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The Introduction To The Kashmir Issue History Essay

Demarcating boundaries to produce nations has been an onerous exercise that is definitely replete with controversies. Conflicts have been prevailing over it across the globe. This turmoil has extended towards sea systems as countries compete to control oil wells and other resources. The conflicts concerning North Korea and South Korea, the US and Mexico and Japan and China are some of the examples which have drawn international attention. The newspaper will however give attention to issues related to the stalemate over Kashmir between India and Pakistan.

Before 1947 India and Pakistan were an integral part of a Union that was under the control of the British Raj. While giving, the colonial forces separated the region on the basis of religion giving go up to two nations: India and Pakistan. The change was mired with occurrences which were fraught with bloodshed and therefore the two nations developed an animosity towards each other. Another reason behind conflict was over territorial demand over Kashmir; an Indian state that lay over the edges of India and Pakistan. In a very bid to control the region both countries have been involved with numerous wars: the warfare in 1948 and 1965 and the Kargil battle of 1999. India opines that Pakistan along with its firms like the Inter-Services Intelligence or the ISI finances terrorism in the region to generate instability while Pakistan remarks that they rightfully own Kashmir. The region also has a 3rd group known as separatists who want a separate identification without being an integral part of either India or Pakistan.

The folks of Kashmir have been traumatized by the amount of insurgency in the region combined with the atrocities determined by the Indian army under the Armed Forces (Special Forces) Take action (AFSPA). At one time people possessed an inclination towards a particular nation however the atrocities perpetrated by these countries have held open public judgment against these countries. Some have accepted the fact they are helpless while the reactive ones holiday resort to pursuits like mass protest and large range stone slinging to be able to lay claim their basic protection under the law.

The literature will serve to give a qualifications to the discord which includes the three major wars fought between them. It will first cover the reason why that resulted in the three wars (the 1948-1949 battle, the 1965 conflict and the Kargil warfare) and the perspectives of both countries will be discussed with regards to these confrontations. Elaborating on historical and modern-day issues, a thorough prospect of India and Pakistan on the Kashmir concern will be mentioned and the disparities will be extrapolated. Finally the paper will discuss the possible answers to the Kashmir turmoil. The alternatives will be rigorous and would encompass issues such as drinking water writing, providing autonomy to the folks of Kashmir, nurturing trade and business and demarcating the restrictions of Kashmir predicated on communal concerns.

The Challenge for Kashmir

a. Immediate post-independence 1948-1949 period

As soon as the says of India and Pakistan were made in 1947, the controversy over Kashmir arose. The two countries have been involved with four wars since the British kept the subcontinent and the 1947-1948 was the first among them where the rightful command line over Kashmir was the contentious concern. When the two countries were first made, Kashmir was ruled with a Hindu ruler by the name of Maharaja Hari Singh. He was natural to India and Pakistan and chose to remain self-employed. On Oct 22, 1947 a huge number of equipped tribesmen, made inroads into Kashmir, plundered the villages and later placed open fire to these villages. It was currently that the ruler sought the assistance of India and in exchange decided to make Kashmir an integral part of the Indian Union. This gave rise to help expand conflict in your community. In 1947, India and Pakistan went to war over Kashmir. 'Indian Best Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appealed to ask the US to intervene and a UN cease-fire was arranged for December 31, 1948. ' A ceasefire was proven through a Line of Control and Kashmir was acknowledged as a disputed territory (Kashmir continues to be considered to be a disputed territory against the favorite belief in India that the region is a part of it).

What must be acknowledged is usually that the war over Kashmir just after Independence experienced numerous dimensions to it. The Indian contingent boasts that the Maharaja of Kashmir was harassed by the frequent pillaging of Kashmiri villages by the tribesmen of Pakistan. To safeguard the passions of the Kashmiri people the Maharaja signed tool of Accession to India. It had been further considered that the terrorist makes were under the patronage of Pakistan and was targeted at destabilizing the spot. India further cases that it were able to garner the support from the Kashmiris and under plebiscite guideline it became a part of the nation. Pakistan on the other hand held an view that was totally different. Pakistan never believed in the Accession arrangement agreed upon by India and extended to occupy one third part of Kashmir. The assorted opinion was the primary reason that led to the battle and it was only after the interruption of the UN that both sides acknowledged the existence of a ceasefire.

