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The Abrasive Aircraft Machining Engineering Essay

Abrasive Jet machining is some sort of blasting process and one of the most hopeful micro machining process for hard and brittle materials like spectacles and ceramics. Material is removed due to the erosion brought on by impact of high rate abrasive aircraft. Abrasive Jet machine has detail X-Y axis rigidly attached to the reducing table and it offers programmable Z axis with nozzle assemblage. According to the proper design calculations we can choose different components of Abrasive Aircraft Machine.

In this job, I develop the model using different CAD deals like Automobile CAD and Stable WORKS. Moreover I also describe the effect of several AJM operating variables like standoff distance, size and type of abrasives on metallic removal rate of AJM. I make clear how we can boost the efficiency of AJM by managing their parameters. In such a model care has been used that use less fabricated aspect rather than immediately procuring them because sometimes we find less accuracy and reliability in fabricated part so performance of machine can be low.

Introduction of Abrasive Aircraft Machining

Material removal operations is an integral part of manufacturing process and it can be split into two major teams. One is classic machining functions and another is No- conventional machining processes. Different types of Conventional machining operations are Milling, Shaping, Drilling, Slotting, Boring, etc. Along with the types of Non Conventional Techniques are Abrasive Aircraft Machining (AJM), Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM), Laser Beam Machining (lBM), Abrasive Normal water Plane Machining (AWJM) etc. .

Abrasive jet machining also known as, Abrasive Micro blasting, it is a material getting rid of process and material is removed by the focused steam of abrasive particles carried by ruthless gas or air. An excellent abrasive particle hits on work surface through nozzle and the materials is removed by erosion by the high velocity abrasive particle.

AJM can be used mainly to cut materials that are extremely sensitive to heating damage and slender section of hard materials that chip easily which is also used to slice intricate patterns and holes that are more difficult to produce by other procedures.

Equipments of Abrasive Aircraft Machine

C:\Users\Vishal\Desktop\part01. jpg

A structure of Abrasive Aircraft Machining is shown in fig. Abrasive contaminants are given from the hoper in to the mixing chamber. High pressure air or gas (such as Carbon Di-oxide or Nitrogen) used as carrier gas comes to the mixing chamber which comprising abrasive natural powder and vibrating at 50 c/s. by using pressure regulator we can control the gas movement and pressure. The high pressure air/gas entrains the abrasive contaminants and this combination comes out from small nozzle at high velocity. This blast of abrasive particles strikes on the top of work-piece and slice the material.

The abrasive stream is directed to the task piece locations by nozzle, which may be manually situated or mounted in a few designed fixture for automatic operation.

For automatic operation, cam drives, tracer device or pantographs used to automatically position either nozzle or work piece.

Abrasive Jet Machining System:

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In this technique kinetic energy of abrasive aircraft is hit on the surface of work part then it converts into pressure energy. If pressure energy is more than the yield durability or tensile power of work part material then materials gets cut.

List of The different parts of AJM:

Abrasive Delivery System ( Including Hopper)

Pressure Regulator

Air filter valve

Mixer

Nozzle

Suitable arrangement to hold the task piece

Elements of Abrasive Plane Machine

There are three main components of AJM:

Nozzle

Abrasive

Carrier gas

The above mentioned three elements of AJM affect:

Material removal rate and reliability of machining

Nozzle wear rate

Surface roughness

Geometry of cut

Variables in Abrasive Jet Machine

The process can be easily handled to vary the steel removal rate which Depends on following factors.

Nozzle design ( mean Form of nozzle such as round, square)

Distance between the nozzle and work piece

Inclination to the work surface

Type of abrasive

Size and form of abrasive

Flow rate of abrasive

Type of carrier gases

Velocity of abrasive jet

Work part material

Nozzle design: Nozzle must be protected under different conditions like pressure and kinetic energy of plane and common materials used for nozzle are tungsten carbide and fabricated sapphire. Pressure losses at the end of nozzle should be low.

Distance between nozzle and work piece: Standoff distance have an effect on on material removal rate of AJM. Materials removal rate is increase if we increase standoff distance up to certain limit and then show up slowly but surely. Small standoff distance gives better penetration of abrasive particle into the work part and large standoff distance might cause flaring. Successfully experiments show that effective standoff distance is 0. 8mm.

