Posted at 11.24.2018
Waste management which includes always formed part of the human society includes waste products prevention, reuse, recycling of materials, composting, energy restoration and final removal. The mushrooming of the world's people, increasing industrialization, enhancing quality of life, and trends in technology have all resulted in a rise in both quantity and the several types of solid wastes generated by industries, homes and other activities (UNEP, 1991). The issues of interacting with massive amount waste materials arise specially in growing countries where these changes never have been met by improvements in waste-management systems (Wilson & Balkau, 1990). Domestic solid waste has become a health and environmental threat in many producing countries because of this of careless handling and failing to make arrangement for appropriate sturdy throw away collection techniques. It is a common belief that improving stable waste materials management (SWM) implies making waste products collection and disposal systems better, raising residents' awareness and enforcing SWM laws and regulations (Obeng. P. A; Donkor. A. E& Mensah. A; 2009).
Solid waste can be defined as "a different kinds of sturdy materials and also some liquids in cans, that are disposed as being put in, useless, worthless or in excess" (Nemerow. L. N, Gardy. A. J. F, Sullivan. P and Salvato. A. J; 2009)
The classification of solid waste is based on the content, moisture content and heating value. An example of classification is really as follows:
Garbage refers to the biodegradable stable misuse constituents, obtained through the preparation or storage of food (beef, fruits, and vegetables). These wastes drinking water content around 70% and a heating value of around 6ooooookg (Rao, 1991)
Rubbish refers to non-putrecible solid misuse constituents either combustible (newspaper, lumber, scrap) or non-combustible (metals, glasses ceramics). These wastes contain about 25% of water and the heating value of the waste materials is just about 15000000kg (Rao, 1991).
Solid throw away can be further categorized based on the foundation of the sound waste:
Table 1. 0 below shows different source & types of solid wastes produced
Municipal wastes (local, commercial, institutional)
Residential, open up areas (avenue)
Food wastes, rubbish, paper
Organic wastes from food handling, metallic sludges
Crop residues, pet animal manure
Mining & Quarrying wastes
Energy technology wastes
Thermal electricity plants
Since, domestic throw away, commercial waste products and institutional wastes are collected and carried by similar government bodies, that is the municipal council or area council, they are usually group together and called Municipal Sturdy Misuse (MSW).
Solid waste products management is considered as a serious matter in different parts of the globe. The unpredicted increase of waste creation emphasizes on the need of the right balance in the various technical facilities for the collection and treatment of waste material, considering the existing regulations, financial constraints, environmental issues and also general public approval, (Caputo. C. A, Pelagagge. M. P and Scacchia. F; 2002).
Solid throw away management can be defined as "the technical measures that will ensure respected executions of the functions of collection, transport, control, treatment and disposal of solid waste products". The global matter about environmental health shows that wastes be monitored in an successful manner and disposed of in an satisfactory way, in order to lessen and or where possible get rid of its potential potential issues that are posed to humans and the surroundings all together, (Robinson 1986).
The need for municipal solid throw away management arose because the effects of sound waste in the environment outweigh the huge benefits. The following demonstrate some examples of improper sturdy waste materials management.
The uncontrolled fermentation of garbage provides the food source and habitat for bacterial progress. Furthermore, there is proliferation of insects, flies, mosquitoes and some birds which act as passive vectors in the transmission of some infectious diseases.
Dumping of stable waste all over the place and failure to collect those wastes in a proper way, not only provide rooms for the progress and spreading of mosquitoes and pests, but also give rise to strong odour and lead to an unsightly and unpleasant environment.
Uncontrolled and incomplete combustion of sturdy waste materials can result in lots of unwanted air pollutants including particulate subject, smoke, sulphur dioxide and other noxious gases from the burning up of cheap materials.
Thus by analyzing the few side effects and environmental effects of solid misuse, we conclude a safe and environmentally and economically lasting solid misuse management plan is indispensable.
In Mauritius, it's the local specialists which consist of five municipalities for urban areas and four district councils for rural parts, private industries such as Securiclean, Maxiclean, Atics among others, and the Ministry of MUNICIPALITY which carry out waste collection. The Chief Health Inspector in all the five municipalities control buttons the procedure of collection, disposal and neighborhood cleaning. The officer is also responsible for transportation allocation and operation, including control of drivers, except in Port-Louis where travel and drivers are on the establishment of the City Engineer's department.
There exist a similar structure in the three area councils concerning the management and functional transport. However because the labour pressure is small, employees from the government are supplemented to perform the task.
The frequency of collection regarding home refuse varies from double weekly to once once a month between local regulators. The collection of commercial or trade waste in urban and rural areas is treated as a main concern and an everyday service is provided.
With esteem to storage space, some municipalities have provided plastic material bins and vinyl luggage to the residents. It has facilitated the collection process. All waste gathered by the district and municipal council and the private contractors are disposed of directly to a dump site or to a transfer train station where the waste products is prepared and compacted before dumping. (Source: http://localgovernment. gov. mu)