India extended to occupy most parts of Kashmir while the international community along with Pakistan refuted such a territorial profession. Pakistan were able to control a part of the place and at the same time refuted India's promise. This is the situation that prevailed in Kashmir following the war. The efforts of the UN and the British isles prevented both the nations from breaking out into a warfare. Kashmir however had not been given the privileges of an democracy by the India Union. India laid down the problem that unless Pakistani troops vacated the rest of the portion totally, democratic protection under the law would be curbed in the region. With the 1950s, there was a tussle between your State Set up and the energy at the Centre in India for a far more autonomous government. The Indian authorities was however very adamant in tackling the problem and maintained a heavy military presence in the region. It was in this era that the folks of Kashmir were subjected to strict military monitoring because the Indian politicians especially Nehru was of the thoughts and opinions that if the individuals were given the liberty, it would promote Pakistan-sponsored terrorism in your community.

b. 1965 War

The year 1965 noticed a desperate look at by the Pakistani causes to seize Kashmir from the clasp of India. Between 1956 and 1962, Pakistan managed to procure much consignment of armed service equipment which narrowed down the military prowess of India and Pakistan. America's assistance to Pakistan is actually a retaliatory step since India and the Soviet Union had maintained a cordial relationship and this was beyond the comfort level of the united states. The procurement emboldened Pakistan and it launched a fresh harm on India. India was however successful in fending off of the attack and searched for for international treatment in the region in order to settle the dispute. It had been for the first time that an international player (other than the UN required part in the Kashmir issue). The Security Council exceeded Quality 211 that mandated both the parties to value the ceasefire and recede back to their respective territories. Even countries like the united states stopped providing hands and ammunition to both the countries. This was instrumental in getting both the celebrations to the talking table with the Soviet Union as the mediator. A treaty was agreed upon by both functions in Tashkent and according to the treaty the armies of both the countries withdrew from the disputed area.

The 1965 Warfare clearly demonstrated the importance of the Kashmir concern and taken to light the jobs played by China, the united states and the Soviet in the geopolitics of South Asia. Alas the cease open fire that was promulgated by the international powers did not have any bearing in the partnership between your two countries. It was only a titular agreement between the two countries that was targeted at preventing any kind of confrontation between the Indian Military and the Pakistani Army. The situation in Kashmir and the plight of the Kashmiris did not go through any change following the war.

c. 1999 War

'A repeated military-hybrid shift took place in the 1980s through to the 1990s. After establishing a military regime by using a coup in 1977, General Zia-ul-Haq emerged to rely significantly upon Islamist organizations for domestic political legitimacy. ' It had been in this age that militancy in the region reached new heights. India blamed the Pakistani intellect businesses for providing financial and logistical support to these militant groupings. While a portion of the blame can be attributed to Pakistan, the Indian Military operating in the region had a role to experiment with in the proliferation of the groups. What must be recognized is the fact there was popular infiltration from the Pakistani borders into Indian earth. This was a continuous feature in the 1990s and the Indian Military resorted to air attacks in a bet to stop infiltration in to the country. It was claimed by India that the infiltrators were backed up by the Pakistani military patrolling the borders. As the air raids to suppress the influx warmed up, Pakistan troops retaliated. The domino impact continued and this gave climb to the Kargil Battle in 1999. Steady shelling and airstrikes was a frequent feature of the warfare. Corresponding to a Red Combination Record at least 30, 000 were rendered homeless plus they looked for refuge in the Pakistani aspect of the Type of Control. Just like the other two battles mentioned before, this too came up to an end after an intervention by a third party. Pakistan and India both celebrated their "win" in the conflict but the volatility in your community was never erased. As fallout of the insignificance of the warfare, the Best Minister of Pakistan needed to pave method for General Musharraf who seemingly focused on economic and social issues.