Types of abrasive: Aluminium oxide is preferable abrasive in majority of program and silicon carbide abrasive also use in certain instances. Abrasive size also visible factor in AJM. Best results have been obtained with a abrasive size in the number of 10-50 m.

Abrasive Stream Rate: Maximum materials removal rate is achieved with a flow rate at 8-18 g/m. Raise the circulation rate above the normal range for a specific nozzle design ends in lower stream speed thus decrease the material removal rate. It is advisable to utilize acceptable stream rate to save abrasives and raise the nozzle life.

Grain size: Abrasives with smaller grain size have high density which might cause chocking problem of nozzle. Standard grain size utilization in AJM is 10 to 50. Fine grains are being used for polishing and deburring. Coarse grain size lower faster and trim deeper also.

Work piece material: Abrasive aircraft Machine is generally used for machining brittle materials like ceramics and cup and aftereffect of MRR is depends on hardness of materials if hardness is high then MRR is low and vice versa.

Advantages of Abrasive Plane Machine:

Low capital cost

Low ability consumption

Ability to lower intricate styles in high hardness and toughness material

Ability to lower fragile and high temperature sensitive materials without harm because no high temperature generated and overall makes are low

The part produced is free from burs

It is adaptable process from design point of view

Tooling time is considerably reduced

Both encounters of work part can be machined simultaneously.

Disadvantages of Abrasive Jet Machine

It is poor process since metal removal rate is very gradual.

Larger floor space is required

Skilled providers are needed

Sharp corner can't be produced

High processing cost

Material thickness that may be machined is limited

Abrasive grains can stay into soft material so cleaning is required

High wear rate of nozzle

The process tends to pollute the environment

Applications of Abrasive Plane Machine

Removing display and parting lines form the shot molding machine

Deburring and polishing plastic material components like nylon and Teflon

Frosting interior surface of glass tubes

Etching marking on goblet cylinder

High quality surface can be easily produced

Glue, paints can be removed effectively form paintings.

Different Components of Abrasive Aircraft Machining placed up

Abrasive Delivery System

CNC Control System

Pump

Nozzle

Different Movement System of Nozzle

Catcher plate

Abrasive Delivery System:

Modern abrasive delivery give food to system do not need a vibratory feeders and other metering valves.

For clean and precision trimming operation we have to have set and ongoing abrasive stream rate.

Now times we use orifice metering system metering system which is very reliable and intensely repeatable.

During machining setup, once we measured the abrasive movement rate through orifice we can get into that value in charge computer designed and then no modification or further tuning of abrasive flow is ever be needed.

Bulk abrasive delivery system is attached with the wheel which is also easy to move which kind of system is use compressed air to move garnet from the bulk abrasive hopper to small hopper fastened with the device.

Features: can take roughly 550lbs abrasive

Can be located 20 legs from the Abrasive Aircraft machine.

Height and Width are of pursuing: 1320mm and 960mm

Can handle minimum pressure 80 to 95 psi.

How it works:

Abrasive allergens are stored in to the hopper and abrasive container has one inlet and one outlet for air way.

The move rate of abrasive is manipulated by rotational acceleration of motor.

Due to rotation of cam, abrasive container gets vibration.

The abrasive particle is provided by rotation of cam and motor arrangement.

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Control System for Abrasive Water jet Machine:

Most of abrasive normal water jet machine equipped with the CNC control system.

G code development is installed in CNC machine.

But the limitations of the G code Controller is the fact feed rate is placed at constant velocity and feed rate varies only for some locations like curves and sides.

Another limitation of G code controller is the fact that is employed for rigid lowering tools.

Abrasive water jet machine is not a kind of rigid cutting tool.

Every time change the supply rate for curves and spot results in uneven cut.

So by considering various variables like variables of nozzle and intricate shape of part and varying thickness of the work piece and materials heading to cut help determine the give food to rate so that operation can be done smoothly.

For that people have to get ready the control algorithm which compute the desired feed rate based on the above guidelines.

