Team Dynamics Against Tuckmans Team Development Model Management Essay

Socio-economy changes lately specifically in Asia, business lead to the demand and upkeep of knowledge relentlessly important to guarantee the socio-economy improvements and improvements are undertaken expertly and efficiently relating to regulations, framework, guidelines as well as code of ethics of the professional or academic bodies. Together with the support of advanced technology, various educational and professional training programs have been developed by professional body and universities to meet the demand of knowledge acquisition and provide stations to working experts and also students to obtain knowledge to face with the task of progress.

Distance learning program has since been make possible and effectively provided with the option of communication tools such as internet, e-mails, electric community forums (blog), videoconferencing, boards, instant messaging and etc. However successful conveyance of such programs on the completion where credit is based on participation of the participants and distribution of individual and team tasks or assignments, personal dedication and vigor as well as effective teamwork are the fundamental to have success.

Towards the end of 3rd one fourth 2009, I was presented with the possibility to embark on a training program that brings about project management qualification with AACE. Working out program was part of development program that was sponsored by the business concerning acquire necessary and professional knowledge and understand how in neuro-scientific project management that will substantially improve and support the grade of service delivery. It had been also my own intention to acquire knowledge in job management and task leadership.

The program must have completed by end 1st 1 / 4 2010. However, the embarkation on the first face for the training as well as recognition process was leading to unsuccessful closing that none of them of the team member or participant able to complete this program as well as the official certification. The team was then dissolved in February and was then merged with another team which commenced working out in mid February 2010 to form an enlarged team to complete the training and qualification process.

Throughout the process of the training program with two different teams, the author got the chance to observe different leadership that can result in the success and inability of this program. The demonstration of the paper will discuss on the formation of both team and the improvement and development throughout the complete program. The first team will be called as Team A and the second team that was formed in Feb will be called as Team B.

Using Tuckman's Forming, Storming, Performing, Adjourning model as well as XYZ and LMNOP solutions, the writer will attempt to analyze what management decisions? Styles? Solutions? Were used which allowed Team B to be more successful than Team A.

3. DISTANCE EDUCATION Program - corresponding stage of Team Development

AACE program designed and planned by PTMC was an 8 day training curriculum, spread over approximately 22 weeks with merged two Face-to-Face periods and Distance Learning Mode program designed to prepare career journey professionals in Project or Program Management to earn their Authorized Cost Specialist/Cost Engineer (CCC/E) and/or related credentials.

[Cite: PTMA AACE program preparatory email]

The members of this program were the experienced pros with educational and professional skills as basic requirement of the program. They can be coming from various industries including mining industry, coal and oil, IT, telecommunication, constructions and the program well serve as a platform to share tactics and knowledge in respected industries. The members were necessary to form a team and sub-team to provide the deliverables of the training programs using project management strategy within the durations of this program.

The design and the move of the training had recently been providing as the platform for teaming process with each and every stage of the program correspond to teaming levels of Tuckman's teaming model.

Preparatory mail Teaming planning, virtual formation

First face-to-face learning treatment Forming

Distance learning method Storming, Norming and Performing

Sub-team: Forming, Norming & Performing

Final face-to-face procedure Undertaking and Adjournment

Teamwork is essential to bring to the success of the program, however leadership as well as maturity as a specialist of the participant as well as understanding each others background well play bigger role in ensuring the proceeding of this program was professionally influenced.

1There are apparent advantages of teamwork and the advantages of teamwork are incredibly relevant especially in the framework of distance education programs and become more significant.

It enabled fulfillment of tasks with any quality and efficiency

Distribution of work or reduced workload

Problem solving and decision making

Management and control of work

Information processing

Information and idea collection, stimulate new ideas

Co-ordination and liaison, to focus on what I'm proficient at while learning new skills

Increasing commitment and involvement

It facilitates alternatives when things don't go as planned

Negotiation and conflict resolution

Encourages learning in one another

Having said with the huge benefits and features of teamwork, there are still much to do to build a team that can work effectively and achieve common goals where iterative process along the stage of team development take place that will require certain management skill to breakthrough the situation and move the team ahead particularly during the distant learning function where intense skills needs to be proven to ensure team are continue.

