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The IDEA OF Civilization And Culture Cultural Studies Essay

These characteristics of civilization shows that the introduction of civilization significantly stabilized the social life and the span of history, created the conditions for the accumulation of historical experience and, of course, contributed to a far more beneficial development of culture. Now certain people or a community of men and women can protect their ethnic accomplishments, to keep statements about his earlier recordings, rather than counting on an unstable human storage and the fragility of individual lives.

However, it becomes clear that the idea of civilization do not coincide with the idea of culture: civilization as it concentrates mainly those areas of cultural life, which preserved a technical component of the culture, not its semantic groundwork.

Of course, the concept of Spengler is too radical to examine aspects of conversation of culture and civilization. Real their romantic relationship is, of course, a lot more complicated. Civilization, to begin with, and there could be only on the basis of certain cultural achievements, in this sense, it really appears virtually indistinguishable culture. But at the same time it differs from culture as their functions and target orientation. Will not coincide with the culture, civilization can be an important stimulus for socio-historical form of culture. The pursuits of culture and civilization, and even may oppose one another, and such cycles have been seen in history.

Anyway, culture and civilization appear in two different attributes of human social and historical life, and their opposition, but also the common stimulation are normal.

Today the idea of "civilization" is often used to look for the achieved degree of social development, and a certain level of working of culture in every its components. Quite simply: civilization - is an even of status and society, which can be inherent in the high climb of culture and its own effective functioning of most branches of life of world.

Modern civilization, also known as post-industrial forms its own culture, which includes its own distinctive features, notably the advanced of science, engineering and technology. However, the above-mentioned top features of modern civilization has brought to mankind not only positive changes. The most important negative effect of the emergence of so-called global problems of modern civilization due to the fact that the real human, technical and creation activities in its scope has reached how big is planetary functions. Globalization, as a quality tendency of your time and little by little helps bring about the fusion of different cultures into a single mass culture.

However, Noosphere culture contradictory: she provided the person an unprecedented comfort and features, but relentlessly robs folks of their natural start and so deprives them of a certain future. This contradiction isn't just a source of hope and expectation, but also great concern over the continuing future of man and mankind.

So, on the bases of civilization occurs as a set of forms that stabilize population; between culture and civilization produced a complicated, contradictory system of common interaction. One of the manifestations of the contradictions have grown to be global problems of modern post-industrial civilization in character.

The lifestyle of different methods to this is and source of "civilization" is caused by different content that is inlayed in its interpretation. Relative to the articles of the essence of Civilizations and the standards for its analysis, determined the kind of civilization. Despite the variety of existing views on civilization, the researchers were unanimous with regards to such of its important characteristics: 1) the formation of the state of hawaii, and 2) the emergence of writing, 3) Office of Agriculture from crafts, 4) stratification of modern culture into classes, and 5) the introduction of cities. The presence of the first two features practically all recognize as compulsory, and the necessity for other frequently pertains in doubt. Although we take into account the first three features, they already are characterize the civilization as a socio-cultural and economic center. The introduction of writing indicates the likelihood to track record information rather than store it in recollection, and characterizes the parting of mental from physical labor, which made it possible to focus the attempts of individual communities of people on the development of art and various forms of positive knowledge. The town is a cell, around which dominated primitive varieties of sociable life of the nomadic tribes. They perform specific functions in culture: there have been the centers of agricultural development, handicrafts, trade, ideology, ideological outpost. It had been during the period of the first civilizations systematized and centralized the ideological sphere, has a really strong spiritual influence on the people, building a geocentric type of social consciousness. That is established by the sights of monumental structures (huge palaces, pyramids, monuments), which exhibited strong production potential of society, make them.

Principled position of researchers of the Soviet period was selecting development types of civilization: historical oriental despotisms, slave, feudal, bourgeois modern culture. This process differed from the views of several European scholars, who mainly count on the idea of Arnold Toynbee, which clarifies both the span of development of all human cultures, making use of the concept of "civilization" to the peculiarities of the development of peoples and cultures of different parts and countries. [1, s. 350]

Civilizational way has been trusted in studies of historical and cultural-historical typology. In cases like this, we can identify three techniques in the interpretation of the idea of "civilization": a locally traditional, historical, stadial, and world-historical.

