The aim of this concept analysis is to develop an effective explanation for compassion, to clarify this is of compassion and also to combine compassion as a vital part of patient good care. The word compassion has Latin root base matching to Wikipedia (Wikipedia, 2012) and it is "the virtue of empathy for the hurting of others. " The Dali Lama expresses that "Genuine compassion is based not on our very own projections and prospects, but instead on the privileges of the other: irrespective of whether another person is a close friend or an opponent, so long as that person would like for calmness and pleasure and wants to overcome suffering, then on that basis we develop a genuine concern with regards to problems, (p. 1)" (Lama, 2012). The Holman Bible Dictionary uses the following explanation for compassion: To feel love with someone, to enter in sympathetically to their sorrow and pain. Compassion in British translations represents at least five Hebrew and eight Greek terms. Chamal means "to repent, " "be sorry for, " "grieve over, " or "free someone. " (Holman, 1991) To assimilate compassion as a vital part of patient care I think that the definition of compassion must include sense enthusiasm or empathy with someone's suffering, problems, needs, sorrow and/or pain and doing something to change the state of the condition. Compassion is to feel passion with someone, to enter in sympathetically into their sorrow, enduring, pain or situation and desire and attempt to minimize the sorrow, enduring, pain or need.
It has been interesting to research the aspect and views of compassion. Edwards conducted a study showing atheists tend to be more motivated by compassion than highly religious people. (Edwards, 2012) Lubetzky (2010) conducted a thought-provoking analysis on the science of individuals compassion which pressured the value of kindness (or compassion) to your success. A most exceptional analysis done by May (2012) used "a brain scanning device to look at the nucleus acumbens, which receives a dopamine reach whenever a person anticipates something pleasing, " (p. 1). This research will be further assessed to test serves of compassion or kindness to brain activity during these actions or indicated emotions.
It is difficult to research the annals of compassion without finding particular bias in one's personal beliefs about evolution and/or religious beliefs. The etymology dictionary times the origin of the term compassion to the middle-14th century, and shows both Latin (compassion) and Greek (sympatheia) conditions which were used (Harper, 2012).
Other uses of the concept include:
Compassionate medicine use: for critically sick or those using a new unapproved medication when no other treatments are available.
Compassion to patients and their families
Compassion International: a Religious child advocacy ministry
Walker and Avant talk about "certain characteristics of a concept which occur again and again are called the defining or critical features, " (Walker & Avant, 2005, p. 41). Critical qualities of compassion would are the following:
To feel with someone in their time of need
To need to help another stricken by misfortune also to alleviate their suffering
Empathy towards another
To treat another as deserving
To do something to improve the status of one in need
These attributes may be used to develop conditions or types of the utilization or misuse of the idea of compassion. These defining or "critical capabilities" would be necessary in a model case.
A model circumstance is one which we are sure is an illustration of the idea (Walker & Avant, 2005).
Marie is a junior in high school that has just learned all about a eight 12 months old female from a rural African community who was simply raped while tending her family's goats in the field. The young girl has been brought to the capitol city and is awaiting surgery at a particular fistula clinic. Marie has asked her mother to adopt her shopping to be able to purchase some clothing for the girl and also picks out one of her soft stuffed animals to provide to the girl as she awaits surgery. Although Marie understands hardly any of the young girl's terms she spends time with her before her surgery. After a short recovery time Marie and her family then take the girl back to her town in their car so that she does not have to have a long bus trip back over difficult roads. During the long car ride, Marie makes sure that the young woman is comfortable and well fed. After arriving at the women' town, Marie also ensures the young girl is safe in her family's care.
In this model case it is clear that Marie feels love or empathy with the young girl's suffering, problems, needs, sorrow and/or pain. She has also regularly done things to help ease the anguish, problems, needs, sorrow and/or pain and change the status of the young female by the care she bestowed upon her.
A borderline circumstance contains "a few of the critical qualities of the idea being examined however, not most of them, " (Walker & Avant, 2005, p. 43).
