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Taylor And Mayo Motivation Theory Management Essay

Using your understanding of Taylor and Mayo, examine the foundations of motivation theory. Motivation is the drive to improve oneself or to achieve an increased degree of benchmark. Motivation is exactly what drives visitors to improve themselves. Motivation has always been a part of the human behavior. It's been used because the start of human society as a way to build up themselves. There are a number of ways in which people or employees can be motivated. However, it had not been before mid 18th century that any kind of theory on motivation was developed. In fact the 1st recorded history of development of motivational theories was by Fredrick Winslow Taylor (1856-1917), who developed Taylor's motivation theory (Champagne, 1989).

Therefore this theory is normally regarded as the foundation of motivation theories. According to Taylor's theory, employees are motivated generally by the wages that they are entitled to receive. He stated that staff should receive payment predicated on the amount of productivity that they managed in the day. Therefore people who worked more would receive higher payment whereas people who have been in efficient and had low productivity would receive lower wages.

This basic theory of Taylor's is actually predicated on certain scientific management observations that were created by him. This theory also made certain assumptions on human behavior. According to this theory humans are in fact economically driven and are always in search of maximizing monetary gain. Also this theory mentioned that people have a tendency to work and respond alone rather than in a group. Taylor's theory also declared that humans can be utilized as machines in a standardized fashion (Herzberg, 1959).

Taylor's theory of motivation has certain weaknesses in it. It evidently does not acknowledge the fact that folks have a range of differences among them. People are not the same always. Hence there is absolutely no surety on the actual fact any particular one good way/theory will be ideal for all the folks. Furthermore, Taylor also appears to have overlooked the fact that one people do not work for just financial gains.

Elton Mayo stated another theory related to motivation which can also be considered to be among the foundations of such theories in the future. According to this theory of motivation, personnel aren't overly concerned about the wages that they receive however in fact they are simply motivated more by the dependence on social interaction (Champagne, 1989). Hence Mayo's theory recommended that managers have a more personal approach to managing their businesses and operations. It recommended that managers actually treat their staff as valuable resources and to ask their opinion in matters before making decisions.

Mayo's theory gave certain practices that would assist in motivating employees more in an organization. They are really:

Better communication: Within the work environment increased communication on the list of managers and the personnel would motivate the staff to execute better.

Greater manager involvement: Managers ought to involve themselves in to the workers lives in order to comprehend their difficulties.

Working in teams: Folks are social animals and for that reason they need specific amount of interaction in a work environment. Hence productivity can be increased if people are grouped together to carry out an activity.

Examine two problems associated with the study of motivation

Motivation is a major factor in any organization. Therefore a number of studies have been done on understanding motivation, its impacts and exactly how to improve it etc. All these studies however faced certain problems.

The first problem that is faced through the study of motivation is that folks won't be the same. There exists a vide range of psychological variations in humans. These differences are available in people who have different age ranges or different genders etc. Hence there is a very wide selection of factors that truly motivate different people. Therefore it is very hard to generalize these factors and to draw concrete conclusions from them (Alera, 1990).

The second problem that is normally faced while studying motivation is

Task 2

Identify the factors which lead to a highly effective workgroup.

Almost all motivational theories state that individuals tend to perform better when they work as a team. There are a number of studies that have shown that the common productivity within an organization is a lot higher if the workers are grouped and allowed to work in teams. It is therefore important to understand the factors that make a work group so effective. Some of these factors are:

Setting goals and objectives: Setting appropriate goals and objectives is important as it'll permit the team to target and prioritize its plan. By creating a goal and setting clear objectives, different work groups will know precisely what is usually to be done. It'll permit the work groups to split the work between the individuals in the task group. In addition to this, working in an organization establishes a healthy state of competition. Hence insurance agencies clear cur objectives that have been well defined, it will spur the individuals within the task group to increase their effectiveness also to learn the various benefits of cooperation (Hersey, 1977).