Among the supporters of the local-historical way there is no unanimity on the question of just how many civilizations have been in days gone by and how many they are actually.

N. Danilevskiy designated (in chronological order) the following civilization, or cultural-historical styles: Egyptian, Assyrian-Babylonian-finikiyskugo, Indian, Iranian, Jewish, Greek, Roman, Arabian, Germanic-Romance (European) and Slavic. Spengler considered such historical and ethnic worlds: the Egyptian, Indian, Babylonian, Chinese language, Greco-Roman (apollonovsky), Mayan and EUROPEAN (Faust).

In Arnold Toynbee in the pre-classification, there are a number of companies of 1 kind, which, as historian had written, "called civilizations: Egyptian, Andean, China, Minoan, Sumerian, manyanskoe, Syrian, Indies, Hittite, Hellenistic, Orthodox Christian (in Russia ), the Far East (Korea and Japan), Orthodox Christian (mainly), the Far East (mainly), Iranian, Arab, Hindu, Mexican, Yucatan, Babylonian.

In a far more condensed classification Toynbee identified, however the ", the burkha", "Christian Orthodox, or Byzantine Contemporary society, found in South-Eastern European countries and Russia, " Islamic modern culture ", focused in the arid zone (the region of arid steppes, deserts and semi-desert) transferring diagonally across North Africa and the Middle East from the Atlantic Sea to the Great Wall of China, "Hindu population" in the tropical subkontinentalyyuy India to the south-east of the arid zone, "Far Eastern culture" in the subtropical and temperate areas between arid zone and the Pacific Sea.

This classification of civilizations was the foundation for the concept of L. Vasilyev, who determined five contemporary civilizations: "American Europe", "Russian", "Islamic", "Indo-Buddhist" and "Confucian".

X. White, using tropologichesky strategy determined four civilizational and historical types of culture: the ironic (Western European countries), metaphorical (Midsection East), sinekdotichesky (India) and analogical (China).

As area of the historical and stadial methodology with regards to the choice of any axiomatic standards identify different kinds of civilizations. In modern literature, for example, are considered types such as dental, written, book and screen, "" cosmogenic, technical and man-made, "" traditional and modern, "" evolutionary and progressive "civilization.

However, in most cases, historical and stadial studies used a technocratic strategy, predicated on which secrete an agrarian (pre-industrial), manufacturing (industrial) and information (post-industrial) civilization (Rostow, Daniel Bell, Toffler).

Agrarian civilization - a culture with a primitive agricultural development, hierarchical social structure and authority belonging to landowners, the cathedral and the army as a major social corporations.

At enough time, N. Kondratiev, studying the cycles of monetary conditions, deducted they are changing every 40-50 years. These fifty percent century Kondratiev cycles regarded as part of the pattern of civilization, which continues on his calculations about 200-300 years.

In "Origins of record and its goal" (1949) Jaspers identified in cultural development are four "slashed": "Prehistory", "great historical culture of antiquity" (local record), "axial time" (the beginning of World History), " the age of technology "(the change to a unified world background Danilevsky N. singled out (in chronological order) the next civilization, or cultural-historical styles: Egyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Phoenician, Indian, Iranian, Jewish, Greek, Roman, Arabian, German-Romanesque (European) and Slavic. Spengler considered such historical and social worlds: the Egyptian, Indian, Babylonian, Chinese language, Greco-Roman (apollonovsky), Mayan and Western European (Faust).

X. White, utilizing a topological approach, specified four civilizational and historical types of culture: the ironic (Traditional western European countries), metaphorical (Middle East), sinekdotichesky (India) and analogical (China).

