Posted at 12.30.2018
Symbol defines as "anything that posesses particular meaning recognized by people who discuss a culture". (Macionis 2005) It helps people who shared the same culture for the reason that particular society to understand the actions was being used by other people without detailing or "explicating" the purpose of them. (Peoples & Bailey 2006) There will vary pattern of icons in providing basis for the society everyday certainty, it is by means of written or unwritten or verbal and non verbal such as words, drawings, pictures and hand gestures. (Cliffsnotes. com 2010)
Further, symbols give the significance thought of people on differentiate people communal class or position. Types of clothing or brands, materials or objects that participate in an individual can be used to look for the economical and position of this particular people in the population. Brand name or logo is an example of sign of showing the status of the merchandise. People intend to buy it is to show their status in the world and capacity in purchasing ability rather than concern on the quality matters. (ibid)
Different perceptions, interpretations and encounters on its icons would vary from culture to culture of the society. (Cliffsnotes. com 2010) Hence, icons might have certain special so this means or "specific culture" for individuals who promote same culture however, not necessary confronted by other people within the contemporary society. For example, Chinese people wear in shiny color such as red usually in the first day of Chinese New Season, thus it isn't necessary follow by other races. Chinese language thinks that the smart color would always bring the delight, prosperity and all the best toward them within the complete year.
Language is "the key to the world of culture and something of symbols which allows people to communicate with each other". (Macionis 2005) Chomsky (1965) explained that it needed to be considered as an "innate" capacity of individual. Without dialect, communication of human being is seen as inadequate and human being thought cannot be perceived. (library) Therefore, it allows the transmitting process of ethnical heritage pass through generation to era. Continuity of language through era allows people to understand among the other parties better who live 28 in the same population, it can show the personal information in a culture. For instance, English can be used internationally as a medium of communication terminology. Hence, official terms is to ensure the continuity of cultural identity, ability and special characteristics of your country. For instance, Malaysian explained Malay can be an official terms of Malaysia, all the government documents, laws and regulations and regulation, local education uses Malay as the primary language in teaching and presenting. It is the accumulation of all the symbols that approved before us such as ideals, norms of your culture that help people to express in virtually any situation and environment. (Macionis 2005)
Language condition the interpersonal reality
According to the hypothesis of Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf, they noted that terminology do influence just how of folks think of fact without only help us to express our intent and conception. People daily discussion uses various varieties of dialects from different modern culture to share our experiences, thoughts and knowledge with others. (Kendall 2007) Besides, language not only designed for human used but also for family pets also use tones, gestures, touch and smell to speak and interact with other pets and humans. (Macionis 2005) For instance, Peacocks got the capability to learn from observing and listening just how people speak and exhibit it to get people attention in it.
Language in gender and occupation
Generally, vocabulary use "masculine" form to signify everything of human being while without ignoring the concern of ladies in the society. They use the word man which allegedly includes men and women such as chairman and mankind. As the gender issues being more focus by the society and more women effort activities took place. Numerous debates have been completed from the go till today world, some changes are took location to reduce the space of gender between men and women in language to make equitability in society. Many institution and publication create regulations of showing concern toward these issues. They ensure that "nonsexist words" is employed to refer men and women individually without aggregate the position of any functions. For instance, Chairman was amended to chairperson and manpower to labor electric power. (Kendall 2007)
Language in competition, ethnicity and social class
As I stated above the official language reflects the country and ability of a country, in facts, it means to a need for ethnicity as well. Several language in nation would lead problems to the contemporary society because different competition and ethnicity perceive in different ways on the "superiority" of 1 category in the other celebrations. (ibid) Besides, different qualifications of culture on its contest and ethnicity would have an effect on the pronunciation of words in another way. (Collection) For instance, most of the Malaysians speak Malay as their preference language, hence, English has been influenced and formed a fresh style of English in languages which known as "Manglish". 20 The feature of "Manglish" are being recognized they often end with the appears like "la", "leh", "ma", "neh" among others. In addition, vocabulary has generated a social school value for people, sometimes certain category of people have a tendency to demean the other functions by using "derogatory term" to certain class or group of individuals in their population. For example, the word of "black" in Dark colored Americans in those days time has been used regard the status of different group in the us. (Andersen & Taylor 2006)
Value is "an idea shared by the folks in a society in what is good and bad, right or incorrect, appealing and undesirable". Kluckhohn explained that value involve sense of thoughts and feelings and provide a guidance for people to make judgments on the action in the population. (Collection) Value of culture impacts the way of individuals reside in the point of view of constructing their goals toward success, tendencies on task functions which is inspiration and quickness and ideas about good life.