By using G code we can convert this supply rate mechanism into a real programming.

This programming help drive the servomotors and that handles the X - Y movement which way we can make part with more detail.

Pump:

Two type of pumps found in the Abrasive water jet system. You are Crankshaft pump that was found in old technology buy nowadays for ruthless trimming technology intensifier pump can be used.

In this hydraulic power load up system is a type of positive displacement pump.

This system drives the intensifier.

Hydraulic power pack system is managed by microcomputers to create the pressure etc. . .

Electric motor is used to drive the hydraulic pump as the hydraulic fluid push the top cylinder which generate the high make on small cylinder and this small cylinder pressurize the at the particular level which is proportional to the mix section part of bigger cylinder to the small cylinder.

Nozzle:

High pressure normal water flows into the nozzle and chopping brain of nozzle which comprise of an orifice and mixing chamber and an insert where water aircraft blended with the abrasive and form an abrasive normal water jet.

Various motion of the nozzle is manipulated by movement system across the material.

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How water jet Forms:

Typical diameter of the nozzle is 6mm. High pressure normal water is then given into the tube which can bring the at 400 Mpa and consisting of different joints with no leakage between them.

When water moves through the orifice stream of normal water convert onto slim plane and orifice diameter is usually about 0. 2 to 0. 4mm.

When water enters into the cutting head section pressure head of normal water is converted into velocity brain.

Velocity of drinking water can be expressed as Vw = 2Pw / Пw.

Where Pw is the pressure of drinking water and Пw is thickness of water.

The orifice usually made of sapphire and life of the orifice is about 100-150 time.

From orifice small water jet passes through the tiny section vacuum is created in mixing chamber and that pulls abrasive allergens and air into the mixing chamber.

Abrasive allergens are nourish through the different techniques like Vibratory dish or Belt feeder.

Mixing Chamber:

Mixing tube is the section where abrasive debris mixed with water jet.

Focusing pipe generally made of tungsten carbide due to its good abrasive amount of resistance characteristics.

Focusing pipe has inner diameter typical about 0. 8 to 1 1. 6mm and length of 50 t0 80 mm.

To get the utmost accuracy we must replace the mixing tube frequently. We are able to replace it when tolerance should go below the satisfactory level.

Numerical modeling of Mixing process can be described as of follow:

If we consider some energy losses at this particular jet formation at the end of orifice then normal water jet velocity referred to as of pursuing way:

Vw = О (2Pw/ Пw)

Where О is Velocity coefficient of the orifice.

Volume circulation rate of normal water can be portrayed as following:

Qw = ОЁ x Section of orifice x Vw

= ОЁ x /4 do x О (2Pw/ Пw)

= Cd x /4 do x (2Pw/ Пw)

Where ОЁ = co efficient of Vena Contracta

Cd = Discharge co efficient of orifice.

So total ability of the water jet can be indicated by

Pw = Qw x Pw

= = Disc x /4 do x (2Pw/ Пw)

Due to the loss happen in the mixing process both momentum and energy is not conserved. But assumed that no looses occur in momentum at in the beginning.

So ОЈ ( x v) before = ОЈ ( x v)After

(airvair + wvw + ava)before = ( aivairr + wvw + ava)After

As we know that air has suprisingly low denseness so momentum of air, before and after are neglected.

Consider yet another assumption which is that after mixing up abrasive particle has same velocity of water and also overlook the momentum of abrasive then above equation can be indicated by

wvw = ( w + a) vaw

So vaw = [(1/(1 + R) ] x vw

Where R is the launching factor = a/ w

During mixing process momentum losses occur because of the friction between the abrasive particle and interior wall of centering pipe and collision between the abrasive particle and water plane so for time being consider momentum losses and then formula is explained by

V aw = О· x [(1/(1 + R) ] x vw

Where О· is the momentum loss factor.

Motion System:

Motion system can be designed in lots of ways based on the movement of nozzle around a work piece.

This system provides excellent operating conditions for the operator.

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Materials are packed with the aid of over head crane or fork lift vehicle to the container.

This mechanism is useful for 5 axis tables and also provides pretty much space to the vertical tilted axis.

