Posted at 10.16.2018
There are many different approaches that try to answer the question "What's Cinema?" each with their own idea and beliefs of what film should be and how the medium should be used. Right from the start there have been to main methods to film, the Realist and the Formalist. The realist approach attempts to copy reality putting a great focus on location and mise-en-scene. The Formalist procedure supports a method of film making which exhibits the directors eye-sight of the world, better emphasis is positioned on distorting simple fact to create interpretation. Sergei Eisenstein was a director that used this approach to film making and in this essay I will analyse his film The Batteship Potemkin (1925) according to his theory of montage and the Formalist film way.
The Formalist procedure believes that composition of any film is within symbiosis with its medium, therefore changing the shot types and croping and editing out of continuity seems to be the right move to make. Although you can say the Formalism is related to expressionism because they both "emphasize that film should not merely imitate occurrences as they occur in true to life, but should produce edited version of truth" (Fourie, 2001, 200).
In his part Beyond The Shot [The Cinematographic Rule PLUS THE Ideogram] Eisenstein clarifies the similarities between montage and hieroglyphs. He explains how when the symbols found in hieroglyphs are looked at independently, they don't always make much sense however when two hieroglyphs are put next to one another they have emerged as a full image. He gives the example of "the representation of drinking water and of an attention implies 'to weep'" (Eisenstein, 1929, 16). He clarifies how the combinations of hieroglyphs actually show what in film is called a montage. A single shot within the film does not convey any real so this means unless it is combined with another shot. He also explains how in a hai-kai each collection helps to convey an entire image or sense for example "Ancient monastery. Chilly moon. Wolf howling" (KIKKO, in Eisenstein, 1929, 17). In this particular example imaginable each line alone, but when they are put together they create a full image, or a collection or a total meaning Eisenstein identifies them as "montage phrases, montage lists" (Eisenstein, 1929, 17)
"Montage has been founded by the Soviet film as the nerve of theatre" (Eisenstein, 1929, 140). Soviets developed the thought of a dialectical montage: a continuous collision of one shot (the thesis) with another shot (the antithesis) to create a totally new interpretation (the synthesis). For Eisenstein the "brick by brick" approach to montage made no sense, the collision of injections would evoke emotions and understanding in the audience as they might put the photos together themselves and then the so this means and understanding would be personal, even if the director implied a certain concept, each audience may browse the sequence in another way. Eisenstein's proposal of montage as a series of collisions to build meaning is supported by the collision theory in particle research which declares that the debris first have to collide, in support of the collisions which have sufficient energy will cause a reaction. .
For the collisions to happen and to allow them to create interpretation there had to be conflict present. In a different one of his essays, A Dialectical Approach To Film Form, Eisenstein says that "Art is actually in conflict" (Eisenstein, 1929, 138). Eisenstein was more considering how, by using editing, composition, sound and perspective, conflict could be created in a image. He therefore developed a set of possible issues within a go, or conflicts between the colliding shots that happen to be "Graphic conflict, Turmoil of planes, Conflict of quantity, Spatial conflict, light turmoil and tempo conflict" (Eisenstein, 1929, 144). By looking at the structure as the foundation of montage, Eisenstein could apply the worth of montage to each seperate shot, and then create issue between the shots to create powerful psychological and intellectual reactions from the audience.
In the film The Battleship Potemkin Eisenstein shows his view of montage as being a series of conflicting images, throughout the complete film. For example the
In The Battleship Potemkin, Eisenstein creates a tense and competitive tempo with thie theory of dialectic montage. Furthermore, he moves over a certain observation of background to the audience through his editing. Taken as a whole the collision approach tries to symbolize the conflict and collision of history itself and at exactly the same time the approach when put on individual scenes impose certain psychological target and response of the audience.
Start analysing scences from the film after explaining the discord thing
Then speak about the manipulation of individuals by using montage editing
Passive audience Vs. Dynamic audience