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The Analysis Of Various Types Of E Commerce Information Technology Essay

The internet brings people jointly out of every country on the globe. It reduces the expanse between people in many ways. About 60 of all electronic business sites on the internet are in, English. Although sites in other language and in multiple dialects are showing with growing occurrence, once the terms obstacle is rise above and the technology is accessible for just about any business to carry out electronic business with every other business or consumer anywhere in the world. The primary technology development that has allowed digital commerce to develop beyond its from bank EFTs and business to business EDI is the emergence of the internet and the web

Origins of the internet:

In the first 1960s, the U. S section of security became worried sick about the possible special effects of nuclear episode on its computing facilities. The security department became aware that the weaponry of the future would require powerful computer systems for management and control.

Although the goals of the protection department network web still to regulate weaponry systems and transfer research data other uses for this huge network started out to appear to early on 1970s. in 1972 a researcher had written a program that can send and receive messages within the network email was born and became trusted rapidly. the numbers of network users in the armed forces and education research communities continued to develop the network software included to tools for the doing this task. File transfer standard protocol [FTP] empowered users to copy files between personal computers and telnet let users log on their computer accounts from distant sites. Both FTP and telnet remain widely used on the internet today for the document transfer in distant login.

Commercial use of internet

As personal computers turn into more authoritative, inexpensive and available through the 1980s. companies significantly used them to put up their own in-house sites. although this sites included email software that employees could use to send text messages to one another, business wanted their workers to capable to speak with people outer their company systems. large businesses built their own networks that used smallest amount telephone lines to connect field office buildings to company hq.

In 1989, the NSF allowed to commercial email services, MCI email and CompuServe, to create some extent of link with internet for the only real purpose of exchanging email transmissions with users of the internet. These cable connections allowed commercial businesses to send email directly to internet addresses and certified members of the study and education community on the internet to send email directly to MCI email and CompuServe addresses.

Brief Background of the web

In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee at CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire, now called Western Laboratory for particle physics) started out the web job. The goal of the project was two-fold:

(A) To build up ways of linking faraway documents (hyperlink)

(b) To uncover ways of permitting users to interact (collaborative authoring).

While the second goal has been indefinable, the first has already established incredible effect on the computing industry. In 1995, the marketplace for networked computing software was rocked by the web's motion from "networking technology" to "social occurrence" within the last half of the year. And the year was marked with a tidal wave of first-time happenings that bordered, occasionally, on hysteria. To permit its continued development without proprietary influences, the web project changed from CERN to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1995, and is currently called the W3 Consortium (www. w3. org ). This Consortium coordinates the development of WWW criteria to ensure certain uniformity and minimize repetition of effort.

Components of the net Architecture

To use the web, in addition to an web connection, a user needs a special piece of software called a web browser (Such as Netscape Navigator). The web browser operates as a visual interface between your end user and the internet- it transmits the essential directions to submission data from other personal computers and then formals them for the user's screen. Documents that are formatted using hypertext markup dialect (HTML) contain taglines that notify the browser how to format them.

The web is based on three-part structural design:

HTML---Hypertext markup terms provides both formatting and hyperlinking.

HTTP---Hypertext transfer protocol, the protocol for connections between web servers and web browsers.

CGI---The common gateway program, for invoking programs from web servers.

Web Software Developmental Tools

Development tools technology online is at it is early on years. However just software development has requires advanced tools to make programming more creative the delivery of energetic content on web will additionally require sophisticated tools and techniques.

Web applications builders are recognizing that selecting the proper tools is vital. Many issues confronted by developers during the start of consumer/ server are being revisited with the internet and understanding this issues can help ease the changeover to this new model. Internet development tools remain unverified.

However developers stick to hard pushed to discover a complete environment that includes database access, interface components. And interactive features, fortunately tools necessary to build database-driven web application will grown-up quickly because they'll be based basically on confirmed technology from the consumer/server period.

