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The 5 Whys Tecqnique IT Essay

5 whys approach is important to discover the primary cause of a problem. In the context of quality, 5 whys method is use to enhance the quality of the product and determine the root cause of quality problems. This is really important because if we have no idea clearly about the primary cause of an problem, it is absolutely difficult to find the solutions. We can also define the relationship between different root causes of an issue by using 5 whys technique. 5 whys strategy is so easy and simple to use. Exactly why is it happening? For example, why users are not willing to make use of the machine, why users do not change their security password and so on. 5 whys technique is an effective approach to solve the problem. 5 whys approach originated by Sakichi Toyoda.

Brainstorming technique is intended to produce the many new suggestions to find solution of any problem. Brainstorming is one of important approach in project quality management area because this system can be used to improve the quality of the merchandise by speaking about about existing problems. There are four basic important guidelines in brainstorming. These are concentrate on quality, withhold criticism, pleasant unusual idea and incorporate and improve idea. Brainstorming method was suggested by Alex Faickney Osborn in his book. In IT task, system analyst is accountable to plan a brainstorming treatment. The critical indicators of brainstorming time are as follow.

Which persons to entail and from which practical business areas?

How many visitors to require in the procedure?

Terms of reference for the session

Management involvement

(c) Quality Circle

Quality Circle is an important technique to identify, investigate and discover the answer of problems by grouping the staff from solitary company section. In group, there may be market leaders and nonsupervisors. The purpose of quality circle strategy in IT task is to regulate the product quality problems also to increase the quality of product. Quality Group technique was developed by Kaoru Ishikawa. This system is also used to stimulate the staffs, in order to enhance the company's performance. This system play important role in job quality management.

(d) Pareto Analysis

Pareto Analysis can be handy for decision making of high level managements. Pareto Research is also very important in quality control. Project administrator may use the Pareto research to control the grade of product. Pareto analysis is sometimes known as the 80-20 guideline. For example, 80 % of quality problems are produced by 20% of key causes. If project professionals can analyse this system, the grade of project will be improved upon.

Question 2

(a) Learning Curve Theory

Learning curve theory is important in task cost management area. This mentions that when many items are produced frequently, the unit cost of these items lessens in a regular pattern as more devices are produced. For example, a device cost of one item form the creation of 10 items is more expensive than a device cost of 1 item from the creation of 1000 items because the knowledge of resources were increased when produce 1000 items. That is also related to the 80/20 guideline. Learning curve theory also applies to the quantity of time it requires to complete some duties. For example, when the creator start to do a project, that's not a familiar job and developer don't have experience about this task. Then this job may take lots of time. The next time the developer will that task again to another client; this project does not take too much time because the builder has experience about that project. Project manager can estimate the performance of staffs and allocate the suitable jobs by using learning curve theory.

(b) Sunk costs

Sunk costs are money which may have already been spent in earlier and can't be returned. For instance, you purchased a laptop for 1, 000 dollar, when you resold it you can get the original price. This is important for higher level managements to learn how much money is already put in for a job. Sometime sunk costs weighed against prospective costs that are money for future which may be changed if an action is happened. Sunk Costs is also important in the investment for the information system of an organisation. Most of senior management misunderstand about the sunk costs plus they don't want to stop investing in it. However, sunk costs should be forgotten.

(c) Total Cost of Ownership

Total cost of ownership play important role in the project cost estimating. The main purpose of total cost of possession is to help clients and managers determine tangible and intangible costs of something or system. Project professionals can used total cost of possession to evaluate the full total cost of job development, operation and maintenance including immediate costs and indirect costs. Gartner Group popularized the full total cost of ownership. Microsoft Firm also used the full total cost of ownership to establish that Windows possessed lower total cost of ownership than Linux.

(d) Contingency Reserves

The important of contingency reserves is job administrator can spend the amount of money for the future risks in case for known mysterious incidents, not certain incidents. Contingency Reserve is also important in project cost estimating. Project director should plan about contingency reserve for the future anticipated risks. If a predicted risk occurs in a job development, the contingency reserve can handle that situation, for example, health problems of developers in cold season. That is also an important way of lowering the price for dangers.

Question 3

(a) Email

Email play important role in the task communication area. Nowadays, the majority of businesses are extensively using email as a first communication medium. Email is also very useful in the software development area, especially in the web-based project management applications. Stakeholders can also connect using email. Some of project professionals are controlling the job stakeholders' form various countries by using email, for example, programmers at India, and designers at Australia. It is a bit dangerous for inexperienced task managers. However, everything can be done by using email in project development.

(b) Agendas

Agendas are list of sequence of job team reaching activities. Project team meeting is very important in job development, especially in agile development methods. Project managers are responsible for control the job team conference and agendas. Agendas also play important role in project team meeting. The primary important of an agenda is approximately the issues. The topics set of plan will guide the discourse of meeting and the team can prepare meeting perfectly. With no a good agenda, the team getting together with cannot achieve their goals. Facilitated workshop/ JAD workshop is an integral approach in DSDM. The plan of the workshop play major role in this example because with no a good agenda, the builder, users and key stakeholders can misunderstand about the goals of a workshop.