On the other hands, beliefs respect as "the specific statements that folks keep to be true". Thus, prices being respect as the "standard of goodness" for people to follow, while beliefs are with the society of folks to guage it is "true" or "wrong" predicated on their current or previous surroundings and ethnic heritage throughout the technology. (Macionis 2005) In reality, some belief may be improvement or logically impossible yet somehow it books people through their lives. (Anderson & Taylor 2006) For instance, most China would visit cemeteries annually in the month of April in lunar calendar which known as "Ching Ming" festival to worship their ancestor or passed on people or friends. They believe that open using those paper models in cemeteries which design in the paper form of electronic digital kitchen appliances, labor mates, house or other on their behalf in hoping them would have a better life in another world and exhibiting a feeling of admiration and miss of these. It is a good way of doing these one of the Chinese world, if the won't do so, they being regard as deviant or disrespectful of the passed away family members.
Values in conflicts
In facts, principles create conflicts for folks as well though it is a typical of goodness in guiding visitors to behave ethically and normally. Issues happen when one value is upholding within the other value. (Macionis 2005) For example, people uphold income value exceed than family ideals which show less matter of their family members, behave bravely in making any decisions without interfere people's feelings. While family worth are more worried than profit ideals, people tend to act people focused, they think deeply before to have any actions that may harm or disappoint their own families.
22 Sometimes, personal interests could have an effect on us to ignore the values using circumstances. (Peoples & bailey 2006) For example, business men tend to conceal the truth that low quality products are selling to the other celebrations especially tourist. More often than not, they only concern the goal of making profit because of their business without caring for the user safe practices or health concerned toward the product.
Norms regard as the "guidelines and expectations by which a society courses the action of associates". (Macionis 2005) It offers guidance for people to act in that particular way which ensure a harmony and organized world is obtained. Thus, people have proper understood on interacting with the daily social interaction and act regularly till the finish of life. (Andersen & Taylor 2006) For instance, unethical manner such as stealing and murdering are considered serious offences atlanta divorce attorneys society. Hence, people who ever commit this might be punished with serious sanctions such as loss of life which be based upon the seriousness of the incorrect functions and the strictness of the norms is in that particular society. Further, communal positions and assignments are related to the almost all of the norms in culture such as mother, worker or attorney. (Catalogue) For instance, mother have a set of norms and sensible to teach and teach them until they have the ability of taking good care themselves with the legal age group of 18 years old and above.
There are two types of norms which is folkways and mores. Folkways are meant by "norms for daily habit interaction or interpersonal custom". It is a typical of tendencies that follows with a society or group of people. (Macionis 2005) For example, Muslim prayers visit mosque every Fri for praying matters while Chinese language visit temple to pray every first and fifteen in a month according to lunar calendar. Mores are definitely more stringent control than folkways. It refers to the norms that are "widely discovered and also have great moral significance". (ibid) Generally, norms use legislations or rules which can be in the written form of suggestions to point the right or incorrect work that happen in the culture. (Andersen & Taylor 2006) For example, appendix 2 which was a breaking new that happened in Malaysia which make reference to the appendix, it shows female lady who was simply drink beer in public areas and trapped under Syariah regulation with word of "canned". Other people view this concern was human being cannot punish such heavy sentences to a lady. She might able to stand up to the pain and other results after caning process. But, Syariah legislation has been stated clearly under regulations. Hence, it generates difficulty on whether forgiving the girl or the positioning true with the strictness of regulation.
