Technological progression as a term can be defined as having the ability to improve the quality lifestyle through changing the development process and increasing the amount of creation with fewer resources (Mabry & Sharplin; 1986). This definition is closely linked to the function of using personal computers, robots and so on but any move towards more efficient means of providing services is a technological progression. When one commences with premise that the progressive switch from human-sensitive methods of construction will present a problem in South Africa as a producing country, plain individuals knowledge becomes sufficient as a technological advancement.
Technology varies in its purposes and uses. It has become the backbone of any kind of development initiative in the expanding world. Characterised by efficiency, reliability and cost benefits. Developed countries are best suited better to deal with the negatives that come from the overt use of technology. Their economies are strong enough to manage unemployment and the like.
Often, individuals who fear or are weary of fast evolving technology are known as 'Luddites', this is untrue and grossly inaccurate for the Luddites (circa 1800's) were working but uneducated people who ruined all symbols of evolving technology.
Nobel laureate Wassily Leontief, who provided the keynote conversation for the Country wide Academy of Engineering at its 1983 symposium "The Long-Term Impact of Technology on Occupation and Unemployment, " cannot rather be called a Luddite, yet he portrayed concern in what he saw as scientific advancement's undesired distributional results across income organizations - (Mabry & Sharplin; 1986)
The construction industry is slowly eliminating careers that are human-sensitive. Careers that previously required a strong human presence is now able to be done off-site (precast) and taken to site just to assemble. The careers have become lower skilled and boring. With this in mind, one would feel that there would be more jobs created however the opposite happens, jobs seem to be to be eroding.
The execution of new technology offers the companies a competitive advantage over their competitors at the price tag on jobs. In structure, efficiency is very important. Delays in time mean penalties and this requires more money.
Redundancy caused by breakthroughs in technology has been taking place in the automotive industry where machines have rendered the careers of many humans obsolete and have remaining some fastening bolts for eight hours a day. Within the construction industry, though you will not find a machine laying bricks, there are other materials that are being developed to provide using bricks and blocks outdated. Aluminium beams and columns are actually de-rigueur in architectural circles which will not take long whatsoever to catch up with the industry and it will just be a matter of the time before development gangs of fifty will shrink to ten because of cranes doing all the heavy lifting and then ten men just fastening bolts.
Technological advancement, alone, is an indicator of development in any country. Said growth should not prevent the progress of the country by setting up a poverty trap. A growing country has a few defining characteristics, defined below:
- Majority living below the poverty line
- Subject to monetary inequality
- Inequality in the working environment
As technology advances further and further it hinders growth through promoting the utilizing methods that are not human-sensitive.
The role of South Africa's history
2. 1 History
Colonialism played a role in today's problems South Africa faces. To understand how technology influences employment, we need to have a clearer understanding of how we surely got to where we could from a developmental point of view. Colonisers occupied the country and divided the country geographically to make it more workable. They then developed city centres and these city centres became monetary hubs in their regions. Through the 1886 Witwatersrand Gold Rush, employment was created for the natives. Many natives left their homelands to work in the Gauteng mines. The locations close to the mines held flourishing as there became a dependence on other industries to support the influx of natives and wealthy mine owners to the mining locations. The homelands continued to be underdeveloped. Many years later, rural areas are still underdeveloped and creating employment in those areas is hard because there are extremely few economic development initiatives.
2. 1. 1 Migration to the metropolitan areas.
As aforementioned, the movements of many natives off their homelands for employment in the mining places remaining many homelands underdeveloped. The lure of employment opportunities in a quickly developing country proved to be problematic. W. W Rostow (circa 1960), cited by Utting (2011; Development Management IV: Course Notes; 189:190) discussed the modernization ideas of development. The root principle of this modernization theory was that economical development was important to the entire development of any culture. Economic development is South Africa seemed to be occurring in the mining metropolitan areas only and not in the rural areas.
2. 1. 2 Outcome of migration.
