Posted at 10.30.2018
Since the appearance of UNTAC (United Region Transitional Government bodies in Cambodia), Cambodia has gradually seen a remarkable demand of English language users, thus contributing to many changes in the development of English vocabulary coaching and learning in the united states. At exactly the same time, new insights into words acquisition, terms use, learning styles and etc have increased English language teachers', learners', and users' knowledge of what the procedure involves. Although living of English words in Cambodia, if compared to French language, continues to be short-less than twenty years since the presence of UNTAC in Cambodia in the early 1990s, Learner Autonomy (LA) is really not a new theory for Cambodian EFL learners and/or many English terminology institutions in the country. The Institute of Foreign Languages (IFL) and The Australian Centre for Education (ACE)-two of the biggest English language academic institutions in Cambodia-have for many years set up learning centers, Self-Access Middle (SAC) in IFL and Guided Specific Learning (GIL) in ACE, as for Cambodians EFL learners to perform their autonomous learning activities. Ly, Chea & Sou (2007) advised that GIL was proven to enhance learners' 3rd party learning and self discovery.
However, to say that the majority of, if not all, Cambodian EFL teachers and students have sufficient and reliable understanding of LA could be too assumptive a statement. Even on local and international levels, LA-in terms of its definition and implementation-is still a controversial or an unclear matter even though there have been a great number of studies conducted related to LA, especially to find the perspectives of learners and teachers-who will be the most directly involved stakeholders along the way of learning-towards LA.
Reinders (2000) conducted a study to investigate students' perception about LA by focusing on what they think of SAC, which is similar to Self-Access Dialect Learning (SALL) described in the publication by Gardner & Miller (1999). As distinguished in Ly, Chea, & Sou (2007), SAC or SALL is rather a new principle and quite different from a normal library.
To find out more about EFL teachers' and learners' perspectives about LA more than just the use of SAC, Usuki (2001) found out how Japanese students felt towards LA and found that most of the students just hesitated to use LA given that they did not fully understand the implication of LA theory. Dafei (2007) and Nonkukhetkhong, Baldauf & Moni, (2006) found similar things with the participants who didn't have confidence in exploiting LA as you of these learning styles just because they performed have little reliable knowledge about LA.
When we speak about LA, it is crucially important to discover the perspectives of teachers whose responsibility is to expose LA to their students and motivate their students to use it. Evrim (2009) suggested that most teachers, rather than motivating their students to use responsibility in learning, bore most of the duties when they realized that their pupils were carefree about their learning. Williams & Burden (1997), in a section of their book, made a advice that EFL teachers review individual differences of each of their students and capitalize on the distinctions as to tap into their students' potentials.
Chamot, Keatley, Meloni, et al designed a guide book packed with educating strategies such as Metacognition that an EFL educator might use to train their learners to become autonomous. Radai & Shanklin, (n. d. ) mentioned learner centeredness procedure and its characteristics with regards to LA. Yu (2006) also talked about many factors (i. e. Metacognition, Desire, and Learning Environment) which an EFL instructor might want to take a glance and change their teaching methods accordingly as to encourage their learners to look at the sense of LA.
There have of course been many researches and studies conducted in this issue of LA particularly to discover EFL learners' and teachers' perspectives about LA. However, these studies seem to suggest rather summarize what learners and instructors really understand and know about LA.
In 1960s, Noam Chomsky-in his pursuit of studying Grammar-found a fascinating theory about individuals grammar. Instead of following the footsteps of people who had prescribed grammar, he defined grammar and suggested a theory that humans are effortlessly born with linguistic set ups called Common Grammar (UG). In a nutshell, Chomsky took the street not used and found a brand new thing.
Therefore, interesting results could also emerge in case a different procedure is considered and used in this research. In the study, the researcher will try not to discover Cambodian EFL learners' and instructors' perspectives about LA by proposing to them any aspect (i. e. SAC, learner-centeredness) and requesting their confirmation. Instead, equipment such as interviews and observations to gather in-depth information will be employed in this study to explore what professors and learners actually perceive about LA. The individuals will be inspired to frankly talk about what they know as long as they think it's related to LA.
This study to identify Cambodian EFL educators' and learners' perspectives about LA will contribute to better understanding of the idea and execution of LA in Cambodian context of English terminology teaching and learning. The results of the study will provide useful information regarding the level of understanding and understanding that educators and students experienced about LA.
