Posted at 11.19.2018
This is a study paper on complicated grief effect. The first webpage contains the release of the study paper, classification of grief and the distinctions between normal or easy grief and complicated grief. The next page mainly protects the phases of the grieving process particularly: shock, handling losing and image resolution. These phases of the grieving process are essential in increasing the understanding of the standard grief.
The third web page outlines the warning signs of complicated grief effect and the four major types of complicated grief effect: long-term or prolonged, postponed, exaggerated and masked reactions. The fourth web page provides the four suggested diagnostic conditions for long term or complicated grief to be included in the next revision of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders. The last page covers the treatment procedures for individuals experiencing complicated grief effect specifically: grief guidance, grief therapy, communal support sites and medications. Then there is a conclusion of the research paper.
Complicated grief reaction
Grieving is common since fatality is inescapable and the deceased are irreplaceable. People mourn the death of their loved ones in different ways and over different durations of your time usually described by the ethnical environment in which one detects himself or herself. So grieving is natural and healthy usually meant to help people agree to the loss of their loved ones and therefore re-organize their lives to go on. The thoughts and emotions of grief are hard to cope with specially when the communal support networks are lacking or the fatality of someone you care about was traumatic/sudden.
Research has been done to identify normal grief from complicated or abnormal grief. Grief can be mainly defined as the mental or the affective process of responding to the loss of a adored through death. Corr & Corr (2009) has thus identified normal or easy grief as the normal, healthy, appropriate a reaction to a loss of someone you care about. A number of the manifestations of normal grief are distress, denial, numbness, mourning and eventual restoration. Baron & Sholevar (2008) expresses that complicated, unresolved or continuous grief occurs when the replies are absent, unnecessary, distorted or unending. Thus the major variations between normal and complicated grief derive from the intensity and the durations of their time that the bereaved removes to grieve.
The symptoms or manifestations of grief are similar only that the complicated grief reactions are prolonged. These long term grief reactions appear in approximately 15% of the bereaved plus they range between exaggerated normal grief reactions to irregular grief reactions (Mitchell & Witt, 2009). Individuals such as spouses, parents, those experiencing distressing death of themselves and those with psychiatric background are in higher risk of developing complicated grief reaction after the fatality of themselves. In addition, male spouses are more at risk than feminine spouses for their limited interpersonal network and the feeling that they are in charge to be more powerful partner.
Although grieving is complex, scholars have attemptedto state the stages of the grieving process. The phases discussed by Pottinger (1999) include:
Shock: this is the first stage of grieving that is characterized by a sense of numbness or disbelief on reading the loss of life of a substantial other. The intensity and length of time of the impact feeling largely depends upon the circumstances of the loss and the cultural support of friends or family available. Thus unexpected and unexpected fatalities are associated with a larger degree of surprise and disbelief (Pottinger, 1999). Experts declare that just how a person handles shock phase pieces the trend or the momentum for the span of the grief. The reactions as of this initial period include cognitive, emotional and physiological responses. Bereaved persons often experience feelings of anxiety, misunderstanding, restlessness, alarm, sweaty palms and trembling.
Processing the loss: in this stage, the bereaved may still experience impact and periodically refuse that losing has occurred. The funeral will mark a emotional turning point for starting the grieving process. Following the funeral, the friends, peers and the family members often leave the bereaved to continue processing losing. The bereaved gradually replay the visible images in their heads coupled with the sequence of events to process the effects of losing. Pettinger (1999) argues that receiving a reduction is slow and continuous process, characterized at times by fresh pain. A number of emotions continue to be exhibited as of this stage such as crying which is believed to cathartic since it can help those grieving to vent out the pent up thoughts and frustrations. Guilt and anger are also common as of this phase.
Resolution: this stage is characterized by the realization of the influences of the loss and the reputation of the changes a grieving specific can make and face in their lives. The bereaved then starts the process of re-organizing his or her life to adapt to life with no deceased. Grieving is classic and there no norms to follow (Pettinger, 1999). With time the bereaved have reported to obtain accepted losing and learned to live a life with it. However those experiencing complicated grief reactions usually have difficulties coping with the bereavement.