This composition has limitation to the movements of nozzle which means movement of nozzle has limitation to twist and long distance between the desk and work piece result in error due to the deflection of machine.

In this kind of device, Nozzle is attached to the Y axis carriage.

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Y axis is moving beam which is mounted with the X axis.

Back beam is backed at both ends.

This device is ideal for very large machine.

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In above device, nozzle is very near the aircraft of work part which minimize static and energetic errors while procedure is going on.

This system is not well suited for manually material launching and this provide material launching is add up to the access of the reservoir.

Cost estimation ( Invoice of material)

Item

Cost per solitary item

No of items required

Total cost

Linear movement guide ways hsr30cm

$385

3

$1155

Precision Ball screw

$188

3

$564

Supporting Unit

$144

3

$432

Frl unit air filter

$48

1

$48

Diamond nozzle for long service life

$900

1

$900

Abrasive hopper with 90lb capacity

$132

1

$132

Other accessories

$250

$250

Total

$3481

Material Removal rate Device and Modeling in Abrasive Aircraft Machining

As we mentioned earlier, material removal rate takes place in abrasive aircraft machining as a result of erosion of the work materials and erosion take place due to the high impact of aircraft velocity hits on the work piece.

Following assumption has been considered in mechanism of Material removal rate.

Shapes of the abrasives are spherical and abrasive debris are rigid.

Kinetic energy of the abrasive particles is fully used in removing material of the task piece.

Erosion occurs in brittle materials because of the brittle fracture and the quantity of fracture is considered as hemispherical with the diameter which is add up to amount of the indentation.

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From the geometry of the erosion of material

DE = DF + EF

EF = r = DE - DF

r = (dg/2) - (dg/2 - H)

= -H + dg H ‰ dg H

r =

Volume of the erosion of materials is add up to the volume of hemispherical crater and it is given by:

TB = 2/3

= 2/3 x (dg H) ^3/2

As we know kinetic energy formula is given by Ѕ mv so the kinetic energy of

Abrasive particle grit is given by

K. Eg = Ѕ mg V

= /12 x dg Пg V

Where V = Velocity of Abrasive Particle

Пg = Density of Abrasive Grit

dg = Diameter of Solitary Abrasive Grit

mg = Mass of Abrasive Grit

When Abrasive particle attacks on Work part material, work piece will go through maximum causes which cause the erosion of material which I mentioned in figure by sign H.

Therefore work done is given by

W = Ѕ x F H

Impact drive F is give by F = Indentation Area x hardness of the material

W = Ѕ x r H S

And Work done is add up to Kinetic energy because we assumed that kinetic energy is fully utilized for material removal so

W = Kinetic energy K. E

Ѕ x r H = = /12 x dg Пg V

So H = (dg Пg V)/ (6rS)

= dg V (Пg/6S) ^1/2

Now materials removal rate of brittle material can be indicated as of following:

MrrB = TB x No. of strikes by abrasive grits per second N

= TB x (ma/ /6 dg Пg)

= (6TB ma/ dg Пg )

Now Put the worthiness of TB = 2/3 x (dg H) ^3/2

= [ 6 x (2/3 x (dg H) ^3/2) x ma] / ( dg Пg )

= (4 ma Пg) x (H/dg) ^3/2

As we realize that H = dg V (Пg/6S) ^1/2

So MrrB = (4ma/ Пg) x (dgV/dg) ^3/2) x (Пg/6H) ^3/4

= (4maV) ^3/2 / (6^3/4 x Пg^1/4 x S ^3/4)

= (maV^3/2) / (Пg^1/4 x S^3/4)

Fabrication and Set up of Abrasive Aircraft Machine

Nozzle:

A standard amount of cylindrical rod typically manufactured from Tungsten Carbide or Synthetic Sapphire or MS was minimize into the proper length based on certain requirements by using vitality hack noticed.

By turning process in Lathe machine we can reduced the diameter of cylindrical rod and bring up to 15mm.

On same lathe machine we can make tip by Taper turning process by tapering one end of cylindrical fishing rod.