Samantha's sorority sisters have all registered to help clean the backyard of an older newly widowed female who lives near their school. Although Samantha desires to help, she forgot to create her alarm clock and thus overslept. She came late to older people lady's house and was able to contribute to the yard cleanup and also put in some time conversing with the woman about her late hubby. Later when relating the storyplot to a pal she complained about having to spend her "precious Sunday" with a unhappy old female.
In this borderline case, Samantha is aware of the needs of the elderly widow, and although arriving late she has made an attempt to alleviate the needs of the widow. She's shown empathy in her attempt to talk to the girl when she actually is at her home, but later complains about needing to give up her time. Her complaints put into question her original activities of empathy which may have in most cases been more an attempt to fulfill a obligation to her sorority team alternatively than true compassion.
A related circumstance is a case "related to the concept being studied but it generally does not contain the critical attributes, " (Walker & Avant 2005, p. 44).
David has been participating the "Celebrate Restoration" class at his local church. He is working with anger management and fits with other who struggle with various addictions or "issues" in their lives. He seems that he is aiding others by posting what he's going right through but also believes that many are interacting with real problems, where as he only sometimes manages to lose his temper, which is not that big of the problem.
In this case, David has been participating in a program called "Celebrate Recovery" (Baker, 2011) which helps people through many types of problems, addictions, and issues. Despite the fact that David endeavors to empathize with others in the group, he is has not accepted his own needs, and therefore he has not truly "felt with, related to, or determined with" others joining this group. David's activities reveal more an instance of denial rather than compassion.
The contrary circumstance, according to Walker and Avant (2005), can be an exemplory case of what the concept is not. It really is an instance which is opposite to the idea and would not have the defining attributes of the concept.
Nancy is an RN with critical health care experience. She's been residing in Central America for a few years, and although she's not been working as a nurse for quite some time, she is happy that she's a great deal knowledge in the nursing field. When walking home one day, she notices a female relaxing near her front gate so that as she approaches, she noticed that the woman is damaged, bleeding, and requesting help in Spanish. Nancy has had a very occupied day and intentionally requires a bypass to avoid the girl and then mutters to herself in English as she enters her home that she "does not have any time for this".
This case clearly shows what compassion is not. There is absolutely no uncertainty that Nancy has the knowledge to help this girl who is wounded, bleeding, and looking for help. Not merely will she not assist the girl, she is out of her way to avoid any connections or appearance of compassion towards the girl. Insufficient compassion or compassionless gets the meaning of unsympathetic and synonyms of callous, cold-hearted, heartless, merciless, unfeeling ((n. d. ) 2012).
Antecedents are those incidents or incidents that must occur prior to the occurrence of the idea (Walker & Avant, 2005). Compassion requires the next antecedents (Goetz, Keltner & Simon-Thomas, 2010):
Someone in times of need that employs empathy
Vocalized or clear distress by one in need
Victim of catastrophe, damage, sorrow, pain, health problems, or need
For compassion that occurs, one or more of the elements must be present. The surroundings must support a feeling interest or empathy with someone's hurting, problems, needs, sorrow and/or pain. It will cause someone to feel interest with someone, to get into sympathetically to their sorrow, enduring, pain or situation and desire to alleviate the sorrow, enduring, pain or situation.
Consequences relating to Walker and Avant (2005) are occasions or situations that occur consequently of the event of the concept. Ideal implications of compassion would be a positive change in the position of the person showing with pain, sorrow, or a need of compassion, which would often be the consequence of the actions of the individual who exhibited compassion. Compassion may well not always cause action, but is usually the capability to feel with or empathize with and may not always have overt action mounted on the thoughts of compassion. Outcomes in this case may then be considered a changed attitude towards the one looking for compassion from the one exhibiting the compassion.