Issue of the disputes

The Kashmir conflict presents a very diabolical situation owing to the myriad viewpoints held by the two stakeholders on either side of the border. Both the attributes have been steadfast in securing to their whims and this has been the most serious issue. While numerous agreements have been structured to tackle the issue, the unwillingness of both parties hasn't allowed these talks to proceed in a positive direction. Additionally it is noticeable that there's been a change in the viewpoints as it pertains to taking possession of Kashmir. A check out the perspectives of both the countries so our understanding of the challenge becomes clearer.

a. The Pakistani's Argument

Pakistan has always considered itself to be the deprived get together as it pertains to having a stake in Kashmir. In the last phases of the struggle, that is, the period just after 1947, Pakistan was over willing to make Kashmir a part of it because of the higher percentage of Muslims in your community. So when India occupied the spot, it was a sense of deprivation for Pakistan. In retaliation to it, the Army tried to fully capture Kashmir but did not succeed. Pakistan has frequently resorted to 'cataclysmic spiritual violence' in a bet to destabilize the spot and win the sympathy of the Kashmiris. This is not the case in the last stage when fundamentalism regarding religion had not been tapped to secure Kashmir. Through the first stages of the turmoil, the Army was the facial skin of Pakistan and it did not budge in exposing its motives to lay claim Kashmir. Nevertheless the brazen steps used by the Army drew the wrath of international players therefore it resorted to hardliners so that a proxy war could be fought. This can be proven from the actual fact that the amount of infiltrations increasing in the time concerned. You might raise one's eyebrow considering the fact these people managed to cross the border with relative ease and without any sort of hindrance from the Pakistani side.

Pakistan has always reinforced the UN Security Council resolutions that envisaged the Kashmiri people identifying in a plebiscite instead of the control over the region by the Indian Union. The recent declaration by the president of Pakistan evidently demonstrates the actual fact that Pakistan is eager to see a Kashmir which is free from the clout of India. Zardari remarked that Pakistan 'will continue to support the right of the folks of Jammu & Kashmir to peacefully choose their destiny in accordance with the UN Security Council's long-standing resolutions on this matter. ' India on the other side has been able to ward off international pressure in spite of depriving the people of Kashmir a plebiscite guideline. This has been the key concern for Pakistan since it could have preferred a natural player managing Kashmir rather than India. Occasionally, the Pakistani contingent has vented their war by causing inroads into Kashmir through the coercive path. Pakistan has time and again improved its armed service might by making use of countries like China and Iran so when it believed that it could get Kashmir, it instigated a battle.

Pakistan in addition has maintained s strong foundation in the Type of Control by means of terrorist groupings. Pakistan is now endeavoring to spread the cult of militancy and terrorism in new areas south of the Pir Panjal range in the Jammu region. In this manner Pakistan feels that the folks of Kashmir would create a profound sense of animosity towards India and boost Pakistan's propaganda of destabilizing the zone. You can even declare that Pakistan has been effective in this entry as there have been numerous incidents regarding tensions between Kashmir pundits and almost all Muslim population. The area covered by Azad Kashmir has been the nurturing ground for numerous fundamentalist groups specifically Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad. Pakistan believes that it is their to fight a fight in the name of faith and to assert Kashmir. Though this point of view is not blatantly endorsed, there's been enough substantiation to validate this promise. Market leaders of militant organizations such as Lakhvi and Hafeez Saeed have found safe havens in Pakistan and everything makes an attempt to extradite them have failed.

b. India's Argument

India has always claimed to be the rightful rulers of Kashmir. It generally does not recognize the UN's judgment of considering Kashmir as a disputed region. Also India has meted out special treatment to the region by curbing most of the democratic protection under the law. While India is a democratic region, Kashmir has a military services rule. Only lately gets the legitimacy of the plebiscite rule been believed. The three wars fought with Pakistan have made the united states wary of Pakistan's intention so that it feels justified to crank up the military functions in your community. Unfortunately the Army and the execution of MILITARY (Special Power) Work (AFSPA) have given rise to controversies pertaining to human privileges. Other techniques included detaining suspected terrorists under Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Protection) Take action, TADA (a controversial Action passed solely for this purpose), clamping unrest in the form of curfews, house to accommodate searches and indiscriminate interrogation of the natives. Through strict guidelines India intends to keep the radical elements in check but on paper India establishes Kashmir as a democratic express with all the current privileges of an autonomous condition in the Indian Union.

Kashmir is also of perfect significance as it is the boiling point for the countries bordering it. So by attaining extra mileage in virtually any form India wants to exert its presence in your community. India considers such momentum important in order to curb the collusion between Pakistan and China against it. The wars in 1960s and the late 1990s were mostly initiated once Pakistan thought that it has the military prowess to beat India. This self-confidence did not make internally. The support long by the US and China helped Pakistan improve its arsenal. So by maintain a firm bottom part in Kashmir, India thinks it can negate the episodes perpetrated by Pakistan.