As men kept to work in the towns, they left their families at home. Family members that were uneducated and got no other means of income and mainly made a living through farming. Formal education was, and for the most part is just a fallacy to people residing in rural areas. This is setting up a problem because similarly; low-skill level jobs are being computerized, on the other palm; you have many folks from the rural areas to arrive with little-to-no education looking for job. This contributes to creating what's termed a poverty capture.
2. 1. 3 Previously Disadvantaged Individuals
People of coloring were oppressed through the unjust reign of apartheid which officially began in the election of 1948 and lasted until 1994. For the reason that time, people of coloring were oppressed atlanta divorce attorneys way imaginable. The finish of apartheid caused great elation and spelled the end of the oppressive program, we also adopted many problems from there. For instance, the challenge of unemployment. A complex issue that does not have any solitary solution. The previously disadvantaged individuals, i. e. people of shade in South Africa, are now looking to 'keep-up' with the developed world. The problem is the means that are taken to develop South Africa further. The methods which utilize an excessive amount of technology will widen the gap between your wealthy and poor. The recently disadvantaged will be left destitute and with hardly any opportunities to build up themselves let alone along with the country.
2. 1. 4 Responding to the problem of inequality
Government implemented Black color Economic Empowerment (BEE), which has now become Large Based Dark colored Economic Empowerment (BBBEE), to help the development of PDI's. Federal also put an insurance plan set up that was set to handle inequalities in the workplace by giving construction companies a BEE position. This meant that a certain portion of the workforce needed to be made up of PDI. This, of course, is a step in the right route towards dealing with inequalities at work.
An overwhelmed Government
Decades after the 1886 Gold Hurry, present Administration still feel the effects of mass migration to the locations. Change of politics regime caused new issues for Government. Both most important:
Creating Jobs: Job creation isn't particularly the responsibility of Federal. They are likely to create an environment that supports and encourages job creation. Presently, graduates form a lot of the unemployed in South Africa. Homelands remain under-developed which doesn't seem to be changing. Regulations to handle the unemployment and subsequent poverty problem in rural areas are attended to by issuing plans. The trouble with guidelines is these are therapeutic, generic and don't address the situation of every rural area on the case by circumstance basis. Another problem with procedures is that they are developed by people who do it remotely so they do not know the actual problem, on the floor.
Adequate Housing: Housing has is problems especially in cities surrounding big cities like Durban and Johannesburg. The RDP programme was developed for this function. Independent contractors tender and build the home. Unfortunately, many contractors don't fulfil their responsibility. The issue doesn't get better and we see violent service delivery protests. The tender process in itself is intensely flawed and marred by politics interference and problem.
2. 2. 1 Inability to create jobs.
As aforementioned, the existing Government is struggling to set-up job or somewhat failing to create an environment that promotes job creation. According to the World Lender (2011), Local Economic Development (LED) identifies the collective efforts between Authorities and non-governmental organizations to create an environment that is conducive to both economic growth and occupation. In essence, LED supplies the community ways to boost their chances of getting investment from exterior resources and their own business environment. The aim is to create a better life for any. Rural communities don't have a lot of this taking place and the target must move towards decentralization.
The attention of rural development insurance policy makers in urban areas is also to the detriment of rural areas. The utter distance causes misappropriation of funds and resources and this keeps the rural areas underdeveloped. Top-down centralized policies rarely attain their goals because the coverage designers aren't anchored in the rural reality on the ground (International Labour Office; 2012)
2. 2. 2 Critical analysis of the tender process
The sensitive process was primarily meant to start opportunities for people of coloring to type in the business world and trade. Sadly, the sensitive process is marred by problem and political interference which in counter-productive and robs the people it was meant to assist in the first place.
The process begins by realising a dependence on a service in a specific community and then mailing that particular task out to tender with various contractors who then send back their estimates of how much it would cost to create the mandatory infrastructure. The corruption commences when the tenderers start bribing officers to provide them the agreement. All too often the contractors themselves are incompetent and finish up breaching deals.
The reason for their incompetency can be credited to having less knowledge. Most new contractors haven't any formal training and make very few efforts at getting sufficient training and the circuit keeps ongoing.