4. Bruce Tuckman's team-development model

Forming - Storming - Norming - Performing is a style of team development, first suggested by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who managed that these phases are all necessary and inevitable for the team to expand, to handle up to obstacles, to tackle problems, to find alternatives, to plan work, also to deliver results. He added a fifth stage, Adjourning, in the 1970s. The Forming Storming Norming Undertaking theory is an chic and helpful justification of team development and behavior

Tuckman's model explains that as the team grows maturity and capability, relationships establish, and the leader changes control style. You start with a directing style, moving through instruction, then participating, concluding delegating and almost detached.









Figure 1: Bruce Tuckman's 'Forming Storming' Team Development Levels Model - 1965

4. 1 Attribute of each level

Forming Stage:

Forming stage is where the team is highly disoriented has high dependence for information and direction. In the case of the training process, the trainer will be the de-facto business lead of the program. Since this is a combined training program with classroom and distance training as well as that specific team member needs to take part as a project team in order to learn more experientially, team lead as Program Director has to be selected.

At this level of the team, the team has little agreement on team seeks apart from received from innovator or training facilitator. Aside from individual purpose of participating in the training, specific roles and duties within the team are unclear. Head, program director as well as the training facilitator who's the de-facto program administrator, must be prepared to answer lots of questions about the team's goal, objectives and external relationships. Processes tend to be ignored. Members test tolerance of system and leader. Leader directs

Storming Level:

At this stage of the teaming, decision will not come easily within group. Associates vie for position as they try to establish themselves in relation to other team members and the first choice, who might acquire challenges from associates. Clarity of goal increases but a lot of uncertainties persist. Cliques and factions form and there could be power challenges. The team needs to be centered on its goals to avoid becoming distracted by interactions and mental issues. Compromises may be asked to enable progress. Head coaches at this time of the teaming stage.

Norming level:

Agreement and consensus is basically forms among team, who react well to facilitation by leader. Roles and duties are clear and accepted. Big decisions are created by group agreement. Smaller decisions may be delegated to individuals or small teams within group. Dedication and unity is strong. The team may engage in fun and communal activities. The team discusses and develops its procedures and working style. There is certainly general esteem for the leader plus some of leadership is more distributed by the team. Leader facilitates and enables

Performing level:

The team is more strategically aware; the team understands plainly why it does what it does. The team has a distributed vision and can stand alone feet with no interference or contribution from the leader. There is a concentrate on over-achieving goals, and the team makes most of the decisions against conditions agreed with the leader. The team has a higher degree of autonomy. Disagreements appear but now these are resolved within the team favorably and necessary changes to techniques and structure are created by the team. The team is able to work towards reaching the goal, and also to attend to romantic relationship, style and process issues along the way. Team members look after one another. The team requires delegated jobs and tasks from the leader. The team doesn't need to be instructed or assisted. Team members might ask for assistance from the leader with personal and social development. Innovator delegates and oversees

Adjourning level:

Tuckman's fifth stage, Adjourning, is the break-up of the group, preferably when the duty is completed efficiently, its purpose fulfilled; everyone can move to new things, being good about what's been achieved. From an organizational point of view, acceptance of and sensitivity to people's vulnerabilities in Tuckman's fifth level is helpful, especially if people of the group have been strongly bonded and feel a feeling of insecurity or danger from this change. Emotions of insecurity would be natural for folks with high 'steadiness' traits.

4. 2 Floor rules - Team agreement

By embarking on the training program to truly have a virtual or distance learning team set up, there must be ground rules that governing the team. This set of ground rules serve as the arrangement to be authorized and endorsed by the associates as guiding rule for the participant to adhere to and also empowerment to this program manager of this program to exercise the energy which was given to him to guarantee the success of the team towards the target as outlined in the team agreement.

The program director was picked from the participants to lead the whole team to complete the deliverables of working out program. He is empowered to exercise the team agreement as and when there were dispute among participants to transport on with the task in hand. That is to guarantee the success of the team throughout the whole proceeding of the program. Team agreement is the foundation or foundation for the team to operate and function as a team.