Recent events show that the dispute over Kashmir has been taken up to a fresh level after the increase in the amount of infiltrators. India has been a victim of several terrorist activities before and the track of the miscreants trailed up to the terrorist organizations in Kashmir and Pakistan. So India thinks that unless it ramps up its military services activities in Kashmir and the borders surrounding it the influx of such infiltrants would be in the ascendancy. As a result, the late 1980s witnessed a number of measures that was aimed at stopping the inflow. 'All men above age eighteen were granted identity cards and paramilitary patrols were stepped up in the region. ' Regardless of these options and the increased surveillance across the borders, India has been a sufferer to the infiltrators who were responsible for carrying out blasts across locations and for carrying out the 26/11 Mumbai bloody drama, which involved episodes in as many as 11 places in metropolis that kept 183 people, including 22 foreigners, inactive.

Facets of Dispute Resolution

There has been diversity in ideas when commentators narrate the existing situation in Kashmir. While most are optimistic in their assessment there a wide range of who still believe (especially separatists occupying Kashmir) that there no expect Kashmir soon. This can be remarked from the increased activism by separatist teams. Even ordinary people from either side of the border perceive one another as dangers. The time from 1947 to 2000 was unproductive as there were no resolute measures in resolving the stalemate. However based on the first school of thought there is a silver coating that appears to have made an appearance in this century.

'In the new century, changing developments in all areas of knowledge and the emphasis of people-to-people contact is becoming very important to promoting common understanding between India and Pakistan. ' It is fortunate that both the civilizations are similar which could be a basis for a friendly relationship. Both countries have nuclear features and this has lowered the likelihood of a complete scale war. Just lately there have been talks which have promoted trade between the two countries. India was never in the most preferred list of countries for trade with an extremely narrow positive set of 786 goods. Pakistan has recently considered India's case and you can soon see a transition in which bilateral trade is conducted between the two countries and this can be a catalyst in the peacefulness talks between your two nations. Kashmir would also be an important region as it might intermediate the high amounts of trade that would ensue once the barriers to trade start.

On the flip part there's been numerous instances in which the foretells promote peace have failed miserably. The failed discussions have been a major bottleneck in the way ahead because once this event occurs there's a period of suffered inactivity where both the parties won't cooperate in the serenity dialogues. Most talks appear to revolve around Kashmir, border disputes and water sharing agreement. Alas most issues stay unsolved for a long time. Pakistan's association with China also raises eyebrows in India which is actually a deterrent in the manner ahead. India has never accepted China to be always a super electricity in the subcontinent and there were events of territorial dispute between India and China. This has been a crucial determinant in the interrelationship between India, Pakistan and China.

The formation of your separatist group has put into the woes of Pakistan and India with the addition of another dimensions to the Kashmir issue. The separatist organizations have also started being vocal in challenging better control through ideological leanings, politics strategies, and goals and also have therefore started participating in the political plan of Kashmir. Pakistan have always expected these teams probably to avenge the 1971 show where India reinforced the creation of Bangladesh which was then a part of Pakistan. The separatists have profound animosity into the Indian government and they're ruthless in exhibiting their discontent towards people who favour India.

While the troubles that the stakeholders face is mottled, all the people (India, Pakistan, Separatist and even China) should turn to bring peace in your community. There may be numerous means of appearing out of the quagmire but it will require concerted efforts out of every party and at exactly the same time each player should be inclined to be more available minded in taking the credibility of the other get together.

Resolving the Kashmir Dispute

The first rung on the ladder is always to demarcate the limitations of Kashmir in a manner such that all the get-togethers agree to it. It ought to be known that the folks of Kashmir should have their consensus before any lines is drawn. Additionally background has proven that the Type of Control is a very volatile territory and very often the military of one country tends to encroach upon overseas territory. Hence, it is advisable that both countries retract their army to a distance that is of considerable length. Involving an authorized in the dispute has rarely paid off however the two countries could have an authorized to monitor the experience at the edges. No alternative party would be happy to provide such support unless the financial assistance is provided by India and Pakistan. This will likely obviously be a costly affair but it'll reconcile the two soldiers within safe distance from one another. While this is done, the Kashmir people can have their say in deciding their fate.