Social control entails a mechanism which known as sanction are being used to modify people behavior and thought. Sanctions are divided into positive and negative. Positive sanctions are an incentive for those functions and follow properly in the world whereas negative sanctions are for sale to those "deviant" who aren't conforming to the rules or laws for the modern culture. (Library) For instance, children would get positive sanction such as reward or money or object reward from their parent if they respond obedient where negative sanctions are proper rigorous information or advice and consequence such as tender caning is applicable with them.
Material culture includes artifacts such as machines, tools, books or clothing which created by human being. Using the synergy between "material culture" and "technoculture" in today world, experts use those artifacts to improve technology advancement utilizing the availability of resources, degree of technology, labor, skills and knowledge to boost human potential in enhancing output and shaping our contemporary society with their work. (Sheumaker & Wajda 2008) For instance, the forming of transport such trains and planes has effectively reduced the passage of time taken for folks travel from one place to the other place with an acceptable price.
It looks a really great interaction between the "material culture" and "technculture". In facts, people from various ethnic backgrounds, norms, dialects and thought who reside in the same modern culture would create many problems. Due to this reason, the society has been afflicted and changes being take place on that particular modern culture. Taking Malaysia as an example, populace of foreigners from Bangladesh, Indonesia or Myanmar has increased greatly in our modern culture. Cheap and intensive labor is achieved to aid in developing the country, yet it brings a whole lot of social crimes and threatening the safety of residents toward the united states.
Besides, artifacts could have different meanings in different societies as our culture is different then each other. (Collection) For instance, a piece of leave use by an organization of individuals as the tool of writing, a pieces of paper, dress code to protect certain private part of these body or to carry out spiritual activities. However the other country people make use of it to keep as a sample or experiments by those botany students or it is just leaves fall on the floor which got little or nothing special interpretation or use goal for the kids.
In addition, material culture is quite very much like non materials culture. For example, cathedral or temple is an example of material culture, which really is a place for the religious to work together and transmit worth, norms and artwork (example of non- material) throughout the era and ensure the continuity and persistence of the religious beliefs exist on earth. (Brym & Lie 2007)
Theoretical examination of culture which i choose is structural- useful analysis. Structural functional theory which known as structural functionalism, it offers the society a knowledge of culture as an prepared system use to meet real human needs. In theoretical perspectives view on the natural knowledge for this theory, there is an "analogy" between culture and an organism. Inside the analysis of a full time income organism, the natural scientist tries to identify the various parts such as structures and to determine how they function. (Brinkerhoff et al 2005)
In other words, it also called consensus theory, which views a culture form in an orderly manner, interrelated and balancing among all which ensure that this works and retains the smoothness procedure for the whole system for modern culture. (Unc. edu. 2010)
There are few parameters that are assumed behind the structural functionalism that happen to be stability, the routine of any communal pattern in keeping the society. Whereby, tranquility, organism is the central of the culture which control every of its parts effectively and efficiently. Lastly, evolution, people adjust to the news causes or demand and eliminate unproductive or not necessaries composition. (Brinkerhoff et al 2005)
According to my research, there are numerous anthropologists or functionalists has its own or similar views on the abovementioned theory. First of all, Bronislaw Malinowski mentioned that culture allows people to meet individual needs like natural needs such as food, shelter and duplication, instrumental needs such as laws and education and integrative needs such as cultural, religion and artwork. A harmonious and peaceful culture is achieved where everyone is sharing the common norms and beliefs. (Kendall 2007)
He comments that every cultural aspect has its meaning and it is beneficial to perform the function for the people and world. Every ethnical aspect is inter- related, they aren't function individually toward a specific action. Based on his studies on "kula diamond ring" which is a trading system that carried out by the Trobriand Islanders in Papua New Guinea. (Ferraro 2006) This technique is often seen as an economical exchange, in simple truth is ceremonial. Relating to Malinowski, "The main principle underlying the restrictions of actual exchange would be that the kula is composed in the bestowing of a ceremonial present, which has to be repaid by an equal counter- gift after a lapse of their time, be it a few hours or even minutes though sometimes approximately a year or even more may elapse between your payments. (Ram memory & Rajendra 1997) For example, ceremonial necklaces and bracelet and commodities are the items usually mixed up in exchange of trading business. Alvin Gouldner explained that both trading people are positioning a morally right habit in ensuring a good relationship between them. Thus, Kula diamond ring has been effectively performing as a sociable control and retaining peaceful contact and communication across the trading areas. (Ferraro 2006)
