Posted at 11.26.2018
The main purpose of this chapter is to indicate that the challenge which is chosen by the Researcher is vital and significant enough to perform the analysis and method which are being used by the researcher work and practicable to conduct the research to be able to have some productive, relevant and productive results to add value to the educational field. This review brings many domains collectively to collectively investigate their role in the process of restructuring. The bottom of this exploration is Human Learning resource Management; to this context this research brings many areas collectively to understand their links with the hot issue of restructuring. The most important areas of this research are tactical management, change management, skill management and knowledge management but the knowledge from all the topic areas researched in MBA will practically be utilized to execute this research study. This study will be conducted on very consuming problem of restructuring which while downturn can be extensively studied even in the news and there have been numerous studies conducted on this dynamic field which inspection will be carried on the Largest traveler carrier of the uk English Airways.
The concept of organization restructuring was unveiled in the corporate language in 1970s' in the first time. Initially it was only associated with the economic distress and restructuring was assumed to be executed in downturn or recessionary period in order to lower cost by reducing the amount of jobs. Restructuring needed more positive connotation in 1980 when it was considered a tool to enhance the efficiency and success of the business enterprise through making structural changes in the businesses and operations of the organizations.
Today there are several motives of the restructuring other than just taking it as an expense cutting tool. It's the considered a significant part of the business as active change in the technology and ever increasing competition in the market because of the globalization and changing customers' anticipations the change in the internal operations and functions is vital. Richard (2005) suggested that the restructuring might take place due to many reasons that are categorized into following heads; economical, politics, social, demographic, technological and demographical. To understand available opportunities from the competitive market and cope up with the threats made available from the changing situations the companies need to update their internal processes to meet up with the customers' requirements proficiently and competitively. Same is the truth with British Airways as its competitors have been more vibrant and cost efficient because of the utilization of the efficient processes and introduction of the new management techniques by means of well supervised team work and culture of collaboration and coordination to meet with the ever changing anticipations of the customers. The British Airways was not ready to put into practice this organizational composition and has to face massive level of resistance while converting it into a cost efficient service provider.
One of the most imperative and essential issues in the current business community is restructuring which holds even greater importance in enough time of recession when competition comes to its climax and some time survival becomes alarming question for the companies. Restructuring is recognized as an elementary change in the strategy and course of the company which affects the structure of this company. Several changes may occur in the organization while utilizing this change. These changes may entail increase or decrease in the tiers of the business, change the ways procedures are being performed inside the organization or reassigning the responsibilities and tasks to the employees of the organization (Wanberg, 2000)
Wanberg and Banas (2000) suggested that to be able to boost the profitability of the business enterprise the functions of the organization should be consistently advanced and restructuring is there to fulfill this purpose of ending up in ever changing exterior environment.
While my preliminary research of finding any pertinent theme for the completion of this project I came across with large number of recent hot issues on different current issues and one of these was strikes in English Airways. There's been continuous and wide range of strikes against the price chopping activities of the management. The Unite has been opposing your choice of the management of utilizing restructuring plan in English Airways. The CEO Willie Walsh continued to be determine to implement the restructuring plan in the Uk Airways to be able to boost efficiency and profitability of the business by cutting the price through promoting team work action among the team members. But the Unite has always been opposing the decision against this plan to restructure the overall company.
By considering restructuring process among the important issues running a business management especially in the time of downturn when purpose is to slice the cost the researcher selected this issue to conduct the research for his dissertation component to expand his knowledge not only through practical understanding of the reasons and influences of the restructuring but also the various methods employed by the company to cope the resistance proposed by the employees against this change process.
Implementation of restructuring plan; A case of British Airways (BA)
How performed the BA management use the restructuring intend to raise the efficiency of business?
Restructuring is very rehearsing management practice to cut down the additional business bills especially in enough time of recession the need of restructuring occurs. After understanding the importance of restructuring concept desire to because of this research is set to explore the possible effects of restructuring in Uk Airways (BA) and exactly how successfully the BA management has applied the restructuring to achieve the desiring benefits. However, the research objectives for this research are referred to below:
To evaluate the possible reasons of restructuring in Uk Airways
To critically examine the restructuring execution process in English Airways
To determine the influences of restructuring plan in United kingdom Airways
One of the reasons of the restructuring as suggested by the Gallos (2006) is the process of Privatization in the companies. The organizations try to eliminate the bureaucratic constraints to be able to quickly answer the exterior changes and rapid technological developments. In tough economy when every company tries to lessen its cost and become reliable and customer oriented the restructuring is the greatest tool. This idea has been backed by the Bahrami (1992) that use and adoption of the procedure technology and innovative processing is publicized as source where in fact the increasing burden of the work can be maintained through the limited amount of people. An organization may use restructuring as a defensive tool against the contextual and exterior pressures. This notion has been recognized by the Frenkel (2003) that restructuring can be an organization move against the competition, economic and politics plus some time social change as well. This technique impacts all level of group employees. Restructuring may increase the degree of empowerment on the list of employees due to the wide attempts of the place off and downsizing. This view has been recognized by the Comfiled (2001) that reduction in quantity of employees in virtually any business is on the other palm a chance for rest of the workforce to become more empowered and accountable. A great way of coping with the exterior changes in the environment is using the tool of restructuring. This view has been reinforced by the James (2000) that company may deal with these economical and environmental changes by increasingly considering the alternatives to reduce the original hierarchal structure. They may attempt to start and design changes in forms of the business and management procedures. He further elaborated that change in the amount of layers of the organization is also an important way to use this process. Downsizing practices are just possible when number of layers inside the organizations are reduced and when jobs are identified and assigned to the employees in a fresh way. Jeffrey (2000) indicated that the restructuring is also completed to raise the coordination and cooperation on the list of employees by expanding the structure to promote the nature of team building and mutual co-operation. He further added that organization may change their procedure of internal concentration to customer centric organizations by using the concept of restructuring. There are many hindrances in the means of implementing the process of restructuring and the majority of them come in the form of the resistance to change the organizational composition which is made available from the employees.