Need for Better Encoding Languages

Historically, developers have used two classes of tools to develop software applications: third -technology terms ("3GL") tools such as C++ and COBOL, or fourth -era terminology ("4GL ") database tools. The 3GL tools have been used for mainframes and for mass-marketed Laptop or computer products.

the school of tools that is rolling out for database application generally does not allow usage of multiple to create complex enterprise- wide business applications that reach a worldwide audience of employees, customers, and suppliers.

One new vocabulary that is now very popular in developing web software is java. Java symbolizes all the significant elements for an effective web development: it is easy to use, it operates on multiple systems, which is compact. Additionally java solves critical bandwidth and processor bottlenecks through its design and opens a completely " new world " of interactivity for content programmers and customers.

Electronic business (EC) also called e-business, describes the manner in which deal take place over network. Mainly the internet it's the method of electronically investing goods, service plus some home elevators Electronic commerce program such as investing stocks and options on the internet are upward very fast. Electric commerce is not just about buying and selling it is also about electronically communication, learning about information and collaborating, it is about E-government, E-learning, and much more.

E-Business is more than just doing business on the internet

Many different meaning of e-business


Internet enabled supply string integration (EDI)

To many people the word electronic business means shopping on the part of the internet called the internet. even though consumer shopping on the web is expected to surpass $300 billion by 2004, Electronic commerce is very in depth, and so many more business activities than simply web shopping. actually the total level of all business activities online surpass $4 trillion by 2004. Some individuals and business use the term electronic business (or e-business) when they are talking about electronic commerce in this broader sense.

Although the web has made online shopping possible for a lot of business and being in a broader sense electric commerce has been around for quite some time for decades loan provider have been using electronic digital funds transfer (EFT) also called wire transfer. which can be electronic transmitting of profile exchange information over private communication networks.

Business likewise have been employed in a form of electronic business known as electronic digital data interchange (EDI), for many years electric data interchange occurs business transmits computer-readable data in a standard format to some other business.

In the 1960s, businesses understood that much of the file they exchanged related to the shipping and delivery of goods-such as invoices, purchase purchases and bills of lading and included the same set of information for nearly all transaction. they also realized that these were spending a good deal of time and money entering these data into their computers, printing newspaper forms and then re-entering the data on the far side of the transaction.

Businesses that connect in EDI with the other person are called trading associates. The standard forms found in EDI support the same information that businesses have always contained in their standard paper invoices, purchase requests and transport documents, firms such as standard electric have been establish in using EDI to improve their purchasing procedures and their romantic relationships with investor.

E-commerce has some great advantages like lower cost, better and quicker customer service, quick shopping, information sharing and control of these but it includes some restriction like System and data integrity, system scalability, product search in not useful, etc. . .

Types of e-commerce application

(1)B2B (Business to Business)

(2)B2C (Business to Consumer)

(3)C2C (Consumer to Consumer)

(4)C2B (Consumer to Business)

(5)B2G (business to federal)

(6)C2G (consumer to administration)

(7) G2C (government to consumer)

(8) G2B (administration to business)

(9) G2E (Government to worker)

(10) G2G (authorities to federal government)

Literature Review

Some use the word E-government to means an expansion of E-commerce to government procurement. This use of the term views e-government only in the world of b2g transaction.

According to Steffen Wittenauer (2002) E-Commerce must be seen as part of the economical process of the Internet-area. It's the first step of direct communication between users through the web. Before this, web sides only were designed for presentations of companies or other publishing activities today, the two parts "Business-to-Business" (B2B) and "Business-to-Consumer" (B2C) will be the leading-markets of E-Commerce. B2B is the trading between companies on a primary way or through developed E-platforms. This E-market will be future's fastest growing sector.

According to David Linthicum (2000) e-Business is no longer a buzzword, it is possible in which inner and external business systems financial partners, customers, suppliers, and support functions communicate and execute ventures automatically and immediately. These growing electric business-to-business (B2B) interactions require new type of integration technology that would depend on intelligent, directories, and processes along.

According to Arthur B Sculley and W William A Woods (2000) B2B exchanges help bring together disjointed customers and sellers, reduce costs of procedure, offer more efficient price discovery, offer dynamic price setting device, and many more. In a nutshell according to writers B2B exchanges changes just how of business.