In a direct clash between two types of civilized development, Eastern and American, at a time when the energy of their state was determined by techno-economic and political-military advantage, we found an obvious superiority of Western european civilization. This offered delivery in the imagination of European intellectuals of the illusion of "inferiority" of the Eastern world, in the wake of which emerged the concept of "modernization" as a means of familiarizing "inert" East to civilization. On the other hand, in the East up against the Europeans almost before end of the XIX century. the conception of the great moral and honest superiority of Eastern civilization, that of "western barbarians" borrow nothing, except the device technology. [2, s. 366]

Considering the classification of civilizations, scholars Orientalists thought that it was divided into two "tree" - East and Western world, have their own, unique means of development, of which "natural" and "normal" recognizes the east, while western world is regarded as a mutation bias. Other scholars have also offered to share most of civilization into two types, but provide them with another type of interpretation: one of these - manmade - declares a characteristic of Western European countries, and the next - psychogenic - to Eastern countries, exemplory case of which is Indian civilization of the past.

Thus, many creators of the concept of culture and civilization divided and even compared. To add the field of spirituality, culture (ideas), also to civilization - the result region of №№the materials (things). Civilization was cared for as a materials product of culture. Argues that culture is dying and snikaet prior to the triumph of civilization. Common and various interpretation of civilization, when it's presented as general characteristics of the historically specific types of sociality and culture. In this case civilization is comprehended as a certain degree of social history, the ongoing development of peoples and the earth in general, dependant on cash condition of the cultural structure and religious world. The most concise description of civilization is this: Civilization - socio-cultural complexes, folding at different times in different parts of the planet earth and bearing the top features of the social and cultural personality. That is why the common expression "the Inca civilization", "Greek civilization", "ancient civilization", "modern civilization", etc. [3, p. 83]

Today the problem of Civilizations is designed to analysts such problems whose solution takes a scientific strategy and beliefs well conceived. These problems are mainly including the dynamics of the problems experienced by specific cultures, particularly American culture, the continuing future of the Lady, strengthening of ethnical identity and the resurgence of nationalism, the ratio of the present day man of religion, technology, science, the relationship between East and Western, etc.

In developing a meaning of civilization and the analysis of specific civilizations, much depends upon the positioning of the researcher. Among the most representative theories of civilizations theory is generally AJ. Toynbee, who remains the line of N. Danilevsky and Spengler.

His theory may be thought to be the culminating point in the introduction of ideas of "local civilizations. " Monumental research of Arnold Toynbee, "A Study of History", many researchers discover a masterpiece of historical and macrosociological research. Another of his work entitled "Civilization prior to the court of record" is committed mainly on the clash of civilizations in the modern era.

In the study, "Study of History" on the basis of in-depth analysis of the colossal facts of world background Toynbee try to rethink the fads of socio-historical development of mankind in the nature of local civilizations. Ideas, ideas, explanations, facts, countries and peoples, previous and future merge in a complicated pattern, but instead tips to the presence of a mystery than giving clarity and steadiness of past occasions.

In his studies, Arnold Toynbee also presumed that civilization has certain types of human being communities, "causing certain associations in neuro-scientific religion, architecture, art work, morals, traditions - in a nutshell, a culture. "

Unlike Spengler, who was simply absolutely not enthusiastic about any other culture than their allocated eight "great", as historian Arnold Toynbee is concerned to describe every one of the historically existing civilization.

In a comparative study of civilizations Toynbee examines and represents six staff of the varieties - five living and one useless and two sets of relics. Because of this, a more comprehensive analysis uncovered thirteen reps.

Let's try to briefly address many of these types of societies.

1. Orthodox Religious community.

* Toynbee AJ. A REPORT of Background. Moscow, 2002, pp. 45.

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Orthodox Christian community, like the European Christian, is in the filial marriage with the Hellenic world, and hence the final outcome is that one modern culture may maintain the "paternal relatives' interactions with a number of different companies. To understand how this can be done, let us decide on the geographical factor.