Then make a blind hole of 20mm on planner face of pole by using 12mm drill bit in drilling machine.

Due to the tool hint angel, a form of 118 level formed at the end of blind opening.

To have the 1mm of Idea of nozzle, we can use the 0. 74mm drill tad in Drilling process.

Cam:

Mild material of 40mm diameter can be utilized as a uncooked materials of Cam.

Turning process is employed to bring down the diameter up to 35mm.

By using vitality hack found we can get the required width (Approximate 25mm).

Then both cut encounters can be machined in Milling Machine.

Through hole can be produced by 16mm Drill Bit in Drilling Machine.

Abrasive Box:

Abrasive pot usually crafted from the hollow cylinder.

On the both end of container two Cast Iron plates were welded.

On the very best plate, two iron pipes equipped through the openings.

There are two pipes in a system, the first is inlet which is longer and makes more agitation of abrasive contaminants and outlet tube is shorter.

Compressed air goes to the abrasive container through inlet pipe and mixed with the abrasive contaminants then mixture of Air and Abrasive forward to the nozzle to execute operation

Vibrator Assemblage:

Angel section is welded with the base plate by welding process.

Induction electric motor is put on the angle section which is parallel to the bottom plate.

Induction engine is tightening up with the nut and bolt with base plate.

Cam is fixed with motor shaft and Abrasive container is connected to the rod and it is freely to turn around the rod.

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Design data and Technical Specification of varied Components:

X-Y Table

X -Y desk is prominent part of the abrasive water aircraft machine. Various fixturing preparations have to be provided to carry the work part while procedure is working.

The travel of X-Y desk has been chose based on the application form.

Table involves two parts. The first is upper plate and another one is lower dish.

Upper desk travel in X route and lower desk travel in Y way.

Based the model of Omax 2626, stand can travel 730mm x 660mm.

Y Axis is in charge of movement of work piece in Y path.

Other the different parts of X-Y are of pursuing.

Linear action guide way

Recalculating ball screw

Supporting product for ball screw

Couplings

Nuts and bolts

Other components as required

Linear motion guide way:

General application of linear motion guide is made for the linear movement.

Based on the several guidelines like travel size, floor space requirement, type of equipment getting used, linear motion guide way is determined.

With the help of different rollers which provide rolling elements between your rails and stop we can get higher accuracy linear motion system.

Frictional deficits are reduced between your elements by restraint effects between the rails and stop and it can withstand high load in virtually any directions.

Assembly of Linear action Guide way

Source: Hiwin linear motion guide way catalog_G99TE13-0809

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L M Guide way with Dimensions

Structure of linear action guide way:

As shown in fig, each uncooked of balls have angle contact 45 degree. Retainer plate has facility to hold the recalculating ball screw which guide linear action guide way in guidelines.

End dish is fastened with the linear action blocks which permit the balls to circulate.

Side seal is put between your row of balls and grease nipple is attached with the finish plate.

Linear movement guide way can achieve precise movement by setting up the section level smaller whenever you can predicated on the requirements and also provide rigidity of the model.

Compare to all or any others traditional slides, co efficient of friction of linear action guide way is 1/50 th.

Advantages of linear movement guide way:

Provide high accuracy

Insufficient lubrications in traditional slides give mistakes in accuracy and reliability and in linear movement guide way frictional contact is rolling contact so it has little wear and for that reason it has extended life.

Due to small frictional level of resistance a small driving a vehicle force required to move the strain and hence it provides high speed of action.

Provide Equal loads capacity in every four direction

Best advantage is the interchangeability of the parts.

Ball Screw:

Ball screw set up for linear motion guide way involves screw and nut products.

Helical threads or grooves provided between nuts and screws and balls are rotate between them.

Ball return system provides the way to come back the balls again which means when ball reach at the end of the nut it return through the go back pipe.

Ball nut products in ball screw assembly determine the tiredness failure in the system and ratios of number of threads in ball nut to the number of threads on ball screw determine the wear out.

By taking into consideration the table length, calculation of X axis and Y axis ball screw length is set.

For our stand our X axis ball screw duration should be 730mm + 200 mm (Breadth for top table) + 100mm allowances for below cover so that it should be 1030mm.