According to M. Brian Blake (2001) large majority of this effort is toward commerce where businesses have direct ventures with consumers (B2C). However, the deals that arise between businesses (B2B) are more common than B2C.

According to ELIAS M. AWAD (2002) The Internet is changing the facial skin of the world current economic climate. And it is superior impact on B2B e-commerce. An impact on the ways companies of proper deal and associations with suppliers. The increased level and swiftness of the rise B2C e-commerce and the offer of effective resource chain is traveling demand in B2B companies which have to decrease the cost of consumption and development of the speeding up of business processes in the source chain who take advantage of the efficiency B2B booth to be market market leaders in their portion savings they achieve cost supply string can be transmitted in improving procedures IT and eventually for B2B customers.

The difference between B2C and B2B e-commerce is bigger than the retail and inexpensive purchasing. B2B market is believed to become more than 10 times bigger than the B2C market. online B2B companies' profit a number of ways they can help other companies create sites where clause goods or services can be sold. They are able to act as an agent at auction and receive a percentage of every fare. They can generate profits by companies to market their entire websites. The internet search engine Yahoo! Got into the B2B expectation that trips the influx of success.

According to mohini singh online environment is fast paced power to consumers that can switch to a fresh provided with a straightforward click of any mouse, this requires that companies offering online services and creating extraordinary customer success testimonies. It could be seen that a focus of the organization to be competitive in e-services reinforced by the suitable electronic technology is important to boost operational efficiency, sustain devoted customers and increase income.

The increased efficiency achieved when the contact with customers are maintained by web technology romance with back-office systems like order control, procurement, integration of payment and after-sales service, An integrated response and e-business is then able to report to the buyer as online store.

Customers then receive the service successfully from one end to customers starting a contact through the task pattern of taking purchases or delivery and after-sales service. In a market where many players are focused on client organizations taking into consideration the web as an entity totally self-employed of its back-end system functions and customer support may well not get success.

Research methodology

Today EC is going through a period of consolidation where interest for new technologies and ideas is currently being associated with careful attention to proper strategy and execution, most of all people know about that e-business has two part it is not merely about technology it is also about business.

Research questions:

Research on numerous kinds of e-commerce applications and how much the new E-commerce technology is effective for group.


What is B2C e-commerce?

B2C means "business-to-consumer" which is applies to any kind of business or business that offers its stuff or services to consumers using the Internet for his or her own use.

B2C is continuing to grow to add services such as sale, online banking, health information, travel services and real real estate sites.

Customer service applications in the E-commerce tend to be more important than in typical sales, since merchants and customer do not meet to one another, only click of any mouse is enough for a web based customer to choose new company.

B2C e-commerce is applications offering an interface from the business enterprise directly to consumers. The most frequent example of a B2C program is a site displaying retail business products or services can be bought directly from the consumer, such as www. amazon. com the basic model of the B2C e-commerce, is illustrated in Figure

Buyer search and browse e-commerce site buyer go for goods and gives

Credit credit card information

Seller sends confirmation to


Seller delivers goods to buyer seller checks buyer's credit card


B2C electronic commerce transaction may require electronic digital marketing, order and repayment after sales service and regarding virtual or intangible property and services, and even delivery, B2C e-commerce is employed by customers for the capability of purchasing goods or services through the website. Use in B2C e-commerce business to attract new customers to attain new market segments and promote products and services.

B2C e-commerce also called consumer-oriented e-commerce. in consumer-oriented e-commerce companies deploy virtual shops to sell their products and services right to customers.

Shopping can be faster and convenient. Call centres can be included with the site. Offers and prices subject to change for a while. Broadband telecommunications will improve the purchasing experience. Two major difficulties experienced by B2C e-commerce to build traffic and keep customers loyalty. Because the winner-take all characteristics of B2C composition, many smaller company find it hard to enter the marketplace and continue to be competitive.