"The pole axis of the Orthodox Religious world has its origins in the heart of the Hellenic world, in the Aegean Sea. Expansion of the Orthodox Christian community had not been in a in a straight line lines: in the north-east, it primarily founded in Georgia, and later it passed through the Caucasus Mountains, reaching Alanya, where he was learned out in the fantastic Eurasian steppe, in the northwest, it swept the Balkans. Orthodox Christianity spread, and over the transverse axis, which crosses the key axis of Constantinople. Sea way brought Orthodox Christianity to the "paternal" Hellenic Population. "Differentiation of the European and Orthodox Christianity provided rise to two different societies. One "Chrysalis" - Catholic Church - shaped two 3rd party organism: the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Cathedral "*.

Iranian and Arab modern culture. Next living contemporary society - Islamic. Appeal to the sources of his stories is the breakthrough of the common express (Baghdad Abbasid Caliphate), the universal church (Islam) and the activity of tribes (the motion of Turkic and Mongol nomads of the Great Steppe, etc. ). Detected and signals of paternal world. The Islamic Population was born on the territory of the Asian highlands, forming gradually a number of independent states, from which comes almost all the Says of the present day Islamic world. Two of the Islamic Population of filial one more comparable to the old culture, which is "beyond the noticeable historical horizon. "

1. 2. The idea of "culture"

The word of chapter

2. Classification of Civilizations

2. 1. Civilization in Toynbee

Understand the annals of a country, in most cases impossible without considering its relations and interactions with other countries. To clarify the function in its history, it is necessary to compare them using what is happening in other countries. But this does not imply that the study of the annals of any country should take depends upon and all record of mankind. For example, a historian learning the annals of Kievan Rus, it is necessary to consider its relations with the Byzantine Empire: without this, it is impossible to describe where, how and why the get spread around in Russia of Orthodox Christianity, which even now is a bridge between the Slavic and East Western european nations. Through the creation of civilization, as a conglomerate of countries with common historical, cultural, racial, linguistic and religious bonds should be paid to the special role of religious and philosophical teachings, because their dissemination contributes to the development of the civilization in which these teachings are key.

Thus, we can conclude that:

1. Civilization is a world that far surpass the national federal not only territory but also the length of time of its life;

2. their culture with better span, both in space and in time than the countrywide state, city, point out, or any other politics alliances "*. Indeed, the historian, while staying within its limitations, can understand all areas of cultural life - not only politically and financially, and culturally, which is the most serious and fundamental. Therefore, the field of historical research covers a rather wide spatial-temporal region, which homes the world, which can consist of a couple of states. This society is a full historical education, which is the "social atom" - the essential unit of the storyplot: "Society, not the state of hawaii is a social" atom ", that ought to concentrate its attention historian" **.

Society of the type Toynbee called civilization. Each civilization is a closed and independent from the other world. Needless to say, completely isolated from external affects of civilization, apparently does not can be found. Yet each of them has relative autonomy, sufficient to permit for research of its history to abstract from the effect onto it from other civilizations.

Geographical limitations of the region occupied by any civilization, may change over time. But "none of the surveyed companies do not cover the whole of humanity, will not extend to the complete inhabited earth, and does not have any peer among the societies of its kind, our Traditional western modern culture, for example, is not regarded as something entire, while Hellenic Culture, being one of the initial members of the societies kinds has not reached its maturity *. World background is the history of different civilizations, coexisting alongside each other.

The duration of an individual civilization more than the duration of any single country, but at the same time, less than the time allotted to mankind all together. It makes Toynbee to address the question of the continuity of history. He distinguishes between on the one hand, a continuing sequence of stages of the annals of the same civilization (like the periods of the life span of an individual), while the other - a continuous relationship over time between different civilizations (which resembles the relationship between parents and their children). It is clear that in the next circumstance - when "filial-paternal" continuity - continuity in the development of societies is significantly weaker. " But still, it is like genetic inheritance establishes the similarity of ethnicities.