(c) Minutes

Minutes will be the notes used at a meeting recording about the conversation of assembly. Minutes play important role in job communication area, especially in task team meeting of any project development. Project professionals can review about the assembly by watching the minutes, for example, objectives, conversations, decisions and outputs. By reviewing the conference, the project managers can notify to the mature management about the job. Moreover, the junior managers can be lessons learn about the assignments from minutes. In DSDM workshop, scribes have the duty to record the minutes. The main reason for the minutes in DSDM is usually to be more effective workshops in future; it is useful to keep records of how well the workshop worked.

(d) Intranet

Intranet is a robust tool for the communication associated with an organisation. Additionally it is a powerful way of communication in IT task management. Through the use of intranet, the information of job can share firmly to the task team. The task stakeholders also can discuss about the task by using intranet. The project manager can make new ideas in management by using intranet. The job team can increase efficiency and the quality of product can improve. In addition, project director can also control the project team by using intranet. The intranet is more desirable in large company since it can save lots of time. For example, project team meeting can be carried out by using intranet.

Question 4

(a) Crashing of tasks

Crashing of tasks is vital when job need to complete in less timeframe. For example, when user need task as fast as possible, crashing of tasks can be handy. Moreover, when developing a task, a risk occurs and the project cannot finish in time. In this example, the project manager should use crashing approach. Project managers have responsibility to control the crashing of duties. Project manager can use the crashing of responsibilities by adding more resources to duties or giving overtime payment to the existing resources. This is important for task manager to regulate project time, cost and resources management areas when he/she use this technique.

(b) Program Evaluation and Review Strategy (PERT)

PERT is a project time management strategy that pays to to calculate the duration of large and intricate projects and illustrate the time need to complete the duties included in a project. The purpose of PERT is to plan; timetable and control complicated task. PERT is usually found in blend with critical journey method. PERT can be an important technique in job time management area for job managers. Project professionals can estimate the length of complex task by using PERT approach based on optimistic time, pessimistic time & most likely time. PERT strategy can calculate average duration of time approximately. So job managers can calculate the price tag on the task by knowing the length of time. So this can be an important technique.

(c) SWOT analysis

SWOT examination is important in task tactical planning that is utilized to research the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threads of your project. SWOT evaluation pays to in decision-making for project managers and advanced managements. That is also useful in identification of potential dangers in development of a job. SWOT evaluation can be used in the task configuration management area, for example, what are the advantages, weakness, opportunities and threads if there is a big change in a task. So SWOT analysis is an extremely useful method not only in job time management but also in task risk, construction management and decision making.

(d) Critical path

Critical course is the longest path of the job with the least amount of float or slag. Critical avenue is important in calculating the total length of time of project. However the critical journey is the longest route, it represents the shortest a chance to complete a project. Critical way play essential role in a task. Project manager should monitor the performance of responsibilities on the critical avenue carefully. The purpose is to prevent the late project conclusion. Furthermore, other actions like job crashing should try crashing the duties on the critical course because this is the effective task crashing. There can be one or more critical route in a task. If several critical way in a task, project director must keep his/her sight on most of them.

Question 5

(a) A milestone

A milestone of the project is a substantial event at the end of stages or tasks that usually has zero length of time. In my own experience, milestone can be utilized in project planning and monitoring. For example, there could be a milestone after job analysis level in Gantt graph. Milestones can be two ways, strike or miss. For example, if a task phase finishes before a defined milestone, than we can say hit the milestone. Usually, a project period finish after a precise milestone, so we can say overlooked the milestone. When the situations of milestone skipped, the project director should reconsider the task schedule about to take some activities. Some project professionals place the milestones in the merchandise deliverable or productivity. In my point of view, placing the milestones in the deliverables of product should utilization in DSDM.

(b) The range of the project

In my perspective, the scope of the task is all the activities/functions of task involved with creating the agreed products with user and the refined used to create them. For example, when we are searching for a laptop, we want core i7 processor with memory space 4G and 1G visual card. This is the scope of job. When we establish the scope of an project, we ought to consider time and cost. Just how much we have to spend? And exactly how long it will take to buy it? To demonstrate the scope of any project, we have to create the work breakdown framework because WBS can show the range of the job at length.

(c) Risk Transference

In my estimation, risk transference is a way of reducing the consequences of your risk by relocating to the other external agency. For example, the developers of any development team are sick and tired and they can't do their responsibilities about seven days, so the job can't finish with time. In this example, the project supervisor can gives the jobs to the other alternative party or software house. The job can be finish in agreed time by moving the responsibilities to outside. That is called risk transference. I believe this is also a way of outsourcing. Risk transference can cost more than normal cost because the project needs to finish off in time. However, risk transference can reduce the responsibility of the job team in a bad situation.

(d) Parkinson's Law

In my experience, if there are some buffers in a project, the work can develop as the available time. For example, the available time for a job is 10 times. If the builders work about 8 hours/full time, the project can be done in 5 times. However, the developer work only 4 hours for this task plus they work another 4 time for other tasks. By using Parkinson's Law, not only the task can be carried out in time but also the developer can give times for other project. In my point of view, this laws is a bit dangerous for unfamiliar project. If some dangers occur while expanding, the task cannot finish in time because there is no feeding buffer.

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