E-commerce is exponentially growing the availability of information, providing customers access to more understanding of better quality and faster than before. Businesses online source an information-rich qualifications by which opponents can identify, match and develop product modernization.

A Firm that can reply to the needs of customers, maintain their requests on time and maintain their buying decisions creates value and wins customer dependability.

The Online customer needs high quality, fast and friendly service and also they want decrease, choice and a quick to answer service with an individual touch.

Popular online facilities such as search products and services, electronic payment systems retained to resolve the purchase, provision of product specification to reduce the cost of communication, update product delivery information and immediate reaction to customer demand is key to winning customer extended to range and make them come back to the site to get more.

B2C Electronic commerce has not only allowed existing sellers to improve their potential customer base, but also has produced lots of successful companies functioning only online.

Companies from all business sectors, from travel insurance industry has generated the web B2C commerce is just how of effective and cost-effective business, Successful Company do online B2C commerce include Good traders bricks and mortar, like Barnes & Noble, where the Internet has Other stations complement existing sales stations and a new group merchants such as Amazon, the web is merely a sales route.

B2B and B2C e-commerce share at least two main aims. One of these major objectives is to complete the business deal in time. Such as in the case of B2C e-commerce, owner must decrease the time taken between the times of purchase when the buyer receives their goods. Another main goal is to complete the transaction without considering the distance and the perfect time to provide more satisfaction to customers. But there's also differences between both of these classes of electronic commerce. The primary difference is how a company performs. That is like the real world. In B2C transactions people can provide bank cards, cash or assessments to make a purchase. In the web world, credit cards are used more frequently. B2B transaction, the firms have company accounts and accounts that remain are collected at certain times. It remains valid in electric commerce.

The focus of this e-commerce software is on the consumer's use of any merchant's web. Storefront or website consumers everywhere can search and order goods or services online anytime. This approach is modelled on the original shopping experience. Found in store like Safeway, kronger and k-mart. for e. g. a shopping cart is used to carry goods until the customer is ready to checkout. Checkout is order and payment processing. b2c is the electronic equivalent of the traditional email order or telephone based placing your order system.

This segment is growing rapidly as shown by the rise in online trading sites such as Schwab and eTrade and digital bookstores such as Amazon, The development of the section has been extremely fast and once it assumes critical mass. Real world traders will see themselves experiencing problems. Inside the travel industry, margins are so thin that a loss of only three to five 5 per cent of the marketplace to the internet would thrust many bricks-and-mortar travel firms out of business. However, online travel companies could also face the same fate because of oversupply, a study by bear Stearns of 1000 online travel sites predicts that only 20 percent will survive in the long run, principally the large and financially acoustics companies such as Travelocity. com.

What is C2B?

C2b stand for consumer to business, it is model will involve trades made between customers and businesses. That is similar to the B2C model, however, the difference is the fact in cases like this the client is the vendor and business organizations are the purchasers. In such trades, the customer determines the price tag on certain products rather than the provider. This category includes people who sell products and services to organization. For instance, www. monster. com is a site where customers can post bio-data for the service he can offer. Each business organizations interested in developing services the buyer will come into contact and then take him if appropriate.

There are some companies that exchange directly to consumers, this rate to add in to the consumer to business under e-commerce, For example, suppose that any charity of the film viewers as if in order to the dog owner that cinema can offer spectator solution most inexpensive rates. Within this care if the owner of salon accept such suggested then will the C2B business. In this case the consumer may offer directly to the organization. They invite some sort of company mid-air line to go to their website. Over time that can determine the type of ticket to different metropolitan areas.