Mere division of territories also reveals numerous problems. Kashmir is home to various religious sects which aspect of it should be well known while moving along the lines of a division. It is highly improbable for the Hindu dominated region to accept Pakistan while the Buddhist contingent have always compared the thought of a separate point out. Therefore when a divide is created based on vote structure, people who will be the minority may face serious hazards from the majority population. They would want to reside in in a location where they find safety in numbers and the immigration of minority inhabitants may not be a even process as witnessed in 1947 after the partition occurred. 'The nuclearization of India and Pakistan is thus an extraordinary point in time in the narrative of Partition: both its telos, for the reason that it confirms the nationwide jingoism and the bloodthirsty hatreds that propelled the mass slayings and activities of populace in 1947. ' Therefore even if Kashmir was to be divided based on religious inclinations, both India and Pakistan must definitely provide a safe environment for the minority communities.

It is the responsibility of the government authorities on either side to add people in the administrative techniques. Both should give more liberty, 'not just by granting elections but also by rolling back constraints on business, terminating governmental monopolies in trade and commerce, and motivating international investment systems such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank or investment company. ' This is one area where both the countries have failed miserably. Preoccupying the Kashmir people with trade and commerce could have at least reduced dissatisfaction from the indigenous public. 80% of the people rely upon agriculture as the mineral rich condition is not fully exploited for commercial production. Kashmir is also an extremely scenic place and gets the opportunity for exploiting the travel and leisure industry that has the potential to provide job opportunities to a lot many Kashmiris. The other facet of facilitating trade and commerce is that Kashmir will be integrated with their individual Unions. It will provide opportunity for growing infrastructure like colleges, roads and private hospitals. With quality education and profitable job opportunities, hardline groupings will not be in a position to lure the junior into committing radical activities. While sections of the contemporary society have had the opportunity to lead a life of opulence there are many who have been deprived of basic necessities. It was mostly the children of the second option portion of the society who had been hoodwinked into going after radical activities. Considerable infrastructure coupled with quality education is actually a way of appeasing the unrest among youngsters who rarely have anything to do.

While control over Kashmir has been the contentious concern for India and Pakistan, both countries have failed to take care of issues to writing of water systems. Even if the territories were to be demarcated aptly in order to suit the likings of the local masses, Kashmir presents another problem that is very significant. The Kashmir imbroglio is definitely looked upon as a territorial dispute and normal water writing have been given little thought to water posting treaties. Both have so far managed to uphold a World Bank-mediated Indus Drinking water Treaty (IWT) that delivers mechanisms for resolving disputes over water sharing. One cannot count on the Treaty being a resolute stance used by both countries and any form of drinking water scarcity in any country may lead to non-conformant of the arrangement. Hostilities over drinking water posting between India and its own more benevolent neighbor Bangladesh has already started and you can only expect the same romantic relationship between India and Pakistan if any scarcity comes up. The Indus Normal water Treaty (1960) that was intermediated by the World Bank has been able to keep both parties at ease and the issue is not the mooting point when calmness dialogues have taken place. However you need to realize the fact that the problem continues to be volatile. Over time the issues relating to India and Pakistan have been Kashmir, insurgency, trade etc. Once these issues get settled it's very likely that the issues related to normal water sharing may crop up and give go up to hostility between your two countries. As there is a rapid expansion in urbanization there's a scarcity of potable normal water. 'Waterlogging, salinity, groundwater depletion and irrigation inefficiency continue to threaten agricultural development and the Indus Water Treaty should be strong enough to be insulated from these phenomenon. Additionally it is about time that the two countries looked at each other for support somewhat than going to international firms. Both the countries have developed significantly through the years plus they have sufficient resources to determine their situation better. Counting on the World Loan provider means distrust towards the other person and a sense of incapability to solve critical issues.