Although most would think of the results of compassion to maintain positivity there are a few negative results. One negative result is compassion tiredness where one can become a victim of the continuing stress of meeting the often frustrating needs of patients and their own families (Lombardo & Eyre, 2011).
In order to assess a thought or determine the existence of the concept, an empirical referent is needed to classify or categorize the phenomena (Walker & Avant, 2005). There have been attempts to assess compassion in methodical analysis, such as in the event studies by May (2012) on monks during deep breathing. May (2012) poses the following excellent questions:
By looking at expert meditators, neuroscientists hope to get an improved picture of what compassion appears like in the mind. Will a monk's brain behave in another way than someone else's brain when both are both extending compassion? Is selflessness innate, or can it be discovered?
Looking to the future, neuroscientists ponder whether compassion can be neurologically isolated, if one day it could be harnessed to help people conquer depression, to stay children with hyperactivity, or even to rewire a psychopath. (p. 1)
Developing a genuine dimension of compassion may establish difficult because ordinarily a result of compassion may be seen or measured, but not necessarily compassion itself. Changes or proof the defining qualities may be present in confirmed situation and you can express that they have compassion, but actually calculating compassion may be problematic. The result of compassion is not necessarily an alteration in the object of the previously expressed or noticed need.
An operational definition of compassion is seen as a a enthusiasm to feel with another, to enter or try to understand, lessen and change the anguish, pain, sorrow or blatant need of another. It involves a willingness to own empathy and possibly make one susceptible to feel along with another as well as taking action to change the health of the one in need.
Can compassion be trained or learned and when so, should this be incorporated into nursing education? According to a study by Land (2008), the answer is "yes". Land also suggests, "Cultivating compassion and kindness through meditation affects brain areas that can make a person more empathetic to other peoples' mental says, say analysts at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, " (2008). It would appear that making a nurse more empathetic to other's mental claims would assist in understanding the individual, and thus improve the ability to look after the individual in a more holistic manner. "Most nurses get into the field of nursing with the purpose to help others and offer empathetic look after patients with critical physical, mental, psychological, and religious needs, " (Lombardo & Eyre, 2011). However, not absolutely all nurses may have the entire understanding of compassion and also can be educated how to balance their emotions of empathy and activities of care to be able to fully meet the needs of the individual holistically.
As distributed by Schantz, the meaning of the concept "compassion" (or "compassionate treatment") is "neither plainly defined in medical scholarship nor generally advertised in the framework of contemporaneous each day nursing practice, " (2007). Although Schantz goes on to state "Compassion is a quality regarded sine qua non for nursing and claimed to underpin the career in its larger-than-life scope, " (2007). Thus it could appear that compassion should be an attribute more clearly identified and contained in not only medical practice, but in medical education as well. According to Hem and Heggen, the Norwegian Nurses Association recently approved a fresh code of ethics in 2001 including compassion among the basic values in nursing good care, (2004).
Patch Adams, MD, has made a lifelong determination to incorporating compassion as a part of his practice at the Gesundheit Institute in Virginia. Dr. Adams makes a miserable declaration, "in 40 years of treatments, I've not been to nor heard about a medical college anywhere that teaches compassion, " (Adams, 2011). He goes on to say that for over 30 years he has "encouraged, challenged, entreated medical academic institutions to instruct compassion, and offered that we would help. None acquired accepted until last year, in Lima, Peru, a medical college said, "we will try", ( p. 1)" These statements leave one to be concerned for the entire degree of compassion indicated and having less importance placed on compassion in medical care fields. Nurses frequently have a closer romantic relationship to patients and their families and are generally viewed as "compassionate care and attention givers" to the general public. It would benefit all for nurses to lead the way in teaching the essentials of and like the practice of compassion in all health care areas.
It is hoped that one would conclude that compassion is a vital aspect of medical. Compassion should be contained in teaching technique as well as be researched and examined further to evaluate and validate its presence in all health care fields. This will likely be a task in the health care industry generally, way more than in the medical profession which has already been observed for compassion.