Education nowadays has been criticized by different area and teachers make an effort to reform the ways of coaching and learning (Kirkley, 2003). Problem Resolving defines as step to reaching the goal or desire talk about from where we are actually ( Medin, Ross & Markman, 2004). Kirkly (2003) explained that learner nowadays are brief of basic literacy skill and higher order thinking. Basic literary skill is important to learn problem solving largely depend on basic literary skill ( Kirkly). In case a learner cannot get better at basic literacy skill, things that able to symbolize will be less. As the increasing of technology, higher problem handling skill on mathematics and technology are needed.
They found that students who not able to grasp literacy skills and cannot not learn and develop higher purchasing skills and problem dealing with ( Kirkly, 2003). Problem handling that mainly can be found while analysis mathematics. However, Baron (2012) discovered that a whole lot of students face the issue to go away the test math no subject how a lot of tutoring, extra classes had given. Furthermore, not only college students face this kind of problem, children also face similar problem. Types of mathematics problem that face by children is word math problem. Expression math problem is kind of math that uses English word to describe the question instead of using the equation to make clear the questions that require students to be resolved.
As a educator, they ways those mathematics professors teach the next generation also one of the condition that need to discuss. In the old days, teacher only provides few ways to instruct student to solve the mathematics problem. However, not all students hold the skill to absorb teaching style on providing information, guide to resolve the question. Furthermore, educator style on educating students in the few earlier decade may not be reliable or focus on current technology.
When a person understand how to solve a particular modal, it'll become as a short cut as the individual just need to remember the procedure of solving the challenge right from the start, it only apply on the similar problem that solve before( Kirkly, 2003). One of the model that make clear problem fixing process is when individual performing a problem handling, their cognitive begins by representing the challenge then do a solution search, finally implement the perfect solution is (Gick, 1986 as cited in Kirkly, 2003). When a person effectively find a solution, their cognitive will stop there, conversely, they'll redo the step searching solution and representing the condition if they fail to find the answer (Kirkly). Whenever a similar problem is provided, it become "short slash" as a person cognitive can recall and put into action the perfect solution is by remembering that they resolved similar problem before.
Problem solving require a whole lot of abstract representation that the reason we have to excel at basic literacy skill. For example, whenever a learner trying solved a word mathematics problem, learner need to understand the meaning of the term such as increase, product of, significantly less than, equally pieces while others. They need to copy into mathematics mark and form an equation form to resolve the challenge. However, individuals cognitive unable to maintain too much representation at the same time and real human only able to remember three to seven items ( Medin et al. , 2004).
Different types of mathematics problem use different types of problem solving method. Types of problem dealing with method can categorized at algorithm and heuristics. Heuristic have 3 ways which is using hill climbing, mean ends research and working (Medin et al. , 2004). For example, a mathematics question that asks how much plus three will be ten? A more youthful child might use algorithm technique test all the quantity and discover the correct answer. For older child, the will likely use working backward method to find the response.
There are a lot of solution that can be found in educations field. For example, teachers will let give a great deal of similar problem to let their learner or students to solve and in the end create"short lower" considering. By this students will notice the similarity of every problem and able to copy their skills. This solution are available in instructing mathematics skill.
Students math textbook present a whole lot of solution to student as an example to resolve the similar problem but broader schema that expert are in fact use is not available to university student (McAllister, 1995). Pupil don't know which and exactly how is the correct first rung on the ladder to do when they experienced problems (McAllister, ). Tutor who use explicit translation strategy (ETS ) found to work in solving mathematics term problem (INQUIRE, 2008). Explicit translation strategy is "to instruct students how to convert concrete problem into numerical equation"(INQUIRE, 2008). Research also discovered that students who coach using the ETS and receive extra learning lesson have the ability to perform much better than other group in the mathematics problem fixing that held two weeks later (Darch, Carnine & Gersten, 1984).
As stated above, students who wish to develop problem resolving skills need to master basic literacy skills well (Kirkly, 2003). Therefore students need to keep practice different kinds mathematics problem regularly. Then, students should be shows by instructor who are expect, more important teachers can provide different solution to solve issues plus more complicate example when students able to solve basic mathematical problem. Extra learning materials should be given to help students to learn the ability to enhance the skill that students study from other problem. Severin(2007) found students who be given change to learn different type of problem handling strategies able to help student to resolve others problem.
Technology item can also be use to helps professor and student increases their problem dealing with a ability. Tutor can create a learning site and offer different kinds of fun, reports problem handling question to catch the attention of their interest and provide them change to do learning from your errors while they playing problem resolving game while learning. It is because how much a student put effort while performing a math problem will have an effect on their success rate (Severin, 2007).
In addition we can also use computer technology to help us in teaching because technology make easier for students to access more information. In the days that computer still unable to own by every family, information on solving a mathematics problem only be based upon the data of the teacher. Now, students can asses and absorb increasingly more idea to resolve a mathematics problem.
Conclusion, problem dealing with can be use in various field. By focusing on how to teach and learn are the key to teach students and children to develop their problem dealing with better in the foreseeable future.