Secondly, Emile Durkheim is one of the fathers of sociology, his idea which known as collective conscience, it offers the common values or norms that bring individual to world. He emphasizes that it generally does not exist when we are birth, we should be learned within each other and "internalized" it to be able to create a connection that pull the whole modern culture align it from throughout the generation. The key issue found here was Durkheim said that education performs an important step in the development of collective conscience and teach children more on moral worth and norms that guide their tendencies, understanding and knowledge in an effective standard. Culture would become part of us through the process of education and so people will organised strong principles of population in preventing any constraints take place. (Global sociology 20010)
Besides, as he worried of the looks of "anomic" where people are being detached and a cultural change happen in building a society as well as the moral system which based on individual and not collective needs any longer. He has an idea to preserve the existing collective needs within the modern culture by using periodic collective ritual. These sorts of rituals or activities help stimulate a person towards one culture. (ibid) For example, Malaysians celebrate national day on 31st of August yearly which is a public vacation for whole world to observe and interact with one another. Besides, this can be a memorable day to allow them to show their appreciation on those warriors who efficiently maintain a harmonious country which lead the forming of Malaysia today.
Thirdly, Robert Merton likewise have the another view on structural functionalism which is the partnership of constructions and functions in reference to the whole world. (Ritzer 2010) He differentiates between the express and latent functions. Express is those accepted and designed with the stars in the social system indicating motives because of their action. Whereby, latent is those unrecognized and unintended by the actors. (McClelland Kent 2000) His implications on this theory affecting all parts of the machine are practical, highly integrated and indispensable. Alternatively, dysfunction respect as stress and imbalance in a ethnical system where it could have negative outcomes towards the modern culture. (Ritzer 2010) Furthermore, empirical research respect as a solvent to a social characteristic which is functional or dysfunctional. (Ferraro 2006) Hence, he asserted all sort of research perform at various level of functional analysis, it would appear that dysfunction can exist within systems, depending on the marriage to other systems. Thus not all buildings are positive, nor are all of them essential. (Ritzer 2010)
For this theoretical of examination on culture, various sociologists or functionalists gets the similar idea that culture is the "strategy" that bring the population together plus they would see any obstacles as "threat" in avoiding them from being a whole world with proper system. Hence, a cultural universal is is out there because the common style of culture is found around the world. George Murdock has been made comparison between hundred of civilizations and he could identify dozens of social universals in his studies. (Macionis 2005) For example, faith is one of the elements as it enhances public cohesion and group solidarity. It also helps in looking for moral individuality and provides proper so this means and explanations for individual and retains as a record which transfer it through technology to generation. Political provides regulations to ensure the stability of the world by establishing various types of sanctions, human being safety is being safeguarded and numerous services such as healthcare and education are integrated. (SocioQuest 2005)
In a nutshell, three of the structural functionalists have got its own positive views on culture where it is an excellent thing for human beings that leads harmonious and to preserve the individuality of the united states in order to ensure that all the aspects of cultural principles are transfer from era to generation. As part of the resident of the modern culture, we have the duty in participating in our individual functions properly even though numerous functions that we need to be worried on. Further, our behavioral would change consequently with the surroundings factors where we you live and situations or issues that we have been facing with. Thus, it is important for us to regulate and deal with our patterns properly. Since it would inevitably affect the other gatherings especially those children who well on observation and learn whatever from individuals.
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