For Y axis table it should be 660mm + 200mm + 100mm so that it should be 960mm.

Based on the ball screw period, rail length is set and which is 50mm larger than ball screw length.

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Ball screw Assembly

Supporting Products:

Ball screw backed bearing were created with the high bearing stiffness compare to other conventional bearing.

Two sorts of supports can be found fixed end support device and reinforced end support unit.

In fixed end support product may take all thrust by given work and in another support end support product acts like common bearing.

Nut bracket is employed to bolt the ball screw nut with the work load platform.

Vertical motion Component:

Vertical motion module comprise of all above components like L M guide way, Tube holder, Ball screw assemble, supporting units, nozzle holder and nozzle etc.

This assembly is used for modification of stand of distance between nozzle and work piece.

C:\Users\Vishal\Desktop\Verticle motion component. jpg

Fixture layout for work piece in Abrasive Plane Machine

As abrasive jet machine can be used for various kind of applications that also cause various fixture layout of work part based on the application.

So not only one application may use for the applications.

Usually Abrasive jet machine requires less fixturing equipment to get start the procedure so combination of different components can be used for particular kind of work.

Fixture is employed to locate the work piece correctly and for quick loading to lessen the machining circuit time.

To prevent undesirable activity or rotation of work part as the work piece is under the procedure.

When work part is under the processes, ruthless of drinking water and abrasive hits on the task piece so it can move around in sideways or lift up those leads to errors.

Most of abrasive jets are being used to make smooth parts or then add features to the prevailing parts. So for any kind of level parts 3 parameters must considered and which are X position, Y- position and viewpoint of rotation with respect to X-Y point.

Figure shows the fixture layout of work part for toned parts using square and clamps.

As shown in body parts are resting on the slats and clamping is provided to avoid the side movement of work part because slats do not provide better support to the task piece.

A square plate is bolted with the fish tank. As shown in fig. Screws which are close to the task piece is a clamping screws and that are far from the task piece for the square to adjust the different width of material. This technique is used to avoid the rotating motion of slats.

Comparison of Abrasive jet Machining process with other Functions:

Abrasive Plane machine Vs LASER Machining:

Comparison with regards to the material can be cut: Abrasive water jet can minimize varieties of materials with good conditions compare to laser machining. For refractory materials, laser beam machining has poor applicability whereas abrasive normal water jet has good applicability for same materials.

Capital cost and abrasive normal water jet create is very low compare to Laser machining.

There is not a heat produce in Abrasive drinking water jet marching so it lessen the thermal distortion of materials also reduce the secondary operation since it provides constant or uniform clean surface with little burr on the surface.

As the width of the task part increase, higher perfection can be obtained by abrasive plane machine with the same or more tolerance than laser beam.

Abrasive water jets are safer compare to laser beam machining and abrasive jet nozzle is very simple than laser however life of nozzle is about 100-150 hours of operation.

However there are some disadvantages from the abrasive water aircraft process while compare with the laser beam machining like tool wear is very low and power ingestion also suprisingly low in laser beam machining as abrasive drinking water jet has little high compare to laser beam.

Abrasive water aircraft machine or Abrasive aircraft machine Vs. EDM.

EDM has low applicability for the material like super alloys whereas abrasive normal water jet machining has good applicability of the same materials.

Abrasive water aircraft machining has service to make piercing in the parts alone while EDM process has required pre drilled gap.

There is not a heat affected area so this process eliminates supplementary operations.

Good capacities to make large parts with inexpensive cost.

Rapid software programming which is very simple and less set up with fixturing get this to machine considerable to buyers.

It could work better in any sort of materials like conductive or non conductive.

If the width of work part is significantly less than the 25mm or 1 inch, abrasive jet machine works five to eight times faster than the EDM but less precise as well.

Abrasive water jets Vs Plasma

Material removal rate efficiency of plasma machining is very low compare to the abrasive water plane machining.

Plasma machining is not preferable to refractory materials while abrasive water jet machining applicable to wide selection of materials.

Abrasive water jet provides better advantage finish off than plasma machining process but plasma machining process is faster than the Abrasive drinking water plane process.