The content of the team arrangement include (appendix 1):

Vision and mission

Values and team performance and objectives

Definition of success

Performance measurement

Expectation from the team

Administrative procedure

Rules and rewards

4. 3 Participants Preparatory for the training program - Teaming Preparation

Preparatory information was directed by the organizer for the supposed individuals for enrolment sign up as well as preparation for the programs. Effective communication on course requirements performs an important part in getting the participants to be ready for the intense requirement of the program. Working out on professionalism and reliability and commitment of the participant is in fact commenced at this stage where the individuals are required to commit skillfully as required by the program for the determination of commitment to complete the program's deliverables. In fact at this time of your time, the team was developed virtually.

4. 4 Face-to-face learning function (week 1) - Forming and Storming

It was a five days workshop conducted at the start of the training program which using a "practical" workshop materials, intended to convert the concepts, principals and theories identified by the Relationship for the Improvement of Cost Anatomist as "Recommended Practices" into "true to life" application. The objective of the program is to leave the individuals with enough knowledge to apply Project Control, Monitoring and Evaluation Tools, Techniques and Methods appropriate to the needs and maturity of the business, in a manner that will ensure success in competitive markets, by looking

During this session of the program, individuals from various countries and companies were achieved in a training venue where in fact the program was facilitated by way of a trainer with tools and training materials of this program.

Participants were shown with the mark and targets of day to day activities as well as training materials on project management strategy and project leadership throughout the five times program. Team which was formed nearly when the individuals enrolled in the program will will have the majority of the participant to meet with each others and to understand each others background as well as purpose of joining the program. Significant characteristics of certain individuals will be turning up and can eventually be volunteered to take up activity and leadership role to run the program, At this point of time, the team will bodily shaped and certain individuals will take up responsibility to lead in the smaller group for deliverables as required by the program.

Figure 2: Test Project organization chart for the training program

As compare to team B, team A experienced a comparatively easy forming level as almost all of participants were within the classroom period. There have been some clarifications have to be carried out to receive the verification of the individuals like the ones who didn't turn up for the class room session if most of them will be taking part all the way until the completion of the program.

As for Team B, the task was relatively challenging due to the fact that is the bigger team developed with the merger of Team A as well as associates from prior programs with the team from new procedure. Not all of them participated in the first face-to-face procedure, this has become challenging for the team business lead and the program facilitator to check out up for involvement from previous treatment. Not all the duty was assigned to all the participants and the assignment can only be done subsequently with huge commitment in expense.

4. 5 DISTANCE EDUCATION Function (week 2 - week 21) - Storming, Norming and Performing

Distant learning mode took place right after the face to face session. This period of the training is the most challenging part of the training where dedication and professionalism and reliability of the associates are significantly needed disregard if the binding team arrangement in place. In this stage of training requires the members are required to produce 4 deliverables in this stage of the program-

1) Write a 2, 500 expression long newspaper, in English, of publishable quality. The professional paper is the necessity to take the CCE/CCC exam. The paper produced during the distant learning will be examined twice and graded during the final review program. For member whom will be taking other examinations such as EVP and PSP will be exempted from the newspaper however are required to submit a report as with a every week blog to record on improvement on what have been discovered and applied specifically at the job.

2) To solve or assess the answers to some 300 problems or questions from Engineering Economy 14th Edition and Humphrey and Affiliates' Project Management using Received Value, this will be achieved as a team exercise that led by the project manager just as Figure 2.

3) The task particularly the job control team must create a proper cost and learning resource loaded plan showing how the team plan to produce the expected deliverables within the time framework allowed, at the targeted quality level and keep an eye on and article your progress every week using Earned Value Management by establishing and keeping a task dashboard reporting system. For the situation of the training, Excel agenda, tracking and reporting sheet was used to report and track the progress of each participant as well as producing routine and cost performance for the complete team.

4) Match the various tools and techniques to the detailed functions predicated on Total Cost Management Construction First Model. The answers will include the inputs necessary, tools and techniques included and the outputs.

