS differs from the da Vinci system for the reason that the AESOP part of ZEUS responds to words commands. For example, a physician might say: "AESOP move right. " The placement arm then would move right until the "stop" command word was presented with.

Like the da Vinci system, the other two biceps and triceps of ZEUS will be the extension of the still left and right arms of the surgeon. Surgeons take a seat at a gaming system and wear special glasses that create a three-dimensional image. Computer Movement has added a flexible wrist technology called Micro-Wrist, which is currently included in FDA-approved clinical trials, Nolan says.

There are more than 30 ZEUS items installed in THE UNITED STATES, 15 models installed in Europe and the Middle East, and five items installed in Asia.

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