Customer service provides businesses with the pattern of interior and external customers to access company resources. This business pattern is particularly relevant for companies coping with goods and services that cannot be outlined and sold through the catalogue, this business style can be decomposed into the following two patterns:

(1)Customer online purchasing

(2)Customer information service

Customer online shopping: this represent online buying/ selling through the catalogue with a shopping cart, electronic wallet, or a similar tool, includes both consumers buy products online and purchase a single company. It may likewise incorporate links back-end system to upgrade inventory and credit check. One of these is e-commerce shopping

Customer information service: this essentially includes customer to business discussion not included in the customer online purchasing. example are web based advertising and customer marriage management (CRM)

The traditional retail model is the most significant vendor-centric, this means that consumers should know what each vendor can provide. With the development of Internet, a buyer centric model becomes feasible. As opposed to the seller centric model in the buyer -centric model each vendor needs of every seller to determine what consumers want. A representative example is pricleline. com (http://priceline. com)

Which gives the names of your price service for the utilization of illustration, the essential operation of the service imagine that traveller desires to reserve a five star hotel in a city. To utilize the service, he/she should provide information and reservation, most importantly the mandatory value; he/she must expect the amount of credit cards for payment. Beneath the requirements of, priceline. com searching for a hotel (the supplier) that can gratify his/her needs while interacting with the mandatory margin. After locating the supplier, the purchase price difference as revenue priceling. com service charge. If, as the supplier cannot be found, the negative repetition returned to the client, the basic rule the utilization of the service is that once a dealer has found. The customer cannot disagree your the credit card that the buyer will be charged, Products sold through priceline. com has a particular time-price relationship essentially; Suppliers operate with high set costs but relatively low-cost changing. Moreover, if something can be sold before a certain deadline, the source of information will be wasted (e. g. clear hotel room).

What is C2C e-commerce?

C2C stands for "consumer-to-consumer".

Recently, the category of e-commerce has used a fresh member to

form of consumer-to-consumer (C2C) trade, which creates new opportunities

Along with opportunities come some unique difficulties to C2C business, challenge the results and connects clients and vendors, trust and reputation problems and troubles of customers of financial transactions of most different-and, in a way, more technical in C2C trade from other kinds of e-commerce.

In modern times, a new type of e-commerce has inserted the mainstream market: customer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce also described the person-to-person (P2P) e-commerce.

C2C can be an Digital internet means which empowered ventures between consumers through alternative party. The most frequent example is a C2C online auction. In such a form of C2C, consumer post items for the sales and other consumers offer for the purchase. The third facilitate C2C deal costs generally a set fee or payment. These sites act as intermediaries and usually endure no responsibility for the grade of the products sold. C2C model is suitable because the products are at a period when individuals are ready to find and purchase them.

There a wide range of websites offer free classifieds, auctions, and the discussion board said individual can buy and sell online repayment systems like PayPal where people can receive and send money online easily. Public sale service eBay can be an example of where person-to-person deals arise every day since 1995.

Ebay(www. ebay. com)is an exemplory case of a C2C e-commerce application that is popular with consumers. Everyone can open up his own store and screen and sell most of his items in the ebay world. Everyone can also search and purchase books, playthings etc. . Inside the e-bay store

The C2C e-commerce concerns the use of information and communication technology to enable online auction process.

The current e-commerce is mainly supported by the many varieties of company's small and large ones. C2C e-commerce is thus relatively negligible. however, C2C e-commerce can be an interesting and relatively new piece of the e-commerce world. The introduction of the internet and the www makes the traditional distance no and the communication free then the development of C2C e-commerce will become an important complementary part for facilitating B2B e-commerce and B2C e-commerce

The rapid expansion of C2C e-commerce, perhaps, slightly paradoxically, also spawned some highly successful commercial companies providing services that for C2C. As the key players in C2C commerce is an all natural person (the buyer and seller), the presence of and trade is nearly a necessity in C2C e-commerce; There's a need for reliable, third party entities to provide the necessary infrastructure for C2C e-commerce in order to resolve these problems.

While C2C market has some obvious benefits like reduction medium of the value chain in a manner a lot like how e-commerce afflicted commerce B2C, and it also brings some unique troubles.

First, it issues the Prime links buyers and sellers while traditional businesses can advertise and otherwise market their businesses; people cannot afford to buy the circulation by the same way. Once clients and sellers are connected, there's a problem with trust is the individual buyers and vendors can trust and how it can be known? Lastly, there issues with the actual financial transactions, in particular through the exchange via the internet, potential buyers and vendors can be geographically far from one another, even though the company can receive money using numerous methods, and frequently unable to accept bank cards, get a financial transaction is much more difficult for the individual.