The process itself is not flawed; the problem is with monitoring it. There is not an independent body that monitors the tendering process which contributes to corruption and steps back as a nation. Monitoring, or shortage thereof, is not the primary solution to problem because corruption is prevalent in every growing countries.
Lack of an effective educational platform in rural areas
Bantu Education was founded to give people of colour the most basic education. A way to create more 'muscle for the machine' that was apartheid. The composition was in a way that skills development made area of the institution curriculum. Students who still left the organization of Bantu Education kept with skills and could go start looking for work immediately after. Universities were reserved for Whites only.
In rural areas however, school infrastructure was few and considerably among. As South Africa developed and established itself as a source of mineral prosperity many moved in to the urban areas (See, Chapter 1) and remaining the rural areas as they were. Rural areas haven't any monetary development, chances for employment are slim. Regardless of whether businesses are motivated, their longevity is cut short because there is no Local Monetary Development.
Schools in rural areas do not, even today, receive enough resources to instruct. School structures are of dirt block engineering. The chaos that comes from there can only just be thought when the rainy season starts off. The training system in South Africa is not at its most stellar even as saw through the Limpompo Textbook Fiasco (M. Madia, 2012).
This subsequently creates problems when the students created from rural academic institutions are thrust into a world that requirements a good knowledge of technology and pliable thoughts. The students, from the background without knowledge of computers and the like will wrap up looking for job that will require a low-skill level.
On the other end of the range, employers want for ways to increase production without affecting earnings. On a building site, having concrete delivered, as opposed to blending it on site, will save time and consequently saves money.
Lower-skill careers are slowly becoming redundant and the training system in rural areas isn't maintaining the demand for technology savvy prospects. Because of this, a cesspool of unemployment and everything it holds many other social problems such as criminal offenses and problem. Desperation can destroy you.
Language obstacles (equipment use)
Communication is essential on site for everyone operations to continue. The language hurdle between employer and employee makes the staff less appealing for employment. Employees from rural areas are often not well versed in dialects either than their home-language.
Similarly with equipment use, employers wouldn't utilize someone with a minimal knowledge of the vocabulary of education. Besides that being truly a health and safeness risk, it wouldn't be beneficial and training would take much longer than it will.
Misunderstandings on site (equipment use)
Any type of misunderstanding on site has a financial repercussion. With this in mind, employers avoid workers with little-to-no understanding of the vocabulary of teaching.
There is an obvious disconnection between your education section in rural areas and the mandatory calibre of graduates. Therefore leads to students via that system to be 'left behind'. When that happens and the very students are placed into something that requires a certain degree of knowledge, knowledge that they lack. Eventually, these people tolerate the grunt of job displacement because of the advantages of technology and/or automation.
The way construction assignments are completed has changed dramatically. Change is frequent and will not stop as humans develop further and additional. From the times of the great Pharaohs, where heavy materials were rolled on logs, to provide day where heavy materials are hauled into the air with cranes.
4. 1 Advancement of Methods
Traditional development was of mass cement. The older buildings like the Durban Train station were of mass concrete and required many labourers to create shutters, blending concrete and pouring. Combining of concrete was done on site. Technological breakthroughs shifted towards using central concrete depots and having concrete delivered to site. The goal of technological progress is to increase creation while utilizing the least amount of resources. To a very large level it is good, the situation begins when technology innovations at the expense of peoples jobs.
Project planning has become more streamlined and can be maintained by an individual instead of be an entire team. Task planning in South Africa has captivated a great amount of attention within the last few years because of its association with infrastructure. As South Africa builds up further, infrastructure will be required. Many construction projects are intricate and required clubs to control them, over time computer programmes were developed and controlling large jobs became easier.
Technology has afforded us the opportunity to much with very little resources. It has additionally created a situation where those who do not take up are left behind. This is well and good in a developed state but South Africa is a developing country with a 25% unemployment rate and threatening to develop as increasingly more technology has been introduced into the industry. The industry itself will do better, productivity will increase but many people will be permanently displaced, in terms of job.
The planning of assignments will eventually be managed by an individual by using a computer programme. The option of jobs will decrease as companies need fewer visitors to run successful projects.