Also, the study can help improve Cambodian EFL teachers' teaching potential. With reliable information about students' perspectives of LA, instructors may utilize right teaching methods and methods as to promote learners' autonomous learning activities in classroom and increase their learners' level of autonomy.
Research Problem: To find Cambodian EFL instructors' and learners' perspectives towards Learner Autonomy (LA).
To find out Cambodian EFL learners' perspectives toward the concept and execution of LA.
To ascertain Cambodian EFL learners' perspectives toward the concept and implementation of LA.
+ Chamot, A. U. , Keatley, C. , Meloni, C. F. , et al. (n. d. ) Expanding Autonomy in Words Learners: Learning strategies teaching in Higher Educaiton. National Capital Language Resource Center.
More like a teaching guidebook than a research newspaper, the authors reveal a variety of coaching and learning strategies an EFL or ESL instructor may use to teach their students English vocabulary and most significantly empower them to be independent learners. Specifically for part: Empowering Your Students with Learning Strategies, the authors discuss two main teaching strategies (i) Metacognition: teaching students to take into account their learning and (ii) Teaching strategic thinking and the learner-centered class. For my research proposal, this guide book is important because it functions as a good books or background and because it offers my main research question preliminary answers.
+ Dafei, D. (2007). An Exploration of the Relationship between Learner Autonomy and English Proficiency. Asian EFL Journal: Professional Coaching Articles.
Conducted with 129 non-English majored school students, this analysis investigates the partnership between learner autonomy and English proficiency. The analysts used (i) a standard test to recognize the individuals' English terminology effectiveness, (ii) a questionnaire to explore the partnership and variations of the participants' learner autonomy, and (iii) the interview to find the reasons why such romance and differences exist. The results recommended the bigger level the students' English skills was, the greater autonomous they were. In ways, this study pertains to my research since it makes me cautious about a fact that students' potential may impact their perspectives about 'learner autonomy'.
+ Evrim, U. (2009). Autonomy in words learning: Do students take responsibility because of their learning. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 5(2): 148-169.
In this review, Evrim distributed a 52-item questionnaire to 320 arbitrarily picked students from a group of 960 freshmen students and 24 instructors in a Turkish school where English is the primary medium of teaching and conducted interviews with some of them (8 instructors) to learn about the perceptions of university or college students and professors regarding duties and talents related to autonomous learning, and the autonomous activities both outside and inside the class. The results show that while students don't take responsibility for their learning, educators take the majority of the responsibilities. In my opinion, I like the discourse of the study since it should go deeply to split up students' perception based on their gender and the recommendation that the researcher produces both instructors and students. The researcher's suggestion sheds light on the things that I will include in my research musical instruments as to discover about instructors' and students' perceptions towards learner autonomy.
+ Gardner, D. & Miller, L. (1999). Establishing Self-Access: From theory to practice. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University or college Press.
This book examines establishing, retaining and developing self-access terms learning (SALL). In the first area of the book, the writer talks about many interesting points including learner's and teacher's values toward self-access learning, learner's preparation for self-access learning, and the great things about self-access understanding how to learners and instructors. Though the publication does not straight present insights related to learner's autonomy, I still think that much of the book's dialogue on SALL is quite highly relevant to my study on learner's autonomy because self-access learning is one of the sure characteristics of learner's autonomy in learning.
+ Ly, S. , Chea, T. & Sou, V. (2007). Led Individual Learning Centre: A Non-Classroom Learning Environment. CamTESOL Seminar on English Language Teaching. 3.
In this research, the research workers analyzed characteristics and functions of a Guided Specific Learning (GIL) available at the Australian Centre for Education (ACE) in Cambodia and reported all the features that recognized GIL from a normal or traditional library. Those aspects were resources for autonomous learning, GIL centre teachers, instructor liaison, and etc. Though not tightly related to my review, the study actually shows me what a good Self-Access Middle should appear to be and what characteristics it will possess.
+ Naizhao, G. & Yanling, Z. An Empirical Exploration of Learner Autonomy in a few EFL Classes in China.
"In this qualitative research, the researchers make an effort to understand the idea of learner autonomy and check out the practice of learner autonomy in EFL classes in China by looking at the results of two sets of students-those who are in course using autonomous learning activities, called the Test Group and the ones in school using traditional coaching strategies, called the Control Group. The results of the evaluation revealed that with autonomous learning activities, the students' determination to review was aroused and most of them were actually in a position to take charge of their own learning. This analysis, in a sense, gives me one other way of doing a study or research instrument to comprehend learner autonomy. "
+ Nonkukhetkhong, K. , Baldauf, R. B. Jr. & Moni, K. (2006). Learner-Centeredness in Coaching British as a Foreign Language. Thai TESOL International Seminar.