Abrasive water jet Vs. Milling

Milling can be used for rapid production if create has already been done and totally programmed whereas abrasive aircraft machining has rapid programming feature if operator is well trained than create do not required for the part.

Minimal burring problem, less scrap, green, no oil soaked chips are the reasons of abrasive plane machining which exchanging milling process in machine outlets.

Characteristics of abrasive drinking water plane or abrasive jet machine:

This process can be examined based on the following parameters that happen to be described in stand.

Based on applicability of materials:

Process type

Aluminum

Steel

Super alloys

Titanium

Ceramics

Plastics

Glass

AJM or AWJM

Fair

Fair

Good

Fair

Good

Fair

Good

Based on the efficiency of materials removal rate, intake of ability etc. . .

Process Type

Capital cost

Tooling cost

Power consumption cost

Material removal rate

Tool wear

AJM or AWJM

Very low

Low

Low

High

Low

Comparison on the efficiency of material removal rate of different Non Typical processes which identified in Graphs:

Pure normal water jets vs. abrasive water jet nozzle

Type of Nozzle

Structure

Cost

Pure water plane nozzle

No beginning for abrasive, no centering tube, only ruthless stream strikes on work part.

Low cost compare to abrasive nozzle. It costs around $400 to $800

Abrasive plane nozzle

Has Abrasive Inlet to the high pressure water stream, blending tube, mixing of water and abrasive hits on work part.

High cost. It costs around $900 to $1900 because of wear of the mixing pipe and utilization of abrasive.

Selection of Nozzle based on Different materials

Materials

Nozzle for chosen material

Aluminum

Abrasive plane nozzle

Hardened tool steel

Abrasive plane nozzle

Soft rubber

Water jet nozzle

Soft or slim wood

Water aircraft nozzle

Copper

Abrasive plane nozzle

Hard dense wood

Abrasive aircraft nozzle

Titanium

Abrasive aircraft nozzle

Foam

Water aircraft nozzle

Granite

Abrasive plane nozzle

Limitations of Pure water jet Nozzle

Pure water jet nozzle is manufactured with the small hole of orifice so when normal water coming out through orifice with high pressure it may damage the orifice or likelihood of crack arise when the operation is carried on.

If proper and good filtrations are not provided in the create then it could have issue of chocking due to the minerals of this particular or due to the dirty inlet drinking water deposits collect at the exit of nozzle which can disturb the procedure.

Orifice can be modified or easily replaced within the 6 to ten minutes and it is available at very low cost in the market or uses of diamonds orifice minimize this problem but it cost higher than regular orifice.

Limitations of Abrasive Aircraft Nozzle

Orifice has to be properly alignment within the nozzle because high pressure drinking water around 4000 pub impacts on it so improper positioning and wear may damage the orifice.

Course particle or dirty particles in abrasive can create the situation of plugging in focusing tube.

Life of focusing pipe is very short after few time of businesses it needs to be changed.

Future research and development

Since, first model of abrasive plane machine or water plane machine developed, whole lot of improvements have done in its design. Plenty of tests have been done by companies with different variables like different type of abrasives, different standoff distances between nozzle and work piece, and various design of nozzle with different move rates including different aircraft positions.

Many companies is focusing on to reduced the consumptions of water and abrasive in aircraft system with the help of few experiments it has been seen that rectangular form of nozzle can reduced the consumptions of drinking water than the rounded form nozzle.

With the improvements and development in its design, applications of the system also slowly but surely increases like:

Under water rock and roll cutting

Mining, food business, packaging sectors, mining, radial tunnel, drilling wells for natural oils etc. . .

Conclusion

Different applications and performance characteristics pointed out in the task clearly say that Abrasive Jet Machines or Drinking water Plane Machines are continually going to develop. From experiments and other request it has been proved that machine is fully capable to achieve to get correctness any place in between 0. 025mm to 0. 5mm. Development in the program and design make these machines capable for 3D machining so 1 day it will be replaced other manufacturing procedures in machine shop. Ongoing improvements in material technology, pump technology, nozzle life will be make this process more useful in future.

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