Figure 3: Sample record from "Team A" - Week 11 (Half way make of the program)

Figure 4: SPI and CPI for "Team A" - Week 11

Referring to find 3 and 4, based on the SPI and CPI in the survey, the team was not fully accomplishing yet even it is already at 11th week of the program of 22 week. Out of the total number of participant of the team, only about 60% of these were either ahead of schedule or somewhat behind schedule, the rest of the team were either quite definitely behind routine or not started out at all. Team rules should have been exercise to terminate those who weren't progressing well if support needed or terminated from the team. By detatching those whom were not progressing, the 60% of the team member had been a carrying out team predicated on the deliverables dependence on the program.

Based on the evaluation on performance of 60% of the team member for a performing team, the team has gone this very good with a series of storming and norming. The storming and norming level was rather easy as there were self starter specifically in the job control team that worked on to produce the entire reporting tools for this program. This has very much to do with the teaming and dedication and control of the control team as well as the program lead that managed to get happened. This has regarding the foundation arranged during the forming of the team that all the roles possessed already been described prior to the team time for their home bottom part to continue the distance learning setting.

Both teams, whole team, had not really achieved the stage as carrying out team. There have been individuals which performed behind timetable as planned. As for Team A, only 60% of the team members consider to be performing predicated on SPI reported just as week 11 and consequently disbanded when it come to the milestone to subscription for exam. Team B gets the has the similar position, however has since been progressing well with the lowering and resignation of non-performance team members and also directive from program supervisor to focus on more important and immediate issues such as clarification intense follow-up on exams selected as well as necessary surface work necessary for the supposed exam to be studied that make the team more intact and focus to carry on further with the reduced team size.

4. 6 Last face-to-face review period - Performing and Adjournment

During the final review program, the team will be sitting down benchmark exam as well as last review of newspaper and also deliverables as required by working out facilitator. This is actually the session to create the pace for the exam which the participant enrolled in. Team A did not come so far to this level for final stage and disbanded couple of weeks shortly before this. The critical mile stone was 60 days before final treatment where all the participants need to choose the certification that he/she would like to stay for.

As for Team B, it was progressing well as the point that we am organizing the paper. However, gleam risk for the complete team with reduced team member after the resignation of non-performance associates going for final face-to-face session due very much to the plan of the designed certifications taken by the respective participants differ among each other. Nevertheless, the attention and focus put on until this level is paving a right route for the team to at least go for the documentation that the participant leading to.

5. 0 Effective teaming factors

There are apparent challenges to form and lead a working team, even if the team is collocate physically within a training room or office throughout the whole procedure for training. Moreover the training will involve distant learning setting that individualistic or individual behavior towards the whole proceeding enter into play which could affect the performance of the complete team. To lead a team has little understanding on the member's backdrop can be an uphill process for the leader. Advanced communication technology won't assure the team is working except the individual that take part in the training stretch out and add within the context of the training which makes this an effective training experience.

5. 1 Participants' background check/assessments for genuine purpose

Understanding the participant qualifications is one of the crucial steps to form a team as though the participant can or will feel the process as required by this program. The participant need to undergo an diagnosis if he's qualified academically or appropriately for this program or not, the participant have to be assessed if he is intentionally or psychologically ready because of this or what is the genuine goal behind the participation. The participant needs to discuss to the team or provide these details to this program manager as well as the program facilitator as he/she will continue all the way until the conclusion. The assessment is very much indeed psychological to assess if the participant has the compelling aspire to go for this program or he/she was asked to take action as he/she was sponsored for the program or he/she has the capacity to overcome barrier that is blocking the trip.

One of the tools that can be use is stakeholder evaluation for the participant to maintain the program, who and who in his/her life will be negatively or positively afflicted before, after and during this program. How this can be backed by the team and how the participant himself/herself can support and motivate the team predicated on the evaluation and information provided.