Communication: Communication is another factor that is a very important part of any business operation. Without proper and effective communication, nothing can be accomplished in an effective manner. Therefore, communication is vital, especially within a work group. Since in a work group, there are numerous individuals, each with the own group of tasks to be accomplished. However, it isn't as simple as that, since in order to perform the goals, individuals within the workgroup have to communicate their ideas, their issues and sometimes require help off their team members. Therefore, in order to do all of this, proper communication is crucial to make a highly effective workgroup (Cragan, 1995).

Leadership: Leadership by definition involves the capability to guide an organization towards a goal. Since most organizations and teams or groups have a typical goal to achieve, it is imperative that good leadership is also offered for the task group. An excellent and effective leadership will ensure that the individuals within a work group all have their own set of duties to handle. Furthermore, a powerful leader would also be like a teacher, supervising others and providing help wherever it is necessary. Thus people in the work group will always be on schedule to reaching the common goals. In fact leadership can be shared among the various members of a group, which makes the entire workgroup even far better. Therefore, leadership is another factor which makes a god and effective work group (Fiedler, 1967).

Critically discuss the growing significance of team employed in current organizations

Today's business world is far more challenging when compared to the business world a couple of decades ago. There is certainly cut throat competition among various businesses and every available advantage is seized by organizations to move in front of their competition (Adair, 1986). One such advantage that permits more productivity from the employees is team work.

A number of studies have shown the extent to which a good team can donate to an organization (West, 1994). Team work allows more interaction among the employees. Sometimes a team contains people from different departments who are working together. This escalates the interaction between departments and makes the complete work group more communicative and will therefore interact with each other more. This leads to better productivity, lower stress levels on the list of employees; it will make it easier for the management to communicate with the employees. Therefore organizations tend to encourage team work and formation of work groups.

In addition to the, organizations develop or set a work group that involves well trained and experienced people and also fresh new workers. This way, since they are in the same work group, the new employees get an opportunity to observe and learn from their experienced colleagues. Research has shown that employees have a tendency to learn faster if they're taught practically and by their friends and colleagues than a separate class room session under a unknown guide. This saves additional workout sessions for the organization.

Task 3

Examine the roles or skill types that R. M. Belbin considered essential to effective team performance.

Dr Meredith Belbin, is a British psychologist who developed a model which states certain roles through which a precise and coherent system can be formed which can aid in increasing the overall performance of your work group (Belbin, 1981). Overall there are nine roles or skill types that help in improving performance of the team, they can be:

Plant (PL): The plant is a designation to a type of person who is intellectually superior. This person is tasked with the role of approaching or creating new and original ideas and proposals. Hence such a person would require to be highly imaginative and intelligent.

Resource Investigator (RI): A resource investigator is a person who must bring new contacts, ideas and developments to the team. His role is to be a liaison officer between the management and the team. A resource investigator has to be extrovert, sociable and relaxed in nature.

Coordinator (CO): A coordinator is person whose role is to preside more than a team and coordinate all the various activities that are occurring within the group. Which means coordinators role would be to ensure that the external goals are met. A coordinator must have the skill to add all team members in a discussion and also must posses natural people skills.

Shaper (SH): A shaper is normally a person whose role it is usually to be a leader. Therefore the primary role of an shaper is to give a structure for the group's efforts. There is also to provide challenges wherever these are required. Hence a person vying to be always a shaper would have to have the following skills: Be dynamic, outgoing, challenging and tenacious.

Monitor Evaluator (ME): A monitor evaluator as the designation suggests gets the role of analyzing the various proposals, ideas etc from the many team members. In addition to this, a monitor evaluator also offers to monitor the progress of the team and report them to the shaper.

Team Worker (TW): A team workers role is to ensure that the team doesn't have any internal discords among themselves. A team worker gets the role of helping the team in carrying out various tasks and at exactly the same time be a sympathetic and loyal member that can be trusted. Generally they are believed as the anchor for any team.

Implementer (IMP): An implementer is similar to a team worker for the reason that their role is to ensure that the actual work is carried out. They listen to the plant and the shaper and the feed back from the monitor evaluator and correspondingly start accomplishing the job.