What is B2B E-commerce?

B2B is stand for business-to-business.

In B2B e-commerce, commercial move is between an organization and other organization

The B2B e-commerce concern the utilization of information and communication technology to allow terms of credit and duplicate commerce between company and its own suppliers

The examples of B2B e-commerce are numerous companies offering variety of marketing and product home elevators the internet.

B2B, or even more specific business-to-business electronic commerce is the general term used to demote to a deal between companies that are online, and systems of enterprises and offer chains that make these transactions possible, while inter- activity(B2B) always places the web brings with it a fresh B2B companies platform. B2B no more depend on traditional one-to-one model for business deals.

As well as permitting e-commerce vendors (such as Sony pcs) to sell immediately from their own e-commerce websites, their web ha s resulted in more sophisticated online shopping, in which a number of buyers and sellers collectively in one place, these market-places, theoretically at least, to broaden the range of clients and cheap and make the procedure of shopping for and selling a lot more convenient.

Business are becoming networked companies using the net to hook up with suppliers, vendors, resellers, consultants and contractors. these collaborative sites called extranets have revolutionized how many companies such as Cisco, Coles Myer and standard electric, conduct business.

B2B Market referred to as either vertical or horizontal. B2B vertical marketplaces aim to secure a huge part of the transaction relating to the industry. Horizontal markets, on the other side aims to serve a wide variety of truncation to be able to function in order to operate as one-stop shop from small businesses. Both vertical and horizontal work in many market segments in many databases and create huge systems of purchasers and retailers.

Between someone to one and many models are predictably lots of other frameworks such as B2B sites list, which creates for both suppliers and the global sites to attract a sizable audience and public sale sites, where vendors gather to bid for activity is a major buyer.

The real power of e-commerce lies not in the direct selling of product to consumers, however in the integration of romance among vendors and suppliers for prompts quality customer support.

However B2B is more than fulfilment there is the prospect of the internet to become such as a central computer system for many companies. Companies can check out their supplier's inventories or make instant purchase quickly and conveniently.

According to Forrester survey by 2003 more than 90 % of business that sell goods to others will be doing business on the web. B2B online sales also are predicted to jump to $6. 3 trillion in 2005. Almost fifteen fold from the $1. 1 billion in 2002. This is for bigger than B2C the concept of supply chain management (SCM) means getting the right products in right place at the right condition this is an integral area of the B2B framework

B2B orders cover a number of situations. They vary from the regular duplicate transaction typified by way of a retailer restocking racks or a manufacturer buying in standard components to abnormal business deal such as an organization buying a new computer or office stationary. These acquisitions comply with differing trade cycles and are amenable to differing e-commerce solutions:

(1) Electronic market

(2) Electronic data interchange

(3) Inter organisational e-commerce

Typically, B2B sites regular through membership membership or purchase fees and other additional channel earnings, including advertising. The most dynamic online B2B market includes motor vehicle, computers and electronics, chemicals, newspaper and office products, travel and utilities and construction excursions. In simple terms the advantages of B2B e-commerce are as follows.


B2B solutions and market segments provide companies with a greater selection of trading partners, suppliers and travel management. Therefore leads to higher flexibility


B2B marketplaces help reduce the time had a need to get something or service to market and to help decision-makers of businesses move quicker. It will allow companies to make their market segments quicker.


The Internet helps companies to lessen the providers of standard methods to get rid of the bureaucratic system and boost inventory control, resulting in increased efficiency and productivity


As Alan Haywood of Boston consulting group (BCG) system claims, changing the way business process interacts with other companies in the supply and production chain. b2b allows users to view and respond in the case unfold, to respond promptly to unexpected problems and unfolding opportunities.


Governments around the world are facing the challenges and the need for change to find again the machine of government to provide services efficiently and cost effectively,

information and knowledge through information and communication technology. Development of information and communication technologies and catalysts leading to the E-government

What is E-government?