Finally both countries shouldn't resort to any means that destabilizes the region. In the Pakistani side there is the Inter-Services Cleverness that is accused of training militants not only in Kashmir but also in areas bounding Afghanistan. People having dependable positions in Pakistan's administration along numerous retired employees have hinted on the partnership between your Inter-Services Intellect and the militant organizations. ' Around the Indian side there is the study and Evaluation Wing that is accused of spying into Pakistan and including in magic formula activities. 'Throughout the Soviet/Afghan Warfare the study and Research Wing was responsible for the planning and execution of terrorist activities in Pakistan to deter Pakistan from support of Afghan liberation movement against India's ally, the Soviet Union. ' Both sides accuse the other person for facilitating bombing activities and resorting to means that destabilizes the spot. This should be discontinued immediately if both countries want to look at a brighter future. Sponsoring terrorism can have a retaliatory impact as illustrated by the Al-Qaeda - Pakistan relation today. While Pakistan retained a cordial romantic relationship with the clothing, the 9/11 show mandated Pakistan to do something that would destabilize the group. Pakistan still encounters a hard choice; whether to aid the group to be able to take good thing about point out sponsored terrorism or even to completely eradicate the presence of the fundamentalist group from Pakistani garden soil.

The Kashmir turmoil has become more difficult since its inception and requires a thorough examination of the problem in order to come to any distinct solution. Additionally it is can't be tackled by the one dimensional approach by attributing boundaries to the landscaping of Kashmir. Relevant things to consider must be given to communal choices if both countries arrive at a consensus of dividing Kashmir. Normal water posting agendas should be strengthened so that the whims of individual countries do not prevail when there is a pressure on the demand for water. Rather than spending extensively on the Line of Control (central authorities expenditure for protection stood at 13. 07% for India although it stood at almost 20% for Pakistan) work should be produced to develop the infrastructure of Kashmir and at the same time both India and Pakistan should check out creating opportunities in trade and commerce for the people of Kashmir.

The solutions provided will be very difficult to apply at the bottom level especially when we consider the fact these two nations have been under intense relationship for many decades. Many tries have been made in days gone by to ameliorate the situation but to no avail. Foreign players and world organizations have also made an attempt to bridge the distance between the two which has been beneficial to some degree (Indus Drinking water Treaty). Nonetheless it is clichd that unless both the countries behave responsibly and then for the benefit of the Kashmiri people, the discord will remain a hindrance in the political romantic relationship between India and Pakistan.

A major factor for the volatility in the partnership is having less a stable administration on the Pakistani aspect. Atal Behari Vajpayee had initiated the serenity process in 1999 through the Bus Yatra in Lahore but this was insufficient as the Pakistani Military initiated the Kargil Battle. It was a significant setback since such options were rarely considered before and entail in a battle spelt pessimism for the future. India too does not absence in this entry as it eye its neighbor with suspicion and keeps its intellect wing known as Research and Research Wing in Pakistan. Besides these main triggers there are a lot more reasons why both of these countries couldn't bridge the space. 'The existence over dissimilarities over Afghanistan, the way to obtain highly superior US weapon to Pakistan and Indian apprehension about Pindi-Beijing collusion, Pakistan's Nuclear Insurance policy' are a few of the issues that have been responsible for the fractured relationship and when this continues we could see the chasm between the two countries widening.

Conclusion

Three wars and decades of discord have yielded no berries while Kashmir sadly had to endure the brunt of both countries. The region is reeling under politics instability and encounters constant danger from insurgency related activities. Mass rallies and attacks are a continuous feature in the contemporary society. Most people don't get an possibility to take part in the economical activities. Army monitoring constantly menaces the standard method of living of folks. 'With more than eighty thousand people inactive in an anti-Indian insurgency supported by Pakistan, the eradicating areas of Kashmir dwarf those of Palestine and Tibet. In addition to the everyday plan of arbitrary arrests, curfews, raids and checkpoints enforced by nearly 700, 000 Indian troops, the Valley's four million Muslims are exposed to extrajudicial execution, rape and torture. ' Kashmir shouldn't be bifurcated into India and Pakistan. It's the prerogative of the Kashmiris to choose their destiny and nobody should impose any limitation on them under the garb of plebiscite guideline. Little or nothing could be worse off for the Kashmiris than the projection of the past to the future. Kahmiris can only keep their fingertips crossed and wish that India and Pakistan behave in a accountable manner and initiate concrete steps to make the situation better. The warfare has imbibed hatred in the hearts of many Kashmiris as they gradually start losing faith in the supervision of India and Pakistan. Any steps taken by these countries in a direction that promotes stability in your community will give a fillip to the morale of the Kashmiris. The solutions which have been reviewed have tremendous potential in changing the political landscape of the region and one can only be optimistic that the people of Kashmir receive their due rights.

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