Completer Finisher (CF): A completer finisher is a person whose role is to ensure that the team meets the deadlines. They need to supervise and see that the various schedules are being met and if the project is right on schedule. They have to maintain proper communications within the team members in order to convey a sense of urgency to complete the work on time.

Specialist (SP): An expert is a person whose role it is to provide certain technical, financial or statistical help for the team. Generally an expert is not part of any team but he/she is brought in only when there's a need for them.

Explain the role and importance of leadership in a team situation

Leadership is a vital part of any management. Without effective leadership, the complete workforce may not really know what their duties are. Furthermore it's important to have a leader in just a team as without a singular voice, the many members in a team can argue amidst themselves and in the end there might not be any work accomplished. Hence a leader generally listens to all or any the ideas and selects one which is most appropriate.

The primary role of leadership involves communication and building teams so that there surely is a effective work place inside a team. Good leadership is often required in times of worry as it provides the stable support necessary to come out of such a situation. Leadership is also absolutely vital in implementing decisions as fast as possible (Jones, 1992).

Task 4

Organizational Conflicts

Organizational conflicts can be explained as a misunderstanding which occurs whenever a individual or a group of people think that others have or will in future take certain steps that is at odds with them and their own set of beliefs and goals (Gabarro, 2006). Virtually all organizations face some type of organizational conflicts within their ranks. Generally such conflicts may occur between your management and the staffs or among the many employees.

Three major resources of conflict between management and staff

There are certain reasons which might lead with an organizational conflict between the management and the staff, such as:

Differences in power, status and cultures: That is one of the key causes of conflicts in a organization. In most organizations, there is always a distinct line between your management and the staffs. It is the role of the management to supervise the staffs; however, there is usually a misunderstanding between your staff and the management on the exact nature with their authority. Furthermore sometimes there may be a difference in opinion on the list of staff and the management on the culture or just how things are done in the organization.

Competition over scarce resources: In order to accomplish an activity, there's a need for resources. For example: A graphics designer would require a computer station with a printer. When there is no ink in the printer, then the designer would not have the ability to perform his job efficiently. Therefore sometimes there is a conflict over the available resources as the management tries to distribute all the available resources equally, however the staff may demand more.

Ambiguity over jurisdiction: This is another potential area for conflicts. Sometimes the staffs are annoyed over an overbearing management. Unless the jurisdiction of the management is plainly defined by the organization, such issues may keep occurring.

The positive aspects of organizational conflict

Organizational conflicts aren't completely negative in nature. Sometimes they also serve a confident purpose. There are specific aspects of organizational conflicts which is often referred to as positive for the organization or the teams. According to (Morrill, 2000)these aspects are:

Organizational conflicts will lead to a discussion of the problems. More discussion means greater the chances of understanding the problem and resolving it. Furthermore, discussion will also bring to light the many issues being faced by the staff in an organization.

Organizational conflicts are usually the foundation for change in a firm. Change occurs only if there is a need. Hence organizational conflicts supply the need to reexamine the structure within an organization and effect the necessary changes.

An organizational conflict if resolved tends to raise the motivation and loyalty among the list of employees.

Three different approaches for dealing with sources of conflict

It is very important that organizational conflicts are avoided whenever you can. However, in the event that a conflict arises, it is essential that this be investigated and an attempt was created to resolve it as soon as possible. There are several ways to manage an organizational conflict (Pathak, 2004). A few of them are:

Bargaining and Negotiating: That is one of the steps generally taken to resolve a dispute on the list of management and the staff. A good example of such a situation is when there's a labor strike and the management and the union sit together and opt to negotiate the terms. In this process, both parties make certain offers and counter offers. This process goes on till a mutually satisfactory decision is attained.

Mediation and Arbitration: Mediation and arbitration is normally done in the case of a dispute between the staff and the management. Generally mediation means that there surely is logrolling or cost cutting or bridging involved as the prime factor or cause of the dispute.

Another way through which conflicts are resolved is by super ordinate goals. In this technique a commonality sometimes appears in the goals and the answer is bigger than either parties' initial goal. Thus by forming a common objective, a conflict can be resolved peacefully.

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