The program should obtain the participant to create a short assessment about her or him about work and life as well as successful and inability in professional as well as personal life. The participant need to spell it out how was it treated. This will provide an avenue for the program manager and program facilitator to understand what is important in the participant's personal and job life. To possess this comprehensive knowledge of the participant is in fact for the participant to create trust and better understanding on each other which each and everyone can count on for the intended purpose of this program if the normal vision and value is distributed and realized even if the social, physical and ethnographic record are different on the list of participant. This help as starting place to from a trusting, supportive, operating and undertaking team that diverse in background, upbringing, value system, cultural, physical as well as ethnographical.

However, diverse background of the participant does not always provide a negative implication or impact to the team. As said earlier, the program can acts as a platform for knowledge showing; the task is how to carry the participant together as a team to move forward. The answer lies within the participants themselves as if they are ready for it or not.

6Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument- also known as the TKI can also provide as a tool to evaluate the personality or characteristics of the participant as which of the character; Competing, Accommodating, Preventing, Collaborating or Compromising is more significant. Program administrator may use or exploit the type from TKI assessment to resolve conflicts as well as drive the team ahead.

In other words, the assessment is to learn if the participant is in the level of development readiness for this program and how the readiness can be increased or determined along the procedure together with the natural or intuitive character or response as assessed by TKI.

5. 2 Effective communication

Distance learning or electronic team has its advantages as it can help to save cost as well as getting the distributed team to share the workload. Apart from understanding the background of the participant, effective marketing communications play an essential role to make the team operating and executing as a team.

Effective communication isn't only discussing team communication following the forming level, this should be started as soon as the program was unveiled to the supposed participant to help the participant to have the understanding on the requirement of the program and be ready for it. This really is to create the expectation right at the start what things to expect in the next 6 months to raised planned his/her program ahead for the program. With the requirement at heart, the participant will then plan his program, converse this with various stake holders that may be benefited or afflicted by participating in this program for the coming six months and then sign up for it. This is also a way to pave the foundation for the participant for the program that needs intense participation from time to time aside from work and personal schedule and also establishing the speed for work and personal life for throughout this program including incidental and accidental occasion that can take place in the next 6 months. To certain extend, this resembles to risk and chance evaluation on the involvement of this program and how to manage the incident that affect the improvement. Apart from teaming with the team in the program, there is also a lot of teaming which is not in this program, such as support from home or at the job for this program.

Having said with individual involvement preparedness for this program, as to speak on the program requirements as to pave the building blocks for the program as well as following teaming, there is also lot of effort to cope with team marketing communications.

As compare to Team B, Team A anticipated quite definitely of the forming stage of the team which have met one another at the start stage of the program, certain understanding; as if was not profound enough to carry one another well for much longer run just as the 6 months distant learning setting; could have achieved at the start. But for Team B which has a rather more challenging forming stage due to the team size and the amount of participant that did not meet through the first stage of this program, there is a lot of effort to web page link the whole team jointly as a team.

Even though Team A did not encounter much issue to form the team, efficiency and performance of communications was very much the weakest area of the team. This is due to several reasons but from team perspective that was due to physical location of 1 of the participants whom we did not meet at the first stage of the program that influencing the team communication efficiency. There have been logistical issues of the participant to really have the necessary research and training materials to be accessible to the participant to complete the assigned tasks. Team arrangement was not exercised appropriately, even though each week update report was not right, to guarantee the active users and team performance weren't affected by the non-performance or below par performance of certain associates.

However as for Team B, which acquired a far more challenging task to create and incorporate the team due to the fact that almost 50% of the team didn't participate in the first period of the program, communication was quite definitely effective that Team A, where team contract was exercised to terminate involvement of non-performance people as well as regular reporting and online meeting to follow up on issues and matters that were important and urgent and well as formalized strategy and assigning task to all or any the customers as well as team leads. Directional e-mails were delivered appropriately for tasks which were vitally important and urgent predicated on the improvement of the team.