2. 2. Civilization by Samuel Huntington

According to Huntington, a civilization is the cultural community of the best get ranking, as the broadest level of people's identification, which is determined by the occurrence of common features of the target order, as well as subjective self-identification of people. Separate by civilization probation. And until now, matching to Huntington, nation-states play a significant role in global geopolitics, however the behavior of the system and the international orientation of the states are simpler to control and predict, if conditionally divide the world about how communities. According to Huntington the creation of these communities (civilization) is meaningful only when using the culture (ie group of spiritual and material worth №№created by this civilization, as well as the ability to play them) as the main factor, that is, merging all the civilization of countries owned by certain cultures. Obviously, you can not talk about full of cultural individuality of any two different individual communities. When considering the two different human areas identified as belonging to one particular culture, you can not see the distinct cultural dissimilarities between them, but there's a third community, belonging to a totally different culture, which differ radically from both. This is actually the principle of parting of civilizations, that's a practical description of the Huntington: "A village in southern Italy because of its culture may be different from the same community in Northern Italy, but they remain the name of Italian villages, they shouldn't be puzzled with the German. Subsequently, European countries have common ethnical traits that identify them from the Chinese or the Arab world. " Civilization described by the occurrence of common target features (history, language, religious beliefs. . . ) and immediate subjective self-identification of people of this civilization, and it (individuality) can vary over time, leading to change and civilization. Therefore it is impossible to talk about a monolithic civilizations, they themselves may consist of several nation-states may stratify at each other, include subtsivilizatsii. Due to certain reasons different community (they could be called ethnic groups) may be culturally dissociate from one another at such a distance that they might be easier and fairer to call different civilizations. Especially striking exemplory case of this - an array of Japanese Civilization: Japan, as is well known, has its roots in China and Southeast Asia, but culturally evolved on the other palm, not the same as their branches, leading to Japan now and is considered as a separate civilization. Huntington defines civilization as the broadest level of cultural identity people. Another level - unlike humanity from other creatures. Due to the sizes of civilization nowadays has 8. 7 Huntington civilizations, within the entire inhabited world. These civilizations: European (western Europe and North America), Latin (includes South and Central America), Africa (central plus some southern and northern Africa. Huntington message or calls it as a contender for the subject of civilization), Islamic (Part of the northern Africa, Central Asia and part of Southeast Asia), Orthodox (She's Russian, East Western european and East-Christian. Eastern European countries, Siberia. According to Huntington on the verge of extinction), Hindu (A part of South Asia), Confucian (it is Chinese. China and South-east of mainland Asia) and Japanese civilization. These civilizations exist at the moment, but of course there have been other civilizations, and must be others. Civilization is not regular in the development and lifetime, that is, civilization can survive the time of prosperity, labor and birth, decay, death, etc. Altogether, relating to Huntington (he identifies Toynbee) and 21 can talk about civilization.

3. Clash of Civilizations

3. 1. Scientific concept of Samuel Huntington's clash of civilizations

In the summertime of 1993 in the journal Foreign Affairs», published articles by Samuel Huntington, entitled "The Clash of Civilizations?". Then this post triggered a great mix across the world. In this specific article, Huntington put forward his eyesight for peace after the Cold War, the essential notion of №№which was that the main players in the global area now won't state and government, and civilization, which may comprise up to several tens of claims. The main factors behind wars will be no monetary or political pursuits, ethnical clashes. Ideology, which experienced great value in the XX century provides way to culture as the main dominant global geopolitical functions. Boundary confrontation between different blocks will be driven not belonging to any of the three worlds and owned by a specific culture, community.

Huntington thought that he created something of world development and international relations - the idea of "clash of civilizations" - is the final period of the stadial development of global conflicts in modern times. After the 30 Years' Warfare (1618-1648 gg. ) Along with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia, which given the present day international system in Europe, both european and eastern, conflicts unfolded mainly between the rulers of areas, seeking to increase the strength of their country in every possible ways, including through the accession of new lands.