In this research study, the researchers attempted to comprehend the perceptions of five secondary Thai EFL instructors about learner-centered methodology and its execution. In order collect the info, the researchers spent around 5 weeks observing these presumably good and productive teachers of the school and create self-reporting questionnaires for the kids later. The results of the analysis confirmed that because these were not sure about the theory of learner-centered strategy, that they had little, if any, assurance in employing the approach by any means. Though this research is made up of many weaknesses such as limited amount of participants and weak research instruments, I still think it is somehow relevant to my analysis since it talks about another interesting point of view regarding learner autonomy. Specifically, I'm more thinking about discovering what educators and students think about learner-centered way as a part of learner autonomy.
+ Radai, P. & Shanklin, T. (n. d. ). Language concerns: from dependent to autonomous dialect learner. In Medgyes, P. & Malderez, A. (1996), Changing Perspectives in Professor Education (pp. 31-35). Oxford, England: Macmillan Education.
In the booklet, the authors discuss that students need to become more flexible in their learning and software of rules. But, the first matter is always to allow students to screen their own terms and compare types of authentic British with the guidelines they have got learnt. Additionally, the authors price John Dewey's work as 'the aim of education is to enable individuals to keep their education. The object and reward of learning is continued capacity for expansion (Dewey 1916, p17)'. Based on my knowledge of this section, I can say that learner-centeredness is the end goal of education, and it is pivotal that learners of any subject or terminology be thrust upon with the sense of independent learning or learner-centeredness in their learning process as soon as possible. It strains the value of changing instructors' perspectives towards students' learning duties.
+ Reinders, H. (2000). Do-it-yourself? A learners' perspective on learner autonomy and self-access dialect learning in an English proficiency program. Retrieved October 10, 2010, from http://www. eric. ed. gov/
The experts conducted a study on 150 students-most of whom come from Asia-in an English Proficiency Program in New Zealand. To be able to get the things' perspectives of learner autonomy especially students' views of Self-Access Middle (SAC), the experts administered questionnaire to all the students participated, interviewed 15 arbitrarily selected students, spent at least 3 hours every day during the course to make observations, and used other resources like the SAC database. The info collected were examined and discussed in separate factors such as effectiveness of SAC, frequency of the using of SAC, relationship between the use of SAC and learners' terms learning development, and etc. This 93-page article is quite highly relevant to a study question of mine about Cambodian EFL learners' perceptions about learner autonomy, and provides me good research instruments.
+ Usuki, M. (2001). From learners' perspectives: the needs for awareness-raising towards autonomy and roles of the professors. Retrieved October 02, 2010 from http://www. eric. ed. gov/
In this small-scale research study, Usuki made an observation of 34 first-year Japanese students majoring in British at a college or university in Japan. The observation was conducted in a 4-month training whose goal was to raise learner recognition for autonomous learning through learner training. The result of the observation recommended that past learning activities influenced just how Japanese students view learner autonomy and made them somehow wait to take on autonomous learning activities. This analysis offers me a fresh perspective for my study, which is the influence of traditional way of coaching on students' perspectives of learners' autonomy.
+ Williams, M. & Burden, R. L. (1997). Psychology for language instructors: A communal constructivist procedure (pp. 88-100). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University or college Press.
In chapter 5 "The contribution of the individual student to the training process" of the book, the authors discuss the importance of learners' contributions into their terms learning, and offer Oxford and Ehrman (1993) as "teachers of another language need to recognize and understand significant individual differences in their learners if they are to provide the most effective instructions possible". Many obstacles are, however, described whether those efforts which affect learners' learning process can be exactly assessed. Some particular research variables, such as age, gender, personality, aptitude, cleverness, and desire, are instanced as unclear. In person, this section of the publication helps me to comprehend what educators actually think of learner autonomy, thus relating to one of my research questions.
+ Yu, P. (2006). Within the Factors Influencing Learner Autonomy in Chinese language EFL Contexts. Sino-US British Coaching, 3(5).
In this newspaper, Yu reviews a number of studies conducted in China in the topic of learner Autonomy and discusses main factors influencing learner autonomy in Chinese EFL contexts. Yu talks about three main factors including Motivation, Meta-cognitive knowledge and Learning environment. This review serves as guide in responding to one of my research questions about factors influencing Cambodian EFL learners' level of autonomy.