An e-commerce matures and its own tools and applications improve, greater attention is being directed at its use to boost the business of general public institution and federal (government, talk about, country, city, etc. . . ). Several international meetings were held in 2000 and 2001 to explore the potential of what's called e-government.

E-government is the use of it in general, and e-commerce specifically to provide resident and organizations with more convenience access to administration information and service and provide delivery of open public service to citizen, business and those working in the public sector.

E-government is defined as a means for the government to use the most ground breaking information and communication technologies, especially Web applications, the Internet, to provide residents and businesses easier access to government information and services, improve service quality,

E-government is growing the service information to a far more transactions, the federal government works as a customer and supplier e-commerce solutions and related services, in this manner, the role of federal government changed from one of moral and regulatory oversight to a more participatory role of federal government isn't just a regulator of e-commerce but an e-commerce "players" as well, Because E-government and E-commerce effectively two edges of the same gold coin, we think that new and extended role of administration has major proposition for future progress of e-commerce.

E-Government is a huge incentive to move frontward in the 21 century with high top profitable public services, as well as improved relations between neighborhoods and administration.

(Caldow 2001) As the number of public sector improve online initiatives, other results become more obvious get away from from the effect on authorities itself, e-government can be considered a main factor of e-commerce.

Different types of E-government Relationship:

(1)B2G (business to government)

(2)C2G (consumer to federal)

(3) G2C (administration to consumer)

(4) G2B (government to business)

(5) G2E (Government to worker)

(6) G2G (administration to administration)

What is G2C?

G2C are a symbol of Government-to-Business. Within this model, the government transacts with a person consumer. For example, a federal government can enforce regulations pertaining to tax payments on individual consumers online by using the G2C model.

In the federal government to citizen category of e-government, G2C consists of dozens of different initiatives. The basic idea is to enable citizens to interact with the government off their homes. Individuals can ask questions of federal government businesses and receive answers, pay taxes, receive payments and documents etc. Government authorities can disseminate information on the web, carry out training, help residents find employment, and more. In California for example drives education classes can be found online and can be studied anytime, anywhere.

Government businesses and department in may cities; countries are planning more and more diverse e-services. for example many government authorities are now really considering digital voting. In some countries, voters actually as is done when purchasing a book online from amazon. com transferring money, or selling companies.

What is B2G?

B2G stand for business-to-Government, The B2G style of e-commerce generally involves electronic connections between business and a administration body in the form of digital tendering and procurement. This model can entail lots of procurement activities such as

Tendering. where the government provides request for proposals (RFP) on the internet that business can download

Electronic discussions whereby businesses and the government might use the internet (e. g. e-mail) to make a deal conditions, contracts and other details

Supplier sourcing, where business suppliers register online to be added to the government's vender source list in order that they might be invited to bet for shut tenders

Online procurement systems, where federal government personnel can surf a web-based repository of products that exist suppliers

Federal and state government business can be an institution in and of itself. E-commerce has emerged as governments take a look at moving procurement online. Today even local university districts are buying supplies online. The federal government market is strikingly similar to B2B. A lot of the software and technology are directly functional. Some said if the 20 percent cost keeping claimed by B2B proponents can be replicated in b2g, the ramifications for taxes payers as well as market entrants will be great in this $1. 5 trillion market.

To date, federal to consumer business has done well. For e. g. spending money on speeding seat tickets and renewing one's license online have paid dividends to administration firms as well as customers

Us federal government spending more than $ 500 billion per year tool for just about any indication of slowdown, The business enterprise model of federal government is increasingly prominent. b2g sell business products and services to federal state and municipality buyers. In general, the government sector has been slower to accept e-commerce to the private sector. That is changing gradually. However, because of this of e-Government initiatives focused on the spend in online federal government procurement and alternative activities.

Another B2G activity is an enterprise paying government fees and fees online. In such a connection is the power of citizens in a few states pay government taxes on the Internet. Such as subscription of vehicles and vessel, sites of condition property and income taxes and parking that facilitate this type of consumer the procedure of administration often refer to as sites C2G

What is G2B?