Complicated grief is generally a prolonged grieving process that inhibits the grievers capacity to operate optimally both literally and psychologically. Tomlinson & Kline (2004) have layed out the warning signs of complicated grief including: absence of grief, persistent blame or guilt, extreme, antisocial or damaging acts, suicidal thoughts or actions, unwillingness to speak about the deceased, long term dysfunction in college/work, exhibiting proneness to crashes and engaging in addictive behaviors for occasion, drugs and food.
Worden (2004) has defined four major types of complicated grief reaction namely: long term or chronic grief where in fact the grieving process is extended over an extended time frame since the bereaved cannot bring the grief to an adequate image resolution. Such bereaved individuals are aware they are experiencing a problem and they also are self-referred. Delayed grief occurs when the mental reaction is experienced during losing but it had not been sufficient to the loss. Worden (2004) promises that the reason why for this insufficient grieving can be anticipated to insufficient social support, having less social sanction, the need to be strong for another person or feeling overcome by the number of losses e. g. lack of the whole family.
Another category of complicated grief reaction is exaggerated grief. Individuals experiencing this kind of grief usually experience increased depression, excessive nervousness or some other feature associated with normal grief behaviour manifested within an exaggerated manner so the person is dysfunctional and a psychiatric disorder prognosis could apply (Worden, 2004). Masked grief effect occurs when difficult manifestations or conducts are exhibited and aren't recognized as being related to losing. A reason for the incident of the kind of reaction is because at the time of losing, the grief was absent or its appearance was inhibited. Subsequently the grieving process was never completed which caused difficulties that surfaced later as somatic or behavioral symptoms (Worden, 2004)
Studies have been undertaken to establish whether complicated grief or long term grief should be categorised as a major mental disorder. So that they can clearly separate between normal and complicated grief, a consensus discussion has developed diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder known as extended grief disorder, proposing that it be included in the next revision of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders. Listed below are the four proposed diagnostic requirements of prolonged or complicated grief:
Criterion A: Person has experienced the fatality of a substantial other, and response will involve three of the four following symptoms, experienced at least daily or to a marked level:
Intrusive thoughts about the deceased.
Yearning for the deceased.
Searching for the deceased.
Excessive loneliness since the death.
Criterion B: In response to the death, four of the eight pursuing symptoms are experienced at least daily or to a marked level:
Purposelessness or feelings of futility about the near future.
Subjective sense of numbness, detachment, or lack of psychological responsiveness.
Difficulty acknowledging the fatality (e. g. , disbelief).
Feeling that life is empty or meaningless.
Feeling that part of oneself has died.
Shattered worldview (e. g. , lost sense of security, trust, control).
Assumption of symptoms or damaging habits of, or related to, the deceased person.
Excessive irritability, bitterness, or anger related to the death.
Criterion C: The disruption must endure for at least six months.
Criterion D: The disruption causes clinically significant impairment in cultural, occupational, or other important regions of functioning.
The above requirements have never been adopted formally but they help in the specs of the manifestations, the severe nature of symptoms and exactly how to tell apart complicated grief from normal grief (Country wide Malignancy Institute, 2010)
Treatment of complicated grief effect involves grief therapy, grief counseling, sociable support networks and medications. Grief counselling is usually appropriate to the persons dealing with the standard grief although it could be extended to people experiencing complicated grief reactions to permit them accept the loss of their loved ones. The major goal of grief counselling is to help the recently bereaved to successfully accomplish the jobs in the grieving process. Worden (2004) proposes that grief therapy usually conducted by specialists is best suited in the situations that fall season in the four categories of chronic, delayed, exaggerated and masked grief reactions. Thus the goal of grief remedy is to recognize and resolve the conflicts of separation which preclude the completion of the mourning responsibilities in people experiencing complicated grief reactions. Medications can be utilized in the procedure but sparingly to avoid dependence and so as never to hamper the necessary procedure for grieving. The sociable support networks consisting of the family members, peers and co-workers are significant in dealing with the complicated grief reaction.
In conclusion, grieving is usually a agonizing and a intricate process. Grief is reported to be the purchase price we purchase loving and the expense of commitment. Folks who are at risk of producing complicated grief reactions such as solo parents, male spouses and those with psychiatric background should be aided to permit them go through the grieving process effectively. Management of grief requires understanding how to live with damage as well as growing as a result of the loss.