The decision making about the appropriate workforce size and required skills, capacity of the plant, possible functions and making possible shifts in the production is called as functional restructuring. Bickerstaff (2001) suggested that group may initiate the procedure of restructuring to be flexible and centered towards the client needs and in order to meet individual needs of the clients or to use the idea of customization in the organizations.
Variety of the work place difficulties is confronted by the HR professionals to be able to put into action the change strategy of restructuring inside the organization (Gilley and Maycunich, 2003). The impacts of the restructuring process on the performance of the business while the process in continued has been elaborated by the analysts. Probst (2007) mentioned that downsizings have negative effects on the performance of the employees as employees who are worried about their status will never be in a position to give their 100% productivity and their problem ratios to execute different tasks may also be increased. That is therefore seen that resistance to the change should be dealt very correctly in order to maintain and enhance the level of productivity of the employees. Organizational replies up against the global competition, federal deregulations and scientific advancement may appear by means of restructuring. These reactions are intended to increase the financial position of the organizations. Szabla (2007) mentioned that there is an emergent need of the employees' involvement to be able to use process completely and properly. The decrease in the resistance to improve is very much important in order to use this change procedure for organizational restructuring. The HR professionals can provide facilitation to the process in a number of ways. Proper support from the management, implementation of working out programs and communicating information to the stakeholders are the supporting functions which may facilitate the process of change and could result in lessening the level resistance offered by the employees (Kongpichayanond, 2009). He further added that human resources unit in the organization don't have very clear way to meet with the challenges in contrast to the other systems in the business. HR has to design sometime its contingency intend to meet the customized needs of the employees by looking the concerns at specific level.
The following portion of proposal is emphasized on the methodologies chosen by the researcher to gather the data followed by the research ethics and proposed time level for completion of the investigation.
Since the purpose of the study is defined to critically evaluate the reasons, restructuring execution procedure for BA and finally the influences of restructuring on the business, this descriptive dynamics of research will be conducted by the researcher and the suggested research way for this exploration is qualitative. Through adopting the qualitative research method, researcher is intended to carry out the telephonic and in person interviews for gathering the volume of data. Because the goal of the studies will not allow to collecting the mandatory data by restricting the respondents in set up questions, hence the qualitative technique is adopted to obtain the required data from the respondents. In support of this analysis there is much desired researcher provide some past information and Ghouri (2005) described that we now have two broad options for collecting the data; Extra Data Collection and Main Data Collection.
According to MecNeill (2005) secondary data is not researcher's own staff member but the pre-existing data is gathered for supporting the principal research. Since the main aim of the extra data is to back again up the current research of researcher with existing data, the sources for collecting the extra data because of this investigation will be articles, journals, periodicals, catalogs, websites newspaper publishers and university online resources.
According to Chapman (2005) principal data is the researcher's own work to figure out the answers for the study question and aims. Since main data is not the prevailing data, so that it allows the researcher to gather the most desiring data matching with the goal of his own analysis. The main sources of main data collection are studies, questionnaires, interviews, concentrate communities and personal observations but also for this review interviews both telephonic and face to face are preferred to collect the primary data.
Choosing the respondents (research participant) for review or research is recognized as sample (Donald and White, 2009). Since restructuring in BA is mainly under focus in this analysis, therefore the research sample for this survey includes HR staff as well as the crew people of BA.
For this research article, sample size of BA HR personnel, executives and team members is given below:
Cabin crews in BA
Each research should tag along the moral and ethical presumptions through protecting the dignity of the gathered data as well as upholding the respondents' privateness. To keep up the decorum of research all the info is referenced appropriately in this statement and the respondent personal information will be maintained magic formula to avoid any undesired situation. The researcher also means that no data will be inadequately referenced and this record will also hold the information collected through authentic resources. To avoid any difficulty or biasness, interviews will be arranged through taking preceding sessions and in the best timings of the respondents. Although researcher has chosen the random sample but to maintain the authenticity of the analysis, both management and staff members (personnel) of the English Airways are preferred.
Shortage of time and resources can be the limitation of the research. Moreover lack of usage of the British Airways executive may also be a sort of limitation for this research. The respondents' hesitation in providing unbiased information may also be a limitation for this research. These limits of the research can be conquer by following ways. Proper program will be prepared to manage the job successfully by the researcher to be able to overcome the time limitation of the project. Prior meetings for interviews and availability of the employees and their willingness to participate the study project will be considered. The respondents will be made certain that information delivered by them will be totally confidential and private and that this research is conducted for learning purposes with constructive meanings. An authorized agreement form from the organization will also assist in increasing worth and importance of the research.