G2B are a symbol of Administration to Business. This model includes orders between a administration and business organizations. For instance, the government plans to create a fly over. For this, the government requests for tenders from various contractors. Government can do that online by using the G2B model.

G2B business deal includes several services, exchange, administration and business community, including memos, dissemination of plans, regulations. Business services provided include obtaining current commercial information, download the application form form, update the licenses, registration of companies obtaining permits and paying fees. The assistance offered through G2B orders also help in business development. Specifically, small and medium business development, for example, simplification of software procedures may accomplish the approval procedure for applications for organizing and promoting business development.

E-government category which includes interactions between governments and business, Government authorities seek to automate their relationships with business. Although we call this category G2B, the partnership works two ways; Authorities to Business (G2B) and Business to Administration (B2G). Thus G2B identifies e-commerce where government offers to business and them with services, as well concerning business offering products and service to federal. Two G2B areas that receive a great deal of attention are e-procurement and the auctioning of administration surpluses.

What is G2E?

G2E are a symbol of government to business, Governments employ large numbers of folks. therefore, and they are just as interested as private-sector organizations are in electronically providing services and information to their employees. Indeed, because employees of federal and state governments often work in a number of geographic locations, federal government to employee (G2E) applications may be especially useful in enabling efficient communication. One of these of g2e is the lifeline services provided by the U. S. Authorities to navy employees and their families.

What is G2G?

G2G are a symbol of government to administration, the G2Gcategory includes all intergovernmental EC activities, mostly those among different systems within one governmental body, but also those between governments. A few examples of G2C in the United States include:


Intelink can be an intranet that bears classified information shared by the many U. S intellect agencies.

Procurement at GSA:

The GSA's site, gsa. gov is an test in technology such as demand aggregation and opposite auctions. This site seeks to apply innovative web based procurement methods to government buying.

Federal case registry (division of health and human service)

This service helps state governments find information about child support including data on paternity and enforcement, Procurement marketing and gain access to network (small business administration).

This service presents PRO-Net, a searchable data source that contracting officers may use to find products and services sold by small disadvantaged or women held businesses.

E-government category which includes activities within authorities units and the ones between governments

In Australia with its system of a authorities and state government authorities, the use of the internet to speak between governments is particularly relevant. The government website www. fed. gov. au consists of links to all the stat authorities sites. 1999, the government released its plan to encourage its departments and businesses to procure electronically by participating existing electronic digital trading neighborhoods and encouraging the development of new ones. Inside a discussion paper entitled 'moving to an electronic market 'the office for authorities online (OGO) suggested supplementing the existing agency-based financial management system that support procurement with a system in which the majority of agency buys will be transacted from the desktop through digital marketplaces on the internet.


What is back again end system?

Back end systems are corporate and business systems that are being used to run a corporation such as systems to manage orders, inventory and offer processing. Back end systems support the business's back office. This system collects input from users or other systems for handling.

What is EDI?

EDI is a thought that has been used and accepted by many companies. it is the way to switch data electronically. According to Fitzgerald (2001), many large companies are employing EDI, but it isn't as widely utilized by smaller companies credited to costs and other barriers. EDI works as following the business data is extracted from a company's internal program and then converted into a standardized format such as EDI or XML and then dispatched more than a network to the companies trading partners. The idea of EDI stands for business integration and process automation. Documents such as purchase orders, invoices and delivery notes are transferred between trading associates in a format that is both set up and computer process able.

What is XML?

XML (Extensible Markup Dialect)is a widespread language that permits companies to switch items and business documents, such as catalogue inventory and invoices. In addition, it makes it possible for companies to communicate with each other over the Internet.

What is Telnet?

From first to last Telnet, an administrator or another user can access someone else's computer remotely. On the net, HTTP and FTP protocols enable you to ask for specific data from remote computer systems, but not to actually be logged on as a individual of that computer. With Telnet, you log on as a regular customer with whatever human being rights you may have been granted to the specific software and data on that computer. Telnet is most probably to be used by program builders and whoever has a need to utilize specific applications or data located at a specific host computer.

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