As a result of this technique have created a sufficiently powerful condition, then became national. In connection with the modernization of population and because of the state governments themselves have themselves become a nation determines the course of policy, both overseas and domestic. For a point of transition needs Huntington in 1793, the People from france Revolution. This way the global geopolitical persisted before end of World War II. With the finish of World Conflict I and the conclusion of the revolutions in Russia and Germany, the clash of nations has given way to a conflict of ideologies. The primary players on the globe landscape now became three ideological camps - Liberalistichesky, communist and nationalist. Following the Second World Battle and the defeat of Germany started a deal with between two ideologies: communism and liberal democracy, or so-called "cold war". Neither the USSR nor america were a nation-state in the traditional sense of the term, so that turmoil is none other than the conflict of ideologies.

Huntington believes that of the aforementioned described stages in the introduction of peace and international relationships is "the civil wars of the Western world, because a comprehensive examination of each stage is seen a inclination to absolutism and without the extensive role of the Western (Europe, primarily) in all world conflicts. Total apogee of the West in the global geopolitical space came up in today and requires authorization. The situation predicted more Spengler in his book "The Drop of European countries" and today the West is ready to quit a lot to be able to maintain the current, lose influence on the planet, in particular the West is preparing to waive part of its ideology. One of these victims may be called the thought of №№Eurocentrism, which is progressively more offering way to other approaches consider the historical and geopolitical operations in the world. The concept of "Clash of Civilizations" is one particular "concessions" in the continuation of American domination in the earth's politics. Facts, albeit indirect, because of this is typically not fully voiced in Huntington's treatise, but a very practical purpose of this theory: to improve the process of forecasting the geopolitical situation to perform a successful coverage of "running civilizations" with the other person and forcing a "civilization" for destructivethese situations, which should maintain the primacy of Traditional western influence.

3. 2. Is it possible to prevent a clash of civilizations?

This question has always been relevant, but now, with the expansionary impending conflict in the Middle East, especially. Huntington's view:

"The most important conflicts of the future will unfold along the problem lines between civilizations. " He cites a series of arguments, describing his theory:

- The culture of any civilization is unique. It has its own cultural achievements, such as language, history, tradition, religious beliefs. . . and the values №№portrayed in the relationships between human population and point out, God. . . . Because of this strong social differentiation, which will not disappear later on, there is better likelihood of discord especially along the lines of contact between civilizations, which can escalate into issues, including the global. Huntington believes that all the worst turmoil in human history have been bred specifically the dissimilarities between civilizations.

- Associates between Civilizations deeper and more frequent. As a result, against the setting of visible distinctions between civilizations, the cultural identity of associates of the civilizations is enhanced. Under this culture is the dominating power in modern geopolitics.

- The economic and communal development, people are needs to move from self-identification of himself with a place of residence and country of dwelling. In place, the role of religion in the personality of people increases, so the procedure for desekulyarizatsii society on the planet most importantly.

- Huntington thinks that the West (the U. S. , especially) is now at the optimum of its electricity, and it boosts civilization back again to its roots

- With increasing level of intra-regional economy grows up and the worthiness of links between locations. But this relationship is most successful when community civilizations. Because the intra-connection between parts of one civilization is rapidly being set up and strengthened, as opposed to the regional relations between civilizations, where ethnic differences may become an insurmountable obstacle. Huntington feels that we now have two levels of discord of civilizations. The first - the microlevel, where the conflict occurs between the parts of specific civilizations for territory and electric power. And the next level - the macro-level, where the have difficulty is to dominate the planet on military, politics and economic variables, to extend its influence as widely as is possible.

Huntington, however, still identify the primacy and uniqueness of Western civilization (especially the impact of the U. S. ) regarding all others: "In a global where there is no rule of the United States could be more violence and disorder and less democracy and economic development than in the earth, where the United States continues to impact more to handle global issues than some other country. Sustained international primacy of the United States is most significant to the welfare and security of Americans and for the future of independence, democracy, open up economies and the international order on the floor. "

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