Individual preparedness for this program is always the point that I would like to highlight as communication towards team on certain information that is needed every once in awhile which effectively in getting the team forwards. The participant must be really ready to communicate as so when is necessary for e. g. regular report, weekly review of jobs completed, format of the record, survey on needed and urgent information within deadlines for next thing of actions, connect on concern and problems that make a difference the team progress. These are exemplary actions that each and every specific was leading oneself for the program by activities done. This may have a good impact to the team if each participant prepared for the activities that have the positive impact to the team.

5. 3 Situational management style

Leaders are made not born, some may think usually. Management skill and experience can be trained if the participant constantly experiencing uncertainty and stretchy situation. So long as the participant can weather through uncertainties comfortably is an indicator of improvement of tolerance as well as management skill. Management is the key for the team development and success of this program. Leadership can even be developed along the program with necessary training, guiding as well as issues or tasks from the facilitator as well as team member.

While taking the good thing about distant learning and digital teaming of this program, the team also offers to accept the challenges occur from distance. There is absolutely no single management style that can best fit to control the team. Intuitively, there have been members that can display command style which is exemplary as needed predicated on the determination in as stipulated in the team arrangement as well as task. This is the basic self-control or professionalism as a participant to demonstrate predicated on the guidance of the trainer, program supervisor as well as team contract.

However, throughout the improvement of the team development, the problem may derail credited very much to the readiness of the participant fro development as well as other commitments that interferes the progress. Leader need to show control style as and when is necessary that best fit the problem as well as personality and character of the participant for further progress. Whenever is necessary, the program business lead will exercise the right which entrusted to him in the team arrangement for the betterment of the team progress.

Situational command has great relevance to the many periods of the teaming model such as Tuckman model. As referred to earlier, through the forming stage, leader is to provide direction or instruction how to move forward, and consequently storming, norming and accomplishing stage, different management style needs to be demonstrated appropriately as per the stage of the team. However, as the team improvement to next stage of the teaming, there could be conflicts that business lead to re-forming, re-storming and re-norming of the team for a performing team. The merger of two teams that lead to formation of Team B was one of the occasions that re-forming of team needed.

There were significant dissimilarities between both program managers in their design of taking care of the team. Team A has relatively easier team development through the first 5 days of working out with slight clarifications on team setup. Most of the sub-team leadership was already assigned only remaining with team arrangement and overall task cost and routine to be defined and developed for the program's assignment to start. Team A was somewhat small as compare to Team B with almost all the team members met with the other person at the start stage of this program to have the background and intention distributed. However, Team B got a comparatively challenging forming level as it was a merger of team A with newly shaped team for the new session of this program. Not absolutely all the individuals from Team A participated in the first face-to-face session of the new team which lead to extensive clarification and follow-up needed to the merge and become a member of the newly created Team B. Further check on current state of brain, situation as well as intent towards this program was relatively challenging. Unable to really clarify the motive, state of mind and situation of the individuals lead to resignation of the members even though team agreement was endorsed and signed by the participants. This lead to unnecessary time and effort spent to re-organize all the duty and tasks for the whole team. Self starters with clear motive and self understanding on the needs toward the program will be advantages of teaming and team development.

6. 0 Conclusions

Individual preparedness, readiness and commitment is always the key to success for a teaming. The participant should have the awareness on the original reason behind for the program. This must be shared to form the understanding and the needs behind. Personal beginner on action needed through this program is also one of the examples of do it yourself preparedness or understanding for certain requirements for this program. This is actually the basic disregards which geographic location the participant is located, which ethnographic he/she participate in, what academic record he/she in, what position he/she kept and also what situation that he/she in. The understanding on preparedness may be differing among every single individual, however the guiding concepts should be predicated on the necessity of this program, exams as well as team agreement. By obeying certain requirements place by the programs, tests and team agreement will lead to a involvement of good student, but at least the good student has the capacity to have readiness and personal starter leadership to contribute positively to the program. This is already an exemplification of authority based on action or command by example and also shortens the progress of the team from building, storming, norming as well as undertaking as a team.

Self starters may have their own perceptions or misperceptions on objectives on certain situation. This need to be guided and monitored by working out facilitator and program lead as to coach and develop the knowledge and know how of the individual to new horizon with the learning provided by the program and recognition process.

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