Posted at 11.04.2018
'Forensic research is science used for the intended purpose of the law' (White 2010), it has three main phases, that happen to be, the restoration of information from the criminal offenses scene, forensic study of the data at the laboratory and the display of evidence test outcomes in court (Jackson 2008). A crime scene is any location or locations that have evidence that will help with a criminal research. Therefore, a criminal offenses scene can take many forms, it could be indoors or outside the house, i. e. a street accident or a burglary and it can contain only a finger symbol or it can include acres of land. Consequently, many types of evidence can be found at a criminal offenses scene, from the smallest fibres that happen to be unseen to the naked attention, to something as evident as a cracked window. It really is up to the field of crime officers (SOCOs) to assemble relevant physical proof to send to the forensic laboratory for further examination (Jackson 2008). Forensic laboratories are either provided within the police service (known as the forensic technology service team (FSS)) or by indie forensic services that offer different regions of expertise depending on specialist equipment and expert scientists in any given field (Jackson 2008). Hence,
forensic laboratories cover a wide specialization which include: Pathology, which would for example be engaged in case's of rape or unnatural loss of life; firearms experts, who among other things would be involved in examining bullets found at a crime field; and questioned documents experts, who be involve in instances of fraud (Eckert 1996). The forensic scientist is in charge of providing a report of the evidence that can used in judge, it must be written so that those that are not really acquainted with scientific conditions can still understand the conclusion of the results. This article aspires to explore the importance of the work completed at the criminal offense scene in comparison to the work completed by the forensic lab, in order to determine whether the criminal offense scene is the most important portion of forensic technology.
The crime world is important because, if dealt with carefully, it can offer the physical data which is required to build a criminal case against a think. The evidence recovered from a crime scene can be used in various ways, including: to determine if a offense has in reality occurred, as this isn't always obvious at first glance, for instance, in the case of a fire landscape it would have to be founded if the flame was began either unintentionally or deliberately; recognition, evidence can help to identify the sufferer, offender and every other persons that may be mixed up in offense; To corroborate or refute statements and to gather intelligence in order to make organizations between different criminal offenses scenes also to find any links between the persons included (White 2010). To be able to produce such important evidence a crime scene is normally separated into two categories depending on seriousness of the crime determined; less serious offences such as burglary would be categorised as a size crime and more serious offences such as murder would be categorised as a significant crime, and so crime moments which involve volume level crimes are usually investigated with a lone scene examiner and serious crimes typically entail a team of world examiners (Jackson 2008). Only reliable and impartial research can be utilized in court, which means evidence samples recovered from a offense scene have to be properly handled, maintained, packaged and transferred throughout the whole process of inspection. This careful process is recognized as the chain of continuity and needs to be demonstrated in order for the forensic lab to get valid evidence that can be found in juridical proceedings (White 2010).
Therefore, to be able to recover valid and useable data the most crucial rule of the crime picture - after preserving life - is to maintain the scene of evidence in order to prevent contamination (White 210). The crime arena must be identified, secured and cordoned off, allowing as few people as possible entrance and a picture log should be utilized to record the ones that do enter. Inside the perimeter of the criminal offenses field a forensically cleared 'common methodology path' (CAP) is set up by using either picture tape or stepping plates or a blend of both. The Cover enables usage of the researchers whilst preventing contamination of the data by keeping everyone to a specified way which avoids disturbing that of the offender whenever possible. Also, anyone who enters the crime field must wear protective clothing, including over-shoes, gloves (ideally two pairs as the first can be polluted just by placing them on), arena suits, head addresses and masks, which should always be became before stepping into or leaving a crime scene. This is to prevent foreign subject being brought into the crime scene and also to prevent facts from being transferred elsewhere; both which can compromise the research (white 2010). The crime world is the 'first website link in the chain of inspection' in case any research is jeopardized then so is the whole investigation. Therefore, In order for evidence to be utilized in courtroom it must be carefully and systematically treated throughout the investigative process; the continuity of data must be sustained from when it is recovered at the offense landscape, throughout its transference to the forensic lab and then into court, where the evidence will be scrutinised by the defence (Eckert 1996).
The forensic laboratory is an important part of the criminal investigation since it examines the data that is found at the offense landscape and on subjects and suspects, and discover a link that can be used as expert research in court. Forensic examination seeks to validate the evidence found at the crime scene with scientific facts that can hold up against severe cross-examining in courtroom. Forensic examination can support a unlawful investigation in many ways, amongst others, it can demonstrate that a criminal offenses has been dedicated, by figuring out drugs or liquor in a person's bloodstream, it can offer investigative leads, for example, by discovering a blood type or boot size, and it can benefit identify a suspect via DNA in ejaculate (Jackson 2008). Laboratories offer different domains of expertise with regards to the many different types of information they take a look at (Eckert 1996). For instance, the toxicology and medication identification lab would be utilized to test drugs and poisons and the forensic serology laboratory would be utilized for the evaluation of body essential fluids, such as blood and semen (white 2010). Therefore, the lab performs an important role in the investigative process, but unless scheduled attention and continuity has considered place to maintain the evidence by any means periods of the exploration, i. e. preservation, documentation, storage and travel, then your work completed at the laboratory is discredited. .
Therefore all recovered information must be carefully labelled and stored appropriately, different test types must be stored in various ways, for example, bloodstream stains need to be air dried before packaging so as to avoid bacterial activity which can hinder the evaluation (Eckert 1996). Continuity forms, notes and labels must be properly done and it is important that the relationship between your physical data and the criminal offense scene is retained, through photos, diagrams and written notes. Also, good communication between the SOCOs and the laboratory examiners is important in developing a good knowledge of the crime (Jackson2008). The offense picture is the 'first link in the string' and the entire forensic analysis process can be rendered unproductive if the right procedures are not adopted. Therefore, continuity throughout the whole process of inspection is paramount in order to keep the validity of the data so that it can be utilized in juridical proceedings.
The crime world can be an important region of forensic science because it is the starting point of the complete criminal research, all consequent areas follow on from it in case mistakes are made here then there will be repercussions throughout the whole process. The crime scene is the most important area that evidence samples are obtained because without this data the forensic lab would have nothing at all to work with. Conversely, minus the scientific skills of the laboratory a lot of the recovered evidence would be fruitless; some data can be analysed without a laboratory but it requires more time which is less effective.
In conclusion, both the crime arena and the forensic laboratory are important regions of forensic science and when they work together effectively they could be the deciding factor in a criminal courtroom circumstance. However, even without the use of any forensic lab the crime field would be a useful source of evidence but in contrast the forensic lab would be rendered useless without the evidence samples that are provided from the offense scene. As a result, the crime landscape is the main portion of forensic knowledge.