Building materials aren't exempt from breakthroughs. There's been a motion from mass cement, to brick and block and now were in age steel and goblet construction. The movements from one age to another has an undesirable effect on work. Presently, steel and glass structure needs simply a few men and a crane. A shift in the paradigm of building.
Construction materials have become lighter while keeping their durability. Materials like fibreboard are actually common place in office buildings.
Even materials that always were the heaviest, like cement, have had their share of technological growth. Air-infiltrated concrete is lighter than standard concrete. The secret is in the air bubbles that are trapped within the concrete that make it lighter while which makes it a bit much easier to work with. This particular type of concrete is strong enough to take the plenty of normal concrete but can even be used as a cantilever slab (with reinforcing).
With the paradigm move of development materials, precast items have become more prevalent. From lintels in personal construction to whole floor slabs in commercial property. A transfer that has brought about increased productivity. Cement pouring and curing is the most frustrating exercise on site and having that point saved means saving cash too.
The problem, again, with such an progress is how it impacts employment. Concrete combining, as a low-skill level job, utilized a number of labourers (proportional to size of task) and with concrete mixing up being removed from equation, many are kept jobless.
The biggest hurdle is having less training initiatives for personnel which may have been displaced credited to automation. They are simply left unemployed and unemployment causes other communal problems.
According to the Education and Training Product of South Africa (2012), globalisation refers to the changes in technical, political and monetary that make the world different in its working to just how it was twenty or thirty years ago. The proof of globalisations can be seen in the emergence of giant businesses with branches all around the globe.
Globalisation forces developing nations to adapt their structures to be able to match those of the developed countries. All of this to help expanding nations secure loans to help their flailing economies.
BusinessDictionary. com identifies globalisation as a movements towards integration of many areas of trade. In the same vein, each goes to say that globalisation threatens weaker economies when applied discriminately.
Keeping up with the earth.
Even though South Africa has mineral wealth, it continues to be an emerging market. The reason behind this is the colonial record of South Africa (Make reference to Chapter 2). The international markets play a role in how development in South Africa is carried out. This is where politics come into play.
P. Kingsworth in his article "Globalisation of South Africa" describes the conditions under which the destiny of common South African's would be managed by international markets. After the failing of the Reconstruction & Development Plan (RDP) in 1996, the Progress Career and Redistribution program (Items) was set-up for taking its place.
The difference between Products and RDP was that; where RDP promised free basic services, Items privatised resources and would expenses all users. Some of these users live below the poverty series. Rapid advancements in technology threaten jobs and yet the poorest of the poor must still pay for services.
Global movements to employers.
To employers, global developments dictate the way they should respond to the existing market. Technological improvements give them an advantage of the opposition and that advantage equals more revenue. As crude as it may seem, revenue is the bottom-line to most, if not absolutely all, employers.
Globalisation has afforded employers an opportunity to compete on an international scale. Increased connection with international market segments offers them the choice of showcasing their services abroad. To become able to satisfy international demand, they have to automate systems. That is clearly a factor that causes job loss.
With globalisation losing hot at the heels of a developing South Africa, computer programs come as part of the globalisation package. It was an inevitable move and the one which was greatly needed in conditions of development.
Computer programmes don't directly have an impact on low-skill employees, it's a challenge that will face the ones that haven't been released to computer programmes in School. Again, the highlight of the clear disconnect between your industry and the education system. Many graduates show up into the chasm unbeknown to them, with hardly any help from the industry and Universities.
CCS - For contractors
CCS or the Candy system is a pc programme that is specifically targeted at making the job of a contractor manageable. A service provider with many tasks going on at the same time will need a computer programme that will integrate forecasting, estimating, valuations and project planning. The look of the Candy system is so that it can be understood by anyone with an understanding of building.
Corruption has created a distorted view of contractors. It is an over-all view that lots of companies cannot manage projects and for that reason cannot control cash. Quantity surveyors are usually hired to help them control funds for contractors. Programmes like CCS have now given smaller companies with the option of being able to control their own assignments and therefore their own cash without requiring a variety surveyor to do the work for the kids.
WinQS for Professional Amount Surveyors
WinQS is a program designed more for professional volume surveyors as it offers an in-depth user interface that will require a amount surveying backdrop. WinQS can produce complete bills of quantities because it has JBCC deals within the programme itself. On a consultation with Steve Naidoo (2012; August 5th), he discussed the great help that came with the launch of personal computers. Doing charges on chart paper and needing to transfer them great ranges, as opposed to emailing, has made work a lot easier.
Consulting companies will employ the utilization of WinQs more generally. A business that used many amount surveyors will need fewer with the launch of such programs. The results of automation are clear in South Africa. People are losing jobs and not enough has been doing to improve small enterprises. What is being done has been overshadowed by corruption while the fate of South Africa's young ones dangles helplessly in the face of poverty and a bunch of other public problems.
I have preferred two cases that we felt were highly relevant to focus on my growing concerns about the problems that include technological developments. I cannot refuse the great leaps we've taken by making use of technology. The catch is how these leaps have a tendency to take developing countries back again a few steps, specially when coupled with international pressure (via Globalisation, see Chapter 6).
The first example highlights advantages proposed by technology and its advancements, it also highlights the change and exactly how it would impact a developing region.
The Ark Hotel, China
The Comprehensive Group, a structure company located in China, could create a 30 Storey building in only 15 days and nights. The fastest construction of an hotel. What was amazing was how there have been zero accidents. The hotel itself was designed and built to withstand an earthquake with a magnitude of 9 on the Richter scale.
Building materials were all prefabricated and brought to site to be constructed. This may be the secret to their "Super-fast electric power" as it was dubbed in the United kingdom DailyMail (2012). The movements to precast and prefabricated materials is really as inescapable as the first steps of a healthy young child. South Africa, as the young child, is expected to start out running before it recognizes how to walk.
The Ark Hotel, was built such as a structure made of Legos. All of the 'portions' were made and fabricated off-site and taken to site to be assembled by the few specialists and a crane.
Construction such as this in a developing country could cripple it. In countries where the construction industry utilizes the most people, a move towards using prefabricated material could be devastating not only in the short-term however in the long-term too.
Sanral has undertaken to build open-road tolling for road users in Gauteng. The network will be 560km's covering 34 of Gauteng's busiest interchanges the most infamous being; Allandale, William Nicol, Rivonia and Elands.
The reason that E-Tolling was presented is to fund the improvements of streets. The tolling will be based over a 'user-pay' system. It will become essential to get an E-Tag for the automobile that'll be transporting passengers and on a monthly basis a statement will reach your doorstep, detailing your daily commute through the number of tolls on the way to your destination.
This system could be rolled out throughout the entire country. According to Sanral (2012), only 19% of the countries streets are tolled roads, the rest of the 81% aren't tolled roads. The reality is that the amount of money that is manufactured out of the tolled streets is insufficient to execute maintenance on roads.
The system will be unmanned and so starts the challenge. The individuals who were applied will now be jobless as tolls will no longer need people to collect monies. That is yet another example of how technology is making people redundant.
One cannot help but be in awe of the great technological jump, the same scientific leap is at once robbing folks of jobs and yet again bring the situation of unemployment to the fore.
In conditions like we were holding it is one power reigning supreme over the nation, a solution cannot be hired. Resolutions can however be offered. These recommendations are at the mercy of reviewing and modification.
Using human-sensitive methods on site that don't count heavily on the use of machinery.
The human source of information is numerous and green. Employers in South Africa ought to be looking into by using readily available reference. It might be argued that machines do not take sick-days, that's acceptable but machines will never be the ones using your project upon conclusion. We are developing a society we cannot manage. 25% of the population is unemployed and as more technology is being introduced more folks will lose their jobs towards automated systems.
Site work can be executed by labourers rather than machines. Simple tasks like batch concrete mixing can be executed by labour rather than machines and become delivered to site.
The problem is not just one dimensional; for occasion, a contractor has a need to keep a wholesome blast of work to arrive as a result of corrupt characteristics of the construction industry where certain celebrations are earmarked for careers. In this case, the contractor will be hoping to turn a earnings on every job and a proven way of doing that is by always completing jobs promptly, he does this by having an inferior team that uses specialist technology to help complete jobs quickly and usually under-budget. He helps to keep his business afloat and doesn't utilize many.
Government rules. *
The problem facing South Africa is the corrupt characteristics of our market leaders. Technology offers a more impressive range of development while neglecting the steps taken up to reach that level of productivity. Technology makes humans redundant and authorities appreciates but is benefitting through the use of technology. Technology entrenches the divisions of the past by keeping the privileged utilized and the rest of the country in close closeness of poverty. Perhaps, the only real difference between present day and apartheid is that those that can adapt and use technology stand a better chance of working over the ones that very little understanding of technology and how it works. Regrettably, those that contain a limited understanding of technology form a lot of the country's inhabitants.
The onus is therefore on Administration to regulate how technology is introduced and integrated in the construction industry in South Africa before we are faced with a predicament where the poor have nothing at all to eat however the rich.
Training of individuals and succeeding employment
The best way to get an improved labor force is by training them. During Apartheid, skills-training was an integral part of the institution curriculum. That aspect of the curriculum must get back to solve South Africa's skills lack.
The only difference is working out will be for specific business. Science and technology, research and development, remedies and anatomist are fields that require younger thinkers. It looks like our education system is amassing an army of entrepreneurs that contain no notion of how to control their businesses. Small company fail because of mismanagement.
The use of individuals as a source can even be regarded as a technological advancement because with enough training, efficient ways of having responsibilities out are unavoidable.
Education and Training Product of South Africa; 2012; Understanding Globalisation (Online); offered by www. etu. org. za ; Utilized 26 August 2012
Kingsnorth, P; 2004; The globalisation of South Africa (Online); offered by uk. oneworld. net; Seen 26 August 2012
Mackenzie, C; 2012; They're now a super-fast vitality: The way the Chinese built a 30 storey hotel from nothing in only fifteen days and nights (Online); available at www. dailymail. co. uk ; Reached 27 August 2012
Sabol, L; 2007; Technology, Change, and the building industry (Online); available at http://www. dcstrategies. net/files/2_sabol_technology_change. pdf; Utilized 27 August 2012
Mabry, R. H, Sharplin, A. D; 1986; Does more technology create unemployment? (Online); available at http://www. cato. org/publications/policy-analysis/does-more-technology-create-unemployment; Seen 24 August 2012
International Labour Office; 2012; Enhancing Local Economies in rural areas (Online); offered by www. ilo. org/led; Accessed 15 August 2012
European Technology & Technology Observatory; 2002; Impact of technical & structural change on job: prospective research 2020 (Online); available at http://www. mcrit. com/espon_scenarios/files/DOCUMENTS/eur20258en. pdf; Accessed 18 August 2012
Kletzer, L. G; 1998; Job Displacement (Internet pages 115-136) (Online); available at http://www. jstor. org; Reached 10 August 2012
Talbot, D; 2012; Tectonic Shifts in Employment (Online); available http://www. technologyreview. com; Utilized 12 August 2012
Moavenzadeh, Fred, Koch Rossow, J. A; 1975; The structure industry in growing countries (Online); offered by http://pdf. usaid. gov/pdf_docs/PNAAP424. pdf; Accessed 14 August
One cannot refuse just how technology has helped the earth move from power to strength. Improving upon relations between nations and enhancing chances for investment and export. Technology has made it super easy to carry out business as meetings can be presented with people on different continents.
The other part is how scientific advancements hinder the development of developing nations. Globalisation is one aspect of how expanding countries are disadvantaged because of technology. Producing countries are placed in situations where they need to conform to certain rules set down by developed countries in order to permit trade between the countries. This disregards the way the changes will have an impact on the country and its inhabitants. Developing countries are therefore at the mercy of the developed ones. It becomes a polite way of colonisation.
The praises for technology are excellent but technology also offers negatives, negatives that should not be ignored